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stroy their glamour for the multitude. Con- On the occasion of my visit to Dr. Wallace gestion of population would thus naturally he was asked to sit for the photograph eliminate itself, through the process of “ de- which accompanies this article. He demurred magnetization ;" that is, by the great centers a little to the ordeal, but finally consented, losing their attractiveness.
and while thus posing for the camera disThe first occasion on which the writer met cussed the advantages of modern illustrated Dr. Wallace was the result of a visit follow- journalism. No subject seemed too small ing a request for an interview. On arriving for his keen analysis, and his conversational at the village of Broadstone I was met by a powers were exceptional. With all his great tall, lank, broad-shouldered figure, with snow- knowledge on many deep subjects of science, white beard and hair, wearing a broad- he displayed no self-assertiveness whatever, brimmed hat of Western style and blue glasses and, though having pronounced and daring which emphasized the pallor of the counten- views on many debatable topics, he put for
The suit of dark material which Dr. ward his arguments without dogmatism. Wallace wore seemed a few sizes too large On the occasion of this visit I asked Dr. and the shoes looked particularly well adapted Wallace to sketch for me briefly the principal for cross-country walking. Though a cer- events of his career. He said : tain amount of disregard of conventionality “ I don't know that there is anything espewas displayed in his dress, there was no cially interesting in being born, but of course untidiness. Dr. Wallace showed no signs I was. You always begin with that, I think, of old age except his white hair.
in interviews. The day was January 8, 1823, a vigorous stride and his conversa- to be exact. My father was Thomas Vere tion brisk and full of human interest. He Wallace, and he died when I was eleven had walked over to meet me—a mile from years old. I am of Scottish descent. I was home—and thought nothing of walking back, educated in the ordinary way at Hertford though it was raining with that persistent School, where I lived until my fourteenth downpour so typical of the English climate. year.
On the way Dr. Wallace discoursed elo- My brother was a surveyor and architect, quently on the advantages of country life. and from my fourteenth to my twenty-first year He had lived in London for some time after I worked in his office. I enjoyed outdoor life, his return from the Malay Archipelago in and the career of architect did not appeal to 1858, but in 1871 he decided definitely to When twenty-one, I became a teacher shake the dust of cities from his feet forever. of English in the Collegiate School at Lei
“ Since that time,” he said on this occa- cester. My brother died in the following sion, “I have stuck to the country, and year, and I succeeded to his business. nothing could ever again induce me to return I spent some time as a surveyor on the to city life. The life now lived by people in railway, but, as part of my duty was to colmodern cities is absolutely false—not false in lect money from farmers in the neighborthat it is not true, or that it is deliberately de- hood, I became thoroughly disgusted with ceitful, but false in the fact that it is not the life that phase of life and made up my mind conducive to human happiness. I believe," to abandon it. As a matter of fact, I never he continued, “ that a strong reaction is set- did take to business, my bent being more ting in towards a return to more healthful towards travel and science. conditions, and in order to obtain them the “I applied at this time to W. H. Bates, cities must be abandoned. I have traveled whom I met at Leicester, and asked him to a great deal,” added the Doctor, “not so send me to the Amazon River on an expemuch because I wished to travel as that I dition which he was fitting out. I wished wished to study life under different condi- particularly to go to that section, having tions, and I am convinced that the truly read Edwards's · Voyage up the Amazon happy life of the future will be that spent in and Humboldt's · Personal Narrative.' My the country. Life in the cities destroys the object in going to this place was to collect spiritual in man; and while it is true that natural history material, with a view to solvmore money is to be made in cities, and more ing the great problem of the origin of species. creature comfort may be obtained, the mate- I returned to England in 1853, and wrote a rialism of cities offsets any advantage which book called Travels on the Amazon and Rio might otherwise be derived in the centers of Negro. The following year I set out on an population."
expedition and spent eight years between
Malacca and New Guinea, writing a book on rett, Lord Kelvin, and others are coming the Malay Archipelago and the · Land of the out in favor of the spiritualistic truth, it is OrangUtan.'
time for ordinary people like myself to fall “I did a great deal of work on the natural into line. selection theory, and my paper came before " While I am a pronounced Spiritualist, Darwin in 1858. It seems that Darwin had it is not exactly in the popular sense of been working along the same lines, and the term. I believe that there is a great shortly after reading my paper he published deal to be learned along lines of legitihis Origin of Species.'
mate psychological investigation, and I am “On my return to London, in 1866, I of opinion that many students who are gave up traveling for a while and married pursuing these studies earnestly will, before the daughter of William Mitten, the well- long, arrive at some startling truths. Most known botanist. I soon tired of London scoffers will tell you that this is entirely and decided to live the rest of my life in the speculative, but the well-attested experience country. I have never had cause to regret of hundreds of investigators cannot be so this decision."
lightly set aside. Dr. Wallace was, as every one now knows, It was on this very point—the existence a confirmed spiritist, and it was his research of spirit—that I differed so largely from into the occult that, perhaps more than any- Darwin. He implied that the nature of thing else, brought upon him much of the man—his mind and his soul (if he had one) unfriendly criticism which he had to face in was derived from the lower animals, just as later years from his fellow-scientists. Like the body was so derived. While Darwin did Sir Oliver Lodge and the late William T. not deny the action of the Great First Cause Stead, however, he has not lacked the courage -most persons think Darwin was an atheist, to uphold his opinions boldly with pen and but they do not understand his work—at the voice, and his work in the field of psychical same time he believed that man's physical research awaits the test of time. Now that and mental structure developed from the another famous spiritist, Dr. Charles Richet, struggle for existence, and that even the of Paris, has just won the Nobel Prize for intellectual nature proceeded from the lower work in medical research, perhaps the world animals. will begin to lend a more attentive ear to the 'My argument has always been that the subject of future life ; a theme which for mind and the spirit, while being influenced by many years occupied much of the attention the struggle for existence, have not originated of Dr. Wallace.
through natural selection. For hundreds of In the course of our interview Dr. Wal
years it was believed that the surface of the lace was asked how he first came to direct earth, with all its beauty, was caused by vol-, his attention to Spiritism.
canic action, by wind, frost, rain, and rivers. “ When I returned from abroad,” he re- Most people admit this, but scientists had to plied, " I had read a good deal about Spirit- point out that the action of glaciers was also a ualism, and, like most people, believed it to cause for the molding of the earth's surface. be a fraud and a delusion. This was in After the glacier theory was advanced all the 1862. At that time I met a Mrs. Marshall, old theories had to make way for it."It was who was a celebrated medium in London, the same with evolution. It accounts for a and after attending a number of her meet- great many things, but there is a limit to its ings, and examining the whole question with application. Evolution is extremely interestan open mind and with all the scientific ap- ing, and men fastened on it as the only explication I could bring to bear upon it, I planation for all the manifold mysteries with came to the conclusion that Spiritualism was which they are confronted. Evolution is genuine. However, I did not allow myself true in part, but it does not account by any to be carried away, but I waited for three means for all the facts. I am one who years and undertook a most rigorous exami- believes there is something in man that is nation of the whole subject, and was then infinite and which differs in nature as well as convinced of the evidence and genuineness of in degree from anything which is seen in the Spiritualism.
lower animals. I believe that at a certain “ The religion of the future will be based epoch of our life, when the body is ready to solely on Spiritualism. When great scientists receive it, there is an influx of spirit, and our like Sir Oliver Lodge, Professor W. F. Bar- existence in the future depends very largely
on how we adapt ourselves to this new con- with people who are making self-sacrifices, dition when it comes before us.
exhibiting wonderful heroism and disinter" It is all very well to talk about the soul ested affection—live men and women of the and the spirit and things of that kind, with- day who are actually spending their existence out any definite idea of just what these for the sake of others ? If
every one were phrases mean. But, aside entirely from these merely engaged in the desperate struggle for considerations, I maintain that the theory of existence, why should any member of the evolution does not account for many of the human family try to help along or support mental attributes of man. It does not ac
anybody else? count for our wonderful mathematical, mu- “ Evolution can account well enough for sical, or artistic faculties. Who can claim the land-grabber, the company promoter, the that man has received these endowments trust, and the sweater, but it fails to account from some lower animal which never pos- for Raphael and Wagner, Swedenborg, Newsessed an inkling of them ? Many of the ton, Florence Nightingale, or others of this lower animals, it is true, display a much finer character. The world has been moved far physical and muscular development than man more by spiritual forces than by material and does. They are gifted with greater agility selfish ones. .
Neither Darwin nor Moses has and endurance, and undoubtedly we have yet conquered mankind. Life, with its derived from them many of our physical mysteries of consciousness and personality, attributes. But who can reasonably say that is still the dumping-ground of theories and we are indebted to any of the lower animals dreams. Until science has demonstrated the for our high intellectual faculties? The gulf existence of the soul man approaches death which separates the ant from Newton, the with an open mind. I hold that the existape from Shakespeare, the parrot from ence of the soul and the presence of conIsaiah, cannot be bridged by the struggle sciousness beyond the grave have been
, for existence. To call the spiritual nature of already proved. It is because the scientific man a' by-product,' developed by us in our investigation of psychical matters has become struggle for existence, is a joke too big for confused in the popular mind with the imthis little world. It was on this very point posture of charlatans that indiscriminating that I differed from Darwin, and it is on people regard Spiritualism as a fake. An these points that I cannot meet the modern honest and unbiased examination of all the materialists who say that man is merely an facts gathered by modern psychologists animal and there is nothing for him beyond would certainly open the eyes of even the
It is very well for us to try to most doubtful of all the Thomases. account for the material on a mere material “Truth is born into this world only with basis, and it may be very satisfactory to pangs and tribulations, and every fresh truth some people who do not seriously consider is received unwillingly. To expect the the subject; but, if the soul has come into world to receive a new truth, or even an being from what is popularly termed the old truth, without challenging it, is to look struggle for existence,' how is it that in this for one of those miracles which do not very struggle for existence we meet daily occur."
THE PERPETUATING OF INDIAN
BY NATALIE CURTIS
\HOSE who have worked among the reservation ! I wondered at the time if I
American Indians, and have learned were in darkest Russia or in free America.
to respect the thought, the art, and On my return East I sent a copy of an Indian many of the religious ideas of this most inter- song to Theodore Roosevelt, then President, esting people, must feel a sense of almost knowing that his literary taste would be personal gratitude to the present Secretary instantly struck by the unusual imagery of of the Interior for having appointed a Super- the Indian song-words. In the interview visor of Music in the department of Indian that followed I added my testimony to that Education, whose duties shall be to " record of others who had already worked to save native Indian music, and arrange it for use from extinction the native arts of basketry, in the Indian schools."
pottery, and weaving, and the President careThis is a great step forward. Ten years fully reviewed the whole subject of the anniago a friendly scientist on an Indian reserva- hilation of Indian art and everything pertaintion advised me that if I wished to continue ing to the native life through our well-meaning my self-appointed task of recording native but narrow methods of education. That songs (which were at that time absolutely Theodore Roosevelt should take up this matforbidden in all the Government schools), I ter with his usual initiative was perhaps only must keep my work secret, lest the school to be expected. But I have never forgotten superintendent in charge evict me from the the humorous gleam in his eyes as he said,
“ How many Congressmen do you suppose Washington. But on the reservations, where there are who would understand that there alone an appreciation of native, arts and could be such a thing as 'Indian art ? They crafts might directly benefit the Indians, the will say, ' Another of Roosevelt’s vagaries !'' old prejudice still prevails; for it will take
Yet now Indian art is officially encouraged some time to banish from the minds of isoby native teachers at the Carlisle Indian lated Government employees in remote outSchool, and imitations of Indian art-crafts flood posts (themselves denied all intercourse with our department stores; we have a troupe of a larger world of thought) the old, deep-rooted native players presenting “ Hiawatha” out of conviction that they are there to make the doors; the performance on our stage of Indian Indian over into a white man as speedily dances by an
as possible, and Ojibway maiden
that to this end to the accompani
all things Indian ment of Walter
must be vigorousDamrosch's sym
ly stamped outphony orchestra,
so long have we at least three so
held that teaching called Indian op
Indians meant eras written by
giving them some white men, and
thing to copy, numerous adapta
some tions of Indian
form of Caucasian musical themes to
achievement piano and vocal
the white man in compositions. It
toto. is many years
Fortunately, Mr. since Miss Alice
Geoffrey O'Hara, Fletcher and her
whom Secretary native collabora
Lane has appointtor, Francis La
ed Supervisor of Flesche, began
Music, comes to their pioneer work
his work with the in the collection of
technical equipOmaha songs; but
ment of a trained the subject of In
musician, and with dian music is at
a reverence for last not only seri
the traditions of ously considered
the red man, an —it has become
open mind, and an distinctly popular.
evidently sincere And so the Indian
appreciation of is to-day finding
the responsibility increasing recog
A PUEBLO INDIAN WOMAN GRINDING CORN of his position. It nition as a human
The women while grinding corn all day sing at their work. Their songs are is earnestly to be being capable of the corn, of the clouds that bring rain, of the fields in blossom,
hoped, therefore, and of the ripened many-colored corn-ears bringing gifts of
that the teaching his own to the civilization that absorbs him. of the white teachers may form an imporMr. Roosevelt's appointment of Francis E. tant part of Mr. O'Hara's activities. For Leupp as Commissioner of Indian Affairs many of these people are conscientious marked a turning-point in Indian administra- and devoted, and would respond to such tion. (Mr. Leupp appointed a supervisor of help if it came with Government authority. Indian music, even as Secretary Lane has And here the Supervisor of Music should done; but the office was discontinued owing to have not only the support of the Indian lack of funds.) Under this highly educated Office at Washington, but also the interest man and his successor, Mr. Valentine, the of our prominent educators. For we Amerpetty tyranny of the old oppressive educa- icans at large need to realize that our edutional system was at least nominally revoked at cational relation to our dependent peoples
PAINTING BY E. P. SAUER WEN
among the loveliest examples of Indian music and tell of the life of