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inspired her Indian pupils at Carlisle Institute one considers that the musical tuition reto the creation of a new school of applied design ceived by most Indians is worse than mediand decorative art, unique in that it is thor- ocre, the ability shown by the students is oughly Indian No white person could have worth more than a passing comment. The done this; he could never have touched the cre- belief that with the educated Indians lies ative spring behind the Indian art-traditions, a future for their art is no mere dream. nor understood the living poetry of symbolthat The concerts of Negro music given by makes Indian art to speak. Yet the work of colored musicians at Carnegie Hall in New this gifted Indian woman is still but at the York have awakened wide and thoughtful beginning, for years of previous "art" instruc- comment, and proved abundantly that the tion at Carlisle (painting pansies on plush so-called backward peoples have something

pillows, embroidering strawberries, drawing typically their own to give to the world of roses in red chalk, and carefully shaded kittens art. This is especially true of the Indian. playfully emerging from unbuttoned boots !) I once knew a young full-blood Apache carhad first to be lived down and obliterated. penter who had taught himself three instrutime the example of Angel De Cora's effort ments, and the dream of whose life was to may broadly permeate our teaching of primi- become a musician, that he might

16 write tive peoples, and we may now well hope Geronimo's life in music." Richard Strauss that the next development in the lace-making was unknown to this child of Arizona, yet he industry taught to Indian women (one of the outlined a complete symphonic poem while noblest and most successful of practical phi- describing the way in which his native Apache lanthropies) may be an emphasis on the songs should be used to express his people's beauty and value of original native designs. defensive struggle "for their homes.” Though

The "Vanishing Race" is a coming peo- our educational efforts are now wisely and ple so far as absorption into our civilization is necessarily focused on getting the Indians on concerned. The Indian learns the white their feet industrially, yet there are always man's music and musical instruments with the gifted few in every race to whom an art extraordinary ease, and there are bands in all education can be accorded, reasonably sure the large Indian boarding schools. When of results. If we would indeed have real

In

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LIGHT camp at dusk and in the foreground the silent meeting of two lovers, with the fire-lit tepees like glowworms in the dark

Indian music in modern art-form, let our a larger development of our tone-relations, Government, or some public-spirited citizen, away from the eternal major and minor give a scholarship to the self-reliant and modes." talented Indian (I know one who nearly Our present duty is to assume guardianstarved while studying music in Boston), and ship of the culture-heritance of the Indianplace him under a discriminating and sympa- and let us be better guardians in the sphere thetic master—a master with enough genius of education than we have proved politically in himself not to kill the native genius in the toour“ wards”! Although valuable collections Indian. And by the time the Indian com- of Indian songs have already been made, the poser shall have arisen in civilized life (he is field is so vast and the workers are so few that there already in the native life) our harmonic there is still much to be done. As the old system may have been still further expanded life passes, so too are passing the ancient by the followers of Moussorgsky, Strauss, songs sacred to that life.

While yet they Debussy, and Schoenberg, and America may linger in the memory of the tribal priests and in time contribute to the development of an chiefs, they should be set on paper exactly as enlarged system of notation that may include the Indians sing them. We trust that such the possibility of correctly recording those recording will form a large part of the duties intervals prevalent in the music of the Orient, of Mr. O'Hara, under whose supervision each and also the peculiar inflections and accents Indian school might be induced to form its that form so characteristic a feature of most own library of Indian songs, accurately barbaric music.

noted. In such work we should give Mr. Visiting musicians—Felix Mottl, Safonoff, O'Hara Nation-wide support; for this task Busoni —who took keen interest in our native science, art, the historian of to-morrow and music, found the melodies ill adapted to the humanitarian of to-day will thank and literal harmonization according to our pres

honor him. For the whole subject of Indian ent methods, and one of them said, “ Bar- education should enlist the interest and the baric music and primitive folk-songs, which best thought of our people, and it is hoped are interesting our composers everywhere that these few remarks may provoke further to-day, have helped to point the way to discussion on the part of abler scholars.

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THE PRESIDENCY: MAKING AN

:
OLD PARTY PROGRESSIVE

BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT

THE TENTH INSTALLMENT OF

1

“CHAPTERS OF A POSSIBLE AUTOBIOGRAPHY”

O

a

THE CABINET UNCHANGED

N September 6, 1901, President there had been a reversal of party policy,

McKinley was shot by an Anarchist and a nearly immediate and nearly complete

in the city of Buffalo. I went to change in the personnel of the higher offices, Buffalo at once. The President's condition especially the Cabinet. I had never felt that seemed to be improving, and after a day or this was wise from any standpoint. If a man two we were told that he was practically out is fit to be President, he will speedily so imof danger. I then joined my family, who press himself in the office that the policies were in the Adirondacks, near the foot of pursued will be his anyhow, and he will not Mount Tahawus. A day or two afterwards have to bother as to whether he is changing we took a long tramp through the forest, and them or not; while as regards the offices in the afternoon I climbed Mount Tahawus. under him, the important thing for him is

After reaching the top I had descended a that his subordinates shall make a success in few hundred feet to a shelf of land where there handling their several departments. The was a little lake, when I saw a guide coming subordinate is sure to desire to make a sucout of the woods on our trail from below. I cess of his department for his own sake, and felt at once that he had bad news, and, sure if he is a fit man, whose views on public polenough, he handed me a telegram saying that icy are sound, and whose abilities entitle him the President's condition was much worse to his position, he will do excellently under and that I must come to Buffalo immediately. almost any chief with the same purposes. It was late in the afternoon, and darkness had fallen by the time I reached the clubhouse where we were staying. It was some I at once announced that I would continue time afterwards before I could get a wagon unchanged McKinley's policies for the honor to drive me out to the nearest railway station, and prosperity of the country, and I asked all North Creek, some forty or fifty miles dis- the members of the Cabinet to stay. There tant. The roads were the ordinary wilderness were no changes made among them save as roads and the night was dark.

But we

changes were made among their successors changed horses two or three times—when I whom I myself appointed. I continued Mr. say “we”I mean the driver and I, as there McKinley's policies, changing and develop was no one else with us—and reached the ing them and adding new policies only as the station just at dawn, to learn from Mr. Loeb, questions before the public changed and as who had a special train waiting, that the the needs of the public developed. Some President was dead. That evening I took of my friends shook their heads over this, the oath of office, in the house of Ansley telling me that the men I retained would not Wilcox, at Buffalo.

be " loyal to me," and that I would seem

as if I were “a pale copy of McKinley.”. I NO REVERSAL OF POLICY

told them that I was not nervous on this On three previous occasions the Vice- score, and that if the men I retained were President had succeeded to the Presidency loyal to their work they would be giving me on the death of the President.

In each case

the loyalty for which I most cared ; and that

if they were not, I would change them anyCopyright 1913 by the Outlook Company. Special Notice: This series of articles is fully protected by copy- how; and that as for being “a pale copy of right in the United States, in England, and on the Continent. All rights, including the right of translation into

McKinley,” I was not primarily concerned foreign languages, are reserved. This matter is not to be with either following or not following in his republished either in whole or in part without special permission of the publishers.

footsteps, but in facing the new problems that

66

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STATE AND NATION

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THE NEEDS OF THE DAY

arose; and that if I were competent I would with the abuses of his day ; but they did not find ample opportunity to show my compe- apply the spirit in which Lincoln worked to tence by my deeds without worrying myself the abuses of their own day. Both houses as to how to convince people of the fact. of Congress were controlled by these men.

Their leaders in the Senate were Messrs.

Aldrich and Hale. The Speaker of the For the reasons I have already given in House when I became President was Mr. my chapter on the Governorship of New Henderson, but in a little over a year he was York, the Republican party, which in the succeeded by Mr. Cannon, who, although days of Abraham Lincoln was founded as the

widely differing from Senator Aldrich in matradical progressive party of the Nation, had

ters of detail, represented the same type of been obliged during the last decade of the

public sentiment. There were many points nineteenth century to uphold the interests of

on which I agreed with Mr. Cannon and Mr. popular government against a foolish and ill

Aldrich, and some points on which I agreed judged mock-radicalism. It remained the

with Mr. Hale. I made a resolute effort to Nationalist as against the particularist or

get on with all three and with their followers, State's rights party, and in so far it remained

and I have no question that they made an absolutely sound; for little permanent good equally resolute effort to get on with me. can be done by any party which worships We succeeded in working together, although the State's rights fetish or which fails to

with increasing friction, for some years, I regard the State, like the county or the pushing forward and they hanging back. municipality, as merely a convenient unit for

Gradually, however, I was forced to abandon local self-government, while in all National

the effort to persuade them to come my matters, of importance to the whole people,

way, and then I achieved results only by the Nation is to be supreme over State,

appealing over the heads of the Senate and county, and town alike.

House leaders to the people, who were the

masters of both of us. But the State's rights fetish, although still effectively used at certain times by both

i continued in this way to get results courts and Congress to block

until almost the close of my term ; and needed National legislation directed against the huge corporations or in the inter

the Republican party became once more ests of workingmen, was not a prime issue at

the progressive and indeed the fairly the time of which I speak. In 1896, 1898,

radical progressive party of the Nation. and 1900 the campaigns were waged on two

When my successor was chosen, however,

the leaders of the House and Senate, or most great moral issues : (1) the imperative need of a sound and honest currency ; (2) the need,

of them, felt that it was safe to come to a after 1898, of meeting in manful and straight

break with me, and the last or short session forward fashion the extra-territorial problems

of Congress, held between the election of my arising from the Spanish War. On these great later, saw a series of contests between the

successor and his inauguration four months moral issues the Republican party was right, and the men who were opposed to it, and majorities in the two houses of Congress and who claimed to be the radicals, and their allies

the President—myself—quite as bitter as if among the sentimentalists, were utterly and

they and I had belonged to opposite political hopelessly wrong.

parties. However, I held my own. I was

not able to push through the legislation I THE DANGER FROM REACTIONARIES desired during these four months, but I was This had, regrettably but perhaps inevi- able to prevent them doing anything I did tably, tended to throw the party into the not desire, or undoing anything that I had hands not merely of the conservatives but already succeeded in getting done. of the reactionaries; of men who, sometimes for personal and improper reasons, but

FAITHFUL PUBLIC SERVANTS more often with entire sincerity and upright- There were, of course, many Senators and ness of purpose, distrusted anything that was members of the lower house with whom progressive and dreaded radicalism. These up to the very last I continued to work in men still from force of habit applauded what hearty accord, and with a growing underLincoln had done in the way of radical dealing standing. I have not the space to enumerate,

GETTING RESULTS

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