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from the Mexican Federal Government to certain authorities of the different election districts as follows:

In case any of the municipal authorities are affiliated with any of the militant parties you shall proceed to remove them from office with the utmost discretion. If that cannot be done, some prudent means must be used in order to secure a thorough understanding between said municipal authorities and the respective jefe politicos (political chiefs or supervisors).

Special care should be taken to appoint as supervisors and inspectors men who are absolutely trustworthy, so they will not hesitate to obey any orders they might receive.

If not too late, orders must be immediately given to the effect that polling places on estates or farms shall not be established at the towns where the municipal authorities reside, but on any of the convenient farms that may be within the limits of the corresponding electoral district, the main point being that elections must not take place in two-thirds plus one of the total number of election places.

In the polling places where voting may take place the blank tickets must be used to obtain an absolute majority in favor of the following candidates: For President, General Victoriano Huerta; for Vice-President, General Aureliano Blanquet.

Although Article 31 provides that returns of election must be sent directly to Congress, the supervisors must send these returns to the jefes politicos. The latter will then make a rapid examination of them, and if found to be in accord with these instructions they shall send them back to the supervisors, notifying them that the law provides they must be sent directly to Congress. If upon examination the jefes politicos find that voting has been held in more than a third of the polling places, the surplus ballots must be omitted, so that Congress shall receive only one-third or less of the total returns.

Absolute liberty must be granted to all citizens to enter protest against the validity of votes cast for any of the candidates except those referred to in the ticket named above.

If upon examination of the returns the jefes politicos find that the voting is not in accord with these instructions, they shall, before proceeding to send the ballots to Congress, make the necessary corrections, so that the returns and acts of the election appear in strict accord with these instructions.

After the elections the jefes politicos shall make a rapid résumé of data about the exact number of polling places where votes have been cast, sending a report to the Federal Government. That report must be made in cipher telegram on the same day as the election is possible. If not, then a letter in cipher must be sent through some absolutely trustworthy messenger.

These alleged instructions to render the elections farcical are so naïve as to induce one to believe they constitute some kind of huge joke.

While it is not supposed that the Carranzists as a whole are much better in their rank

and file than are most other Mexicans as to their treatment of foreigners, the principle under which they have been organized deserves emphasis. It is the principle of constitutionalism.

It is the principle for which Madero fought and died. It involves the seemingly hopeless task of introducing democracy among a people who for generations will not be fully prepared for it.

Belief in this principle is leavening a region of Mexico in which there is more hope than elsewhere. Its strongest hold is in the State of Sonora, the population of which has long been known as the most independent in Mexico. Sonora is in the northwestern part of Mexico. This State has declared itself independent of the Huerta government and is establishing itself as an independent government. The area of Sonora is greater than that of California, and, as it is a very mountainous region, the country can hold out for a long time against a large armed force. Indeed, owing to the topographical conditions, it is practically cut off from the rest of Mexico, having no direct communication with that country, its railway connection being with the United States. From Hermosillo, the capital of Sonora, General Carranza declares that his army has

more than eighty thousand men" under arms (such a number seems incredible) ; that all the States, except three, have been invaded or less by Constitutionalist officers; and that after eight months of struggle the territory invaded has grown continually larger. General Carranza further declares that Huerta's power would instantly fall if arms were allowed to be sent from this country to the Constitutionalists.

Our intervention in Mexico would involve sending a vast number of men into a most difficult country, where the entire population would doubtless sink their differences to unite against a foreign foe. This assurance has come both from the Huertist and the Carranzist forces.

It is believed by some, however, that the preliminaries of intervention might be effective. That is to say, we might blockade Mexican ports and control the termini of railways. It is hardly doubtful that such action, if taken with the co-operation of the most influential Latin-American Powers-Argentina, Brazil, Chile—would have the desired effect.

The benefit of such joint action, not to Mexico only, but to both American continents, is discussed in an editorial in this number in answer to the question What Next?”




LFDE 1992


HUERTA—I WON'T! An answer to the question, What Next? is offered in an editorial which appears on another page of this number of The Outlook

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R. ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, on a knoll commanding a view of the town

the famous English scientific and so- of Pool and its pretty harbor. Here Dr.

ciological writer, who recently passed Wallace spent the evening of his days, away in his ninety-first year, was a man of devoting his spare time, when not writing marked personality. It was the good fortune books and magazine articles, to raising chickof the writer some time ago to spend a day ens, gardening, cross-country walking, and with him at his country home in Kent, near playing chess with neighbors who chanced to Broadstone, and to obtain from him first-hand call. Up to within a year or two ago Dr. an interesting account of his own life, to- Wallace had been assisted in his work by gether with his views on some of the many Mrs. Wallace, who helped to prepare all his present-day topics on which the versatile manuscripts and to read the proofs of his mind of the naturalist delighted to speculate. various books and articles. Dr. Wallace,

Dr. Wallace, with all his distinction as the like our Mark Twain, did all of his work with co-discoverer, or rather expounder, of the a pen, and never cultivated dictating to stetheory of natural selection-sharing the honor nographers or using a typewriter. He made with Darwin—and despite his many other it a point to turn out each day about six achievements in intellectual pursuits, was a thousand words-a high average for literary man of great modesty. It is seldom that production. greatness in this world is allied to humility ; As President of the English Society for but Dr. Wallace possessed self-abnegation to Land Nationalization Dr. Wallace took a a rare, degree. This was evinced early in keen and active interest in the crusade his career, when his researches in natural of Chancellor Lloyd George against landlordhistory led him to conclusions in natural


Dr. Wallace's book on Land Nationaliselection identical with those of Darwin. In zation has recently sold extensively through1858 Dr. Wallace was in New Guinea and out England, and accomplished much toward made a careful study of the inhabitants of educating the democracy as to the power the Malay Archipelago, a treatise on whom possessed by those who own the soil. he forwarded to Sir Charles Lyell, President There was scarcely a living topic of the of the Royal Society. He requested Sir day in which Dr. Wallace was not interested. Charles to show his paper to Darwin, and He was a great believer in country life, and the latter was astounded to find that young one of his dreams was the “ demagnetization Wallace had worked out in its entirety his of great towns. He believed that a return own ideas on natural selection. The recep- to country life was a panacea for many social tion of this paper by the President of the evils, and lent every encouragement in his Royal Society compelled Darwin to “rush power to the efforts put forward in many into print" with the "Origin of Species," parts of England to build “garden cities.” thus receiving all the credit for the so-called The reading of Edward Bellamy's famous discovery of natural selection. Dr. Wallace Looking Backward” exerted considerable never attempted to deprive Darwin of any influence on the mind of Dr. Wallace, and it of the glory of the work, and when he lec- was the attempt to carry out some of the tured in America some years later insisted ideas of Bellamy that gave the learned Doctor on paying all honor to his co-discoverer and the reputation of being an out-and-out Socialfriend.

ist. Among others who exerted a strong Dr. Wallace's home life was ideal. He influence on his mind were Robert Owen, occupied a small tract of land called the Adam Smith, and Ebenezer Howard. The Old Orchard, not far from the little vil- last-mentioned person was the builder of the lage of Broadstone, one of the prettiest ham- first English “garden city” at Letchworth, in lets of Kent, about five hours' ride south- which enterprise Dr. Wallace was deeply west from London. His house was of the interested. He hoped by building numerous rambling English country type, and stood “garden city” centers near the big towns to Elsewhere in this number is an editorial on “Dr.

attract most of the residential population Wallace and Spiritualism."

away from the latter, and thus, in time, to de


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