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Central Bank, with branches throughout the members from the Presidential Administration. country, the stock to be allotted to the peo- But even this modification does not seem to ple by popular subscription, the smallest us to be of sufficient importance—if it cansubscribers receiving the first allotments, and not be agreed upon at once—to delay the the Governing Board to be wholly appointed
passage of the bill. by the President, each governor serving for The country should remember that the a term of fourteen years.
present bill is a result of ten years' care ful To understand what a radical change this study, investigation, and debate.
It is now means in the attitude of the bankers one has time to act.
When the bill is put into operabut to read the resolutions of the American tion, of course defects will display themselves. Bankers' Association, passed only a few This is true of almost all great National weeks ago, denouncing Presidential appoint- legislation. But we believe these defects, if ments to the Federal Reserve Board as a they do show themselves, can be corrected by dangerous injection of politics into American amendments and improvements after the bill finance.
has been put into operation. The bill should Both Senator Owen and Mr. Glass an- be passed promptly. swered the argument for a single central bank by showing that, while such a bank operates well in France or Germany—both of The contention of the Progressives that the which countries are so small in area compared Republican National Convention of 1912 at with the United States that either of them
Chicago was a misreprecould be placed within the State of Texas-a
sentatative and REORGANIZATION
unfair country like the United States, measuring
Convention is being confifteen hundred miles north and south by firmed by the attitude of the present Repubthree thousand miles east and west, cannot
The National Committee be properly served by a single bank, but and others influential in the councils of the needs six or eight or ten independent but Republican party are already taking steps for affiliated banks under the supervision of the a reorganization of the party, and for a reGovernment. This need the regional banks moval of those features in the National manare created to supply. In other words, the agement of the party which led to the rebellion Glass Bill is modeled upon
of the Progressives. It is now proposed to political system. It establishes a group of call a National Republican Convention next independent but affiliated and sympathetic year, although that is not a Presidential year, sovereignties, working on their own responsi- to consider how the party rules can be modibility in local affairs, but united in National fied so as to remove the obnoxious danger of affairs by a superior body which is conducted venal delegates being elected by corrupt from the National point of view.
methods from those States where the Repubgional banks are the States and the Federal lican party has little popular support. This Reserve Board is the Congress.
is a somewhat roundabout way of saying As we believe in a strong Nationalized that Republican delegates from the Southern Government in our political structure, so we States are too often the corrupt products of believe in a strong and centralized power in corrupt methods. the Federal Reserve Board. We think the It has been suggested that the Progressives fear of centralized and continuous power, a fear could be brought back into the Republican which is a part of the philosophy of the Demo- fold by the nomination of a thoroughly upcratic party, has prevented the framers of the right man of progressive temperament who Glass Bill from giving the Federal Reserve had no active part in the conflict of last year. Board sufficient freedom from partisan influ- Justice Hughes, of the Supreme Court, is ence and sufficient tenure of office. This, to thought to be such a man. That the idea our mind, is the main defect of the bill. We that the Progressives can be brought back should be glad to see the Board so constituted into the Republican party by the nomination that its entire structure cannot be changed of a satisfactory candidate and by a modificafor political reasons within the term of a tion of the rules by the National Committee single President. This might be done by in- is seriously entertained is indicated by the creasing the size of the Board, or by increas- following telegram which the editor of this ing the term of office of the individual mem- paper received last week from the “ Public bers, or by reducing the number of ex-officio Ledger” of Philadelphia, one of the ablest,
most intelligent and broad-minded Repub-· developed as the servant and not the master of lican journals in the country. The telegram reads as follows:
Particularly significant was the address Philadelphia, Pa., November 12, 1913.
made by Señor Zeballos, formerly the ArgenDr. Lyman Abbott,
tine Foreign Minister, at the ceremony when The Outlook, New York :
the University conferred upon Mr. Roosevelt Would nomination of Justice Hughes by Re- the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. publicans for President unite Progressives and Republicans 1916 ? Please wire reply our
Señor Zeballos declared that nowadays the expense. (Signed) PUBLIC LEDGER.
Argentine Republic did not accept the
protection of the Monroe Doctrine, but it did We print this telegram and the reply to it accept Pan-Americanism. Thus he voiced because it gives us an opportunity to answer Argentina's acceptance of Mr. Roosevelt's many other correspondents who, from time declaration that such countries as Argentina, to time, ask our opinion concerning the future Brazil, and Chile have the same kind of of the Progressive party. Our opinion in interest that the United States has in prethis matter is embodied in the following serving order and aiding the development reply to the inquiry of the “ Public Ledger :” of the whole American continent and for the
November 13, 1913.
common good. The “ Public Ledger,"
It was in this spirit also that the Argentina Philadelphia, Pa.:
“ La Nacion”
said : Answering your telegram, I have no authority to speak for the Progressive party.
“ This visit of the ex-President has antejudgment is that the National Progressive
cedents which make it particularly pleasing pariy will unite with no other party which does and interesting to the nations for whose not adopt the essential principles, policies, and
international position and rehabilitation he political philosophy expressed in its platform of nineteen hundred and twelve.
used his influence, urging that they be in(Signed) LYMAN ABBOTT. vited to participate in the Hague Confer
at The Hague that they
figured for the first time in the concert of The interest felt at Buenos Aires, the capital the great Powers as peoples with the rights of Argentina, in Mr. Roosevelt's visit, as in- of nations."
dicated by the cabled press At a great banquet at Buenos Aires on MR. ROOSEVELT
despatches, strengthened November 13 the national hymns of ArgenIN ARGENTINA
steadily from day to tina and the United States were sung, and day. The people of the country were in- the emphasis was again laid, both in Mr. creasingly impressed with Mr. Roosevelt's Roosevelt's speech and in the address of attitude toward the great Latin-American welcome by Señor Frers, on the Monroe countries as shown in his address at Rio de Doctrine as an All-American policy. Janeiro on American Internationalism,” In every possible way Mr. Roosevelt's that at Buenos Aires before the Museo Social reception and treatment in Buenos Aires,
“ Democratic Ideals” (both of which have both official and personal, was cordial and appeared in The Outlook), and finally by the included all possible honors. address of November 10, also before the The first of Mr. Roosevelt's articles which Museo Social. This was entitled “Truths describe his South American journey and and Half-Truths,” and was a continuation of discuss the political and economic conditions the exposition of “ Democratic Ideals."
of the great countries visited will appear its course Mr. Roosevelt said :
in The Outlook of next week. We are not Utopians. We know that in spite of all that government can do the prime factor in any man's life will be, in the future, as it has Governor Hooper, of Tennessee, has won been in the past, that man's own character.
his long fight for law enforcement at the But we believe that government can do much, and we intend to make it a most potent instru
second extra session of the
TENNESSEE ment in working for the uplifting of mankind.
Legislature, which he called to
POLITICS We believe that we can make things measura
consider the law-enforcement bly better, partly by our own individual efforts,
Tennessee has a Constitution partly by our joint action, through the Government or otherwise. We do not intend to de
unique in two respects: the Governor's veto stroy individualism. We intend to further its
of a bill can be overridden by a majority development. But we intend that it shall be vote instead of the usual two-thirds vote, and
it takes two-thirds of the membership of Mr. Mitchel was appointed in May, and reeither house to make a quorum.
signed his position as President of the Board Hooper has been twice elected by the com- of Aldermen of New York City in order to bined votes of Republicans and Independent accept the appointment. Upon Mr. Mitchel's Democrats, including, in the last election, all nomination for the mayoralty of New York but about five thousand of the voters, who he resigned, but his resignation was not acsupported the National Progressive Presi- cepted until after his election. In the brief dential ticket. But at this Legislature the period in which he held the office Mr. Memphis delegation in the House held the Mitchel gave evidence of his devotion to balance of power between the Regular Demo- administrative efficiency. Mr. Malone therecrats and the aforesaid combination. The fore succeeds to a position in which high Fusionists were in favor of the enforcement standards of public service have been mainof the prohibition law in Memphis, Nashville, tained. and Chattanooga, where the law has been The new Collector of the Port is a son-invirtually annulled by the attitude of the city law of Senator O'Gorman, of New York. authorities. The Memphis Democrats acted Although the Senator is a member of Tamfirst with the Fusionists in the organization many Hall and advocated the election of the of the Legislature, and this combination Tammany candidate for Mayor, the fact that elected Judge Shields, an Independent Demo- the appointment of Mr. Malone is credited crat, to the United States Senate. When to him is not in any degree counted in Tamthe law-enforcement measures, were intro
Mr. Malone settled any doubt duced, the Memphis delegation went over to on that matter during the campaign by making the Regular Democrats, and the new com- a strong speech against Tammany on behalf bination undertook to repeal the reform of the anti-Tammany ticket. It is to be legislation that had been enacted, where hoped that Mr. Malone, who as Third Asupon the legislative quorum was broken by sistant Secretary of State has been close to the exodus of a third of the Legislature, Mr. Wilson's Administration, will not only consisting of Republicans and Independents. strengthen the hands of the anti-Tammany This rendered the majority powerless, and Democrats in New York City, but will also finally, through the persistence of Governor sustain on the high level reached by his imHooper and the response in public sentiment mediate predecessors the conduct of this to his appeals, what was called the “ Nuisance important public office. Bill ” and another making effective the Federal law known as the Webb Law were passed. The sessions of the Legislature Three times within the last year and a half were marked with much disorder. Even there has been a flurry of public fear because bloodshed was feared, and both factions
unions of Eastern
ANOTHER TRIUMPH FOR called in armed officers of the law. It will
ARBITRATION be impossible hereafter for these cities openly
have been on the to defy the law of the State, any citizen point of striking—first the engineers, then being now empowered to bring an action the firemen, finally the trainmen. In each against the lawbreakers.
case alarmist reports that even passenger service might be cut off any day were followed
by the news that the strike had been averted Without opposition, the Senate of the United by an agreement to arbitrate. And in each States has confirmed the President's appoint- case the arbitration has been carried to its
ment of Dudley conclusion and its awards have been accepted. THE NEW COLLECTOR
Field Malone to be This is a real industrial triumph.
toms for the Port Commission in the case of the conductors of New York. This is the second appoint- and trainmen of the Eastern roads was made ment to that office that President Wilson has public. This arbitration was the first held made. Mr. Malone's immediate predecessor under the provisions of the amended Erdman was John Purroy Mitchel, who succeeded Law. The Hon. Seth Low was at its head, William Loeb, Jr. Mr. Loeb's record in and he and Dr. John H. Finley represented connection with the sugar frauds has made the public at large, while the companies and his administration of that office well known. the employees had two representatives each.
be, and some day will be, possible with all other large corporations.
The award gives the employees an average increase in wages of seven per cent; this still leaves Eastern wages slightly below those of Western railways, but it is admitted that there are compensating advantages for the Eastern men. The added cost to the railways has been estimated at about $6,000,000 a year.
The increased cost of living was the controlling consideration. The workers claim that even the advanced wages will not balance the present high prices they pay for everything, but they seem very well satisfied with their partial victory. The arbitrators point out that the companies did not plead inability to pay.
But the award does recognize “the dilemma in which the railroads are evidently placed by the laws which make it impossible for them to increase freight and passenger rates without the authority of the Inter-State Commerce Commission or of the Railroad Commissions of the various States."
Nothing can be clearer than that railways must have an income which shall make proper equipment, safety appliances, good service, decent and liberal treatment of workers, the employment of intelligent and well-trained men, and preparation for the future, all not only possible but certain. A reasonable profit
actual investment and business done should also be granted without question.
If this involves increased rates for freight and passengers, the increase must be permitted. It is for the Inter-State Commerce Commission to investigate and decide. One element to affect their decision is whether present methods are economical and efficient. Mr. Brandeis says they are wasteful ; exPresident Mellen was quoted last week as saying that a railway president ought to work as faithfully for $25,000 a year as for $50,000 a year. On the other hand, the award of last week says :
" At the present time a ton of freight is moved in the Eastern territory more than three miles for the value of a two-cent postage stamp.” That does not sound excessive !
The railways have a right to ask that the increased cost of living argument should be applied in their favor as well as against them. The right and interest of the public demand that facts should be sifted and nothing be taken for granted. Under the system of National supervision embodied in the Inter-State Commerce Commission, this is now possible with railways. It ought to
There was no playing hooky” in Ohio on November 14; everybody was in school on
that day, parents as AN EXPERIMENT IN
well as children, even CO-OPERATION
doctors, lawyers, college presidents, members of the State Legislature-in short, every one who was interested in the welfare of the State's schools and school-children. Governor Cox had set aside that date as “ School Survey Day,” and had asked the citizens to assemble in the schoolhouses for the discussion of the educational needs of the community, and for the election of delegates to the congress which will meet in Columbus on December 5 and 6 to formulate suggestions for presentment to the Legislature at the special session in January which the Governor has called for the express purpose of dealing with the school problem.
Last winter Governor Cox appointed a Commission of two men and a woman to find out how the schools of the State could be bettered. The Bureau of Municipal Research in New York City sent Dr. H. L. Brittain to aid the Commission, which undertook a study of the whole situation, enlisting the co-operation of the State Department of Education, the Federation of Women's Clubs, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Congress of Mothers, the Collegiate Alumnæ, labor organizations, and, in short, every individual and group of individuals that had suggestions to offer. Some of the more mature schoolchildren were consulted, and gave valuable hints on such practical subjects as the size of school-rooms, ventilation, the needs of playgrounds, etc.
Of the 1,370 schools inspected, which is not all that there are within the State, 957
found to be without any township supervision whatever, and, furthermore, 600 schools were discovered that had fewer than fifteen pupils and 115 that were attended by fewer than ten children. These and other findings of the Commission are to be taken up at the Columbus congress next month, and ways will be considered by which the towns that are now without supervision can afford it in the future.
“School Survey Day” provided the first universal referendum on school matters ever held in any State. It was more significant, however, as the culmination of weeks of co
BEGINS AT HOME
operation among the citizens of Ohio for a as English as well. The children are sent out common object concerning the public weal. to inspect the city departments, and come Governor Cox succeeded in arousing the back to write about them. same spirit that Governor Major, of Mis- Other cities have adopted various methsouri, invoked successfully on his
ods of interesting children in their own neighGood Road Days " not long ago; both these borhood and of teaching them to work for it. executives have succeeded to a gratifying Winston-Salem, South Carolina, has a boys' extent in making government a part of pub- branch of the Board of Trade. Juvenile streetlic consciousness. The four thousand gath- cleaning leagues were started in New York erings of citizens in Ohio school-houses the City in 1896 as adjuncts of the Department other day were not so much school meetings of Street-Cleaning. Last summer nearly as neighborhood meetings, and as such they four thousand children were assigned to furnished the dramatic and human element “beats" near infant milk stations and in which is likely to make this experiment in public playgrounds, where they reported to co-operation appeal to people elsewhere until health officers uncovered garbage-cans, litter it is copied in many other States.
on sidewalks, and blocked fire-escapes.
The Bureau of Municipal Research has
found that “to make field civics really servIf government is to be made a part of public iceable to children and communities it must consciousness, however, the public ought to be closely connected with public schools.'
know something of the The embodiment of such practical subjects EDUCATION THAT
facts of the regulation for study in the curricula of the country's
of society. As a matter schools does not necessarily mean the disof fact, such knowledge is all too scarce. placement of the old courses in the theory Probably most men and women now of voting and history of social growth—Magna Charta age studied civics in a book that began with should never be forgotten. But perhaps such Magna Charta and then took up the other studies as eighth grade algebra may be sacrimovements by which Englishmen worked ficed, if necessary, in order that future voters out their political salvation, but remained may learn how to be useful Americans. maddeningly silent or vague about town and city management in the United States, concerning which the school-boy is apparently New York is at last to have what it has long supposed to get his information at his moth- needed—a school, or college, of commerce. er's knee or through hearing his father talk
A member of the Cham
THE NEW COLLEGE politics with other men. Ask the average
ber of Commerce has
OF COMMERCE high school graduate about the Bill of Rights,
given $500,000 to that and he will reply glibly enough; but question purpose, and suspicion has fallen upon Mr. him on the administration of affairs in his Schiff, whose interest in the public welfare, own county, and the chances are that he will in education, and in philanthropic institutions hang his head and mumble that he wasn't exposes him to this kind of suspicion. This taught such things at school.
gift is conditional on the use of four subscripThe Bureau of Municipal Research is crys- tions of $50,000 each for the establishment tallizing the movement to have the public of a commercial and civic museum, these schools teach children something about the institutions to be supported by the city. communities in which they live and by which For a long time past the need of the highest the schools are supported. Chicago schools commercial education, both in college and in have had Chicago in their curriculum since museum, have been felt by an increasing 1909, when Superintendent Ella Flagg Young number of men in the metropolis. Although substituted this study for eighth grade alge- commercially the foremost city in the United bra to “make good citizens alive to the needs States, and among the four or five foremost of their communities." In Newark, New Jer- cities in commercial rank in the world, New sey, schools Newark is taught by means of York has been far behind the best standards of pamphlets describing the local fire, health, the day in the matter of commercial education. and police departments, city beautifying, The extraordinary growth in enterprise and street-cleaning, public schools, and kindred breadth of commercial activities which Gersubjects. In Parkersburg, West Virginia, many has made since the close of the war Parkersburg is taught not only as civics but with France has been due in no small meas