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The burden of work carried by the United States post-office is enormous, and it is made vastly more onerous by reason of carelessness on the part of the public in sending improperly directed letters and packages. In Chicago, for instance, a recent count showed that out of 465,750 pieces of first-class .mail received on one day, no fewer than 204,930, or 44 per cent, were insufficiently or improperly directed.

Postmaster-General Burleson asks the co-operation of all well-disposed citizens, especially at this time when the holidays are approaching, in saving the post-office from this unnecessary work.

The Young Women's Christian Associations of the country have started a useful movement in appointing a Commission on Thrift and Efficiency. Its report contains valuable suggestions for a Nation-wide programme for promoting better standards of personal efficiency among women. One of the Commission's first achievements is a personal account book which is said to have met with “ a wonderful welcome from the girl in the student, the

and the industrial world.”

The Japanese steamship company, the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, will, it is reported, inaugurate a service around the world via New York after the opening of the Panama Canal. The first vessels for the new service are now building at Kobe, Japan.

“What are the ten greatest inventions of our time?” The “ Scientific American ” offered a prize for the best answer. The winner named these: The electric furnace, the steam turbine, the automobile, moving pictures, wireless teleg. raphy, the aeroplane, the cyanide process, the linotype machine, the induction motor, and electric welding. X rays, radium, color photography, the Diesel engine, the telephone, and the phonograph, it will be noticed, are omitted.

New Guinea is one of the few countries that still present untrodden fields for the explorer. The difficulties of traveling in the interior of this great island have prompted a German traveler, Lieutenant Graetz, to project the exploration of the island by means of an air-ship. This will enable the explorers to pass without difficulty over rivers, mountains, and jungles which would be traversed only with great toil by ordinary travelers.

“Madame Simone,” says the theatrical manager William A. Brady,“ comments on our weakness for the 'happy ending. That is a concession to the public, which time and again has expressed its disfavor at the more artistic' unhappy ending.' The“ Dramatic Mirror,” commenting on this statement, says that the most successful plays have been those with an un

happy ending. It mentions among these “ Uncle Tom's Cabin,"

,” “Romeo and Juliet,” “ Hamlet,” “ The Darling of the Gods,” “East Lynne,” and others.

Wooden pails are being displaced by steel receptacles, says the “ American Machinist.” For the paint trade alone one plant turns out every year 4,000,000 steel pails to hold white lead. All the operations in making these pails are performed by ingenious machinery.

Canada, according to “ Shipping Illustrated,has not been enthusiastic in sending recruits to the British navy. The navies of the world, it says, have always recognized the coast fisheries as the cradle of their best men. But the pay in the British navy is meager compared with what the men can earn at home, and, more important still to the independent fishermen," the retribution which follows upon jawing' a superior officer is intolerable to men accustomed to dispute orders with which they do not agree.”

The famous Pont du Gard, a Roman bridge at Nîmes, France, is menaced with destruction. It is not owned, it seems, by the public, as it ought to be, but by a private citizen who says he cannot afford to pay for its upkeep; he calls on the Government for assistance, and if this is not forthcoming he threatens to sell the bridge to some wealthy American who may bring it to this country!

An unfortunate known as “the man who can't laugh ” recently got a verdict of $25,000 from his former employers. He was thrown 140 feet down an elevator shaft, broke the second cervi. cal vertebra, and has since lived in a steel corset with a head guard which prevents him from moving his head even a fraction of an inch. The slightest twist of his neck might break the spinal cord and kill him. A laugh or a sneeze would probably do this, hence the appellation quoted above.

One half of the world is trying to get its name into the newspapers and the other half is trying to keep its name out of them. In the latter class must be included, as a “headliner,” the person who has just given $250,000 to Columbia University, New York City. Not even the trustees of the University, it is said, know the name of the giver.

Among the many definitions of genius, that of Thomas A. Edison has the virtue of brevity, not to say wit: “Genius is two per cent inspiration and ninety-eight per cent perspiration."

“Of all the industries, the railroads, which are second only to agriculture in magnitude and second to none in the range of requirements for trained men,” says the “Railway Age Gazette,” “obtain the least benefit from the colleges and universities of the country.” The “Gazette

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quotes Dr. Humphreys, President of Stevens

not once or twice, but dozens and dozens of Institute of Technology, as recommending spe- times." One stronger impulse he liad, lowcial apprenticeship courses for engineering grad- ever—the determination to get an education. uates as a way to remedy the difficulty.

This always brought him back after his fit of Rhode Island farmers have established a co- Wanderlust. operative market in Providence. They bought Denver is to have a fine new union railway four acres of land in a suitable locality, paying station, to cost two million dollars. Spokane is about $63,000 for the tract; and have provided spending seven millions on freight and passena much better market than the old one under ger terminals. The Western cities that are the management of the city. Retail dealers'

without palatial railway facilities will soon be prices are said to have become much more rea- uncomfortably conspicuous. sonable since the farmers started their own

Copenhagen is the most law-abiding city in market.

the world, according to statistics concerning Dr. William S. Rainsford, former rector of homicide. In the year 1910, among its populaSt. George's Church, New York City, was the tion of 554,400, there was but one murder. This guest of honor at the recent celebration of the was at the rate of 0.18 to 100,000 population. twenty-fifth anniversary of St. George's Club, The rate of homicides per 100,000 in Paris of which he was the founder. One of its most in the same year was 3.6; in New York, 6.9; in prominent members was the late J. P. Morgan, Chicago, 9.2. who built a memorial house for the club.

Philadelphia waiters must receive high tips The manufacturers of typesetting machines,

if the statement of one of them was intended to says the “ American Printer," have been hard

appear plausible. He was trying to dispose of hit by the new tariff, such machines being now

a $50 gold piece which had belonged to a colon the free list, though heretofore protected by

lection of extremely rare coins. On being ara duty of thirty per cent. No foreign machines

rested for complicity in stealing the collection, of this sort, however, are now in use in the

the waiter asserted that the coin had been given United States; but representatives of foreign

to him as a tip by a guest at the hotel where he firms that deal in such machinery have recently

worked ! Even New York's fashionable resbeen looking over the field with a view to enter

taurants seem to be outclassed in this waiter's ing our market. Perhaps they will decide to

experience. lower the cost of living for the printers of the country.

The new 1,000-foot piers for New York City Summarizing the difference between Western

have been started. They are to be at the foot and Oriental ideas in art, Laurence Binyon says

of West Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, and Forty

sixth Streets. in the “ Atlantic:” “Our eyes are led to a cen

Each pier will cost about tral object [in Western design], which holds the

$3,000,000. design together, as a keystone holds an arch.

New records for upper air research have been But in the typical Chinese or Japanese painting

made by the Government in experiments at there is no one central or dominant object; it is

Catalina Island, California. A number of balthe relation between the several objects that loons, each equipped with instruments, were makes the unity of the design. . . . The art of sent up, and one of them reached a height of the West has been like a fire choked with the twenty miles. At eleven miles the thermomefuel which we have heaped on it so eagerly.

ters recorded a temperature of 85 degrees below In the art of the East the flame has burned far zero; at twenty miles, strange to say, the temclearer and purer.”'

perature was slightly higher-48 degrees below. German housewives, according to a magazine An extensive housing scheme on the part of writer, are as complaisant in giving their unreli- London's city government is reported. Ten able servants good references as are American thousand houses for laborers are to be built, But some of them have discovered a

according to a statement by President Runci. way out of the conventional deception. They man, of the Board of Education. The sum of put their telephone number beneath the name $7,500,000 is to be expended in this project for and address which garnish a too flattering better conditions for those who most need “character”—and the mistress who is aware of them. the purport of the signal does not engage the

In a symposium on the comparative cost of unsatisfactory maid.

living in country and city one man writes to a S. S. McClure, in his autobiography now daily paper: “I have lived in both city and being published in “McClure's,” says that it country and find that it costs all you have, can was only by a narrow chance that he escaped earn, borrow, beg, or, if fortunately situated, being a professional tramp. The tramp's life steal, to live in either.” The frank naiveté oi was so attractive to him when he was attending this humorist seems incompatible with the guile school at Valparaiso, Indiana, that he ran away,

that he would have us believe he possesses.


The Outlook



Associate Editor

NOVEMBER 29, 1913


Contributing Editor R. D. TOWNSEND

Managing Editor



In all probability the most important and arouse opposition, is its statement of what difficult subject to come before the session corporations are to be subject to the Com

of Congress which meets mission's jurisdiction. They must, of course, THE REGULATION

in December will be the be engaged in inter-State or foreign comOF TRUSTS

right way to deal with merce (otherwise a Federal law would not corporations guilty of unfair and injurious apply), and must not be corporations subject practices and with monopolies which are such to the Inter-State Commerce Commission. in a wrongful sense. Mr. Victor Murdock, But the special and important restriction the Progressive leader, has introduced in the is that a corporation must have “annual lower house three bills, known popularly as gross receipts exceeding three million dolthe “Trust Triplets,” in allusion to Mr. lars from business within the United States," Wilson's “ Seven Sisters,” the anti-trust bills to bring it under the law. enacted in New Jersey. Senator Newlands, for the Democrats, has also prepared a bill. It is proposed here to outline the more im- The second of Mr. Murdock's bills empowers portant features of these bills, reserving for the Inter-State Trade Commission to deal by the present any editorial comment.

its own order, or

The first of Mr. Murdock's three bills

by a prohibition or

UNFAIR COMPETITION? creates an Inter-State Trade Commission ;

injunction obtained the second defines and prohibits unfair com- through the United States district courts, with petition ; the third deals with monopolies. any corporation within its jurisdiction guilty The Inter-State Trade Commission would of unfair or oppressive competition. Briefly, have seven members, six to be appointed by such acts as defined by the bill include: Takthe President, by and with the advice and ing special rates from common carriers not consent of the Senate, the seventh to be the granted to others ; discriminating in selling man who should, at the time of the bills' pas- prices between localities or individuals, except sage, be Commissioner of Corporations—the as justified by cost of distribution; bribery to Bureau of Corporations would go out of get competitors' secrets, or any bribing of existence. As the terms of office expire competitors' employees ; making oppressive once every year after he first year, in time or exclusive contracts for sales where the all of the members will be appointed by the seller has a substantial monopoly ; maintainPresident, and all are removable by the Presi- ing secret subsidiaries or agencies for unfair dent for cause.

trade purposes ; and destroying competition The Commission has ample powers to through interlocking directories. require information from all corporations as to their books and business ; to make public all cases of over-capitalization, unfair com- Mr. Murdock's third bill defines monopolies petition, misrepresentation, or oppressive use and instructs the Commission how to proceed of credit; to make and enforce regulations

against monopolies injurious to carry out the provisions of the Act; to

to business. The definition

MONOPOLIES? compel attendance of witnesses and produc

of monopolies underlies the tion of documentary evidence; to employ purpose and power of all three bills. Monopoagents and examiners of its own; and to lies

may be either natural or artificial ; but in punish neglect or failure to comply with its either case a corporation is subject to the orders. Perhaps the most important point Commission only when it exercises "

a subin this first bill, and one which is sure to stantially monopolistic power," and this is


defined as being vs whenever such corporation or association, not being subject to the obligation of public service in the given industry in question, exercises control over a sufficient portion of such industry or over sufficient factors therein to determine the price policy in that industry, either as to raw materials or finished or partly finished products."

A natural monopoly is defined as resting on one of the following natural bases: control of natural resources ; control of terminal or transportation facilities; control of financial resources; any other economic condition inherent in the character of the industry, including, among such conditions, patent rights. When the corporation is a natural monopoly, the Commission for good reasons may by its own order terminate “such monopolistic power, while at the same time safeguarding property rights and business efficiency.” When the corporation refuses or neglects to obey such an order from the Commission, the latter may ask a United States district court to appoint over the corporation one or more supervisors who would have practically the same powers that a receiver has over a bankrupt firm. The supervisor would report, not to the court, but to the Commission, and, in the long run, the corporation must purge itself of its faults or wrong organization.

An artificial monopoly is one created by artificial bases "—that is, by the corporations doing the things included in the definition given in the second of the three bills of what constitutes unfair and oppressive competition. And the Commission would act in case of wrongful artificial monopolies as provided in the second bill and outlined in our summary thereof.

recommend legislation. It could not dissolve or regulate a corporation directly, or through the courts ; but when a court, of its own instance and without the intervention of the Commission, shall issue a decree against a corporation, because it had violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Law other regulative acts, then that court may, “in its discretion,” refer the decree to the Commission with instruction to take evidence and report to the court what it thinks the right method of dissolution or reorganization. The Commission may aiso, of its own initiative, inquire whether a corporation has violated the Sherman AntiTrust Law, may instruct the corporation as to what it should do to comply with the law, and if its instructions are not followed may report the non-compliance to the AttorneyGeneral, so that he may act as he sees fit. The general criticism on the Newlands Bill is expressed by the popular phrase, “ It has no teeth.”



Another triumph—although this time a tardy triumph—for the principle of arbitration in

railway disputes was A GREAT RAILWAY

gained last week. Be

tween three and four thousand railway workers on the Sunset division of the Southern Pacific Railroad went out on strike, and the situation was threatening in the extreme, both for the public peace and for the enormous traffic involved. The division extends from New Orleans to El Paso, and enormous loss to sugar and cotton planters, whose crops must be moved, was involved. The difficulties had been argued back and forth for months without result, and attempts to arbitrate had failed. It is said that a thousand strikebreakers were in New Orleans ready to take strikers' places, and violence on a small scale began immediately.

As we pointed out last week in recording the peaceful settlement of the dispute between the Eastern railway companies and their trainmen, there is now no excuse for a railway strike on a large scale. The revised Erdman Law, as supplemented by the Newlands Act, offers such fair and practical methods for arbitration that either party to such a controversy which refuses to arbitrate must almost certainly incur public censure if public inconvenience and money loss follow. Happily this truth was realized before the Sunset line strike was

a day old.

The railway yielded to the request of the workmen for

The bill, introduced by Senator Newlands creates an Inter-State Trade Commission of

three members, only two THE NEWLANDS

of whom may belong to BILL

the same political party ; they are to be appointed by the President, and to take over the records and duties of the present Bureau of Corporations. Like the Murdock bills, it gives ample authority for investigation of corporations, hearing of evidence, and ordering the production of books and papers.

But the Commission would have far less power of action than under the proposal of Mr. Murdock. It would make reports to Congress and could

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a conference between the officials of the influence of intoxicating liquor, or who, not road and a joint committee of the four being under such influence, shall indulge in unions. This conference will consider the or utter aloud indecent language, or shall demands, which seem to be less for higher address or make audible offensive remarks pay than for the removal of alleged griev- or comment upon any person passing along ances in methods of work and the treatment such streets or public places, or shall obstruct of employees. If agreement by the confer- or interfere with any person or persons lawence fails in whole or in part, any points un- fully being upon such streets or public places, settled will be referred to the Board of Medi- shall be deemed . . . to be a disorderly peration and Consideration provided for under This conviction by its terms is restricted the Newlands Act, and thus the principle of to the latter paragraph of the section, and Federal arbitration will be applied.

therefore to sustain this conviction there Every time a great railway war is thus must be some evidence that this defendant avoided the old hateful idea of industrial did obstruct or interfere with persons lawfully war yields way to the peaceful and economic upon a public street. method of fair play and mutual concession. · Avery careful examination of the evidence

in this case fails to disclose anything which

would justify this conviction. . . . All that The Supreme Court of the State of New the evidence shows is that this defendant was Jersey has rendered an opinion which can be walking on the sidewalk of one of the streets

studied with profit of Paterson, and that following him was a by each and every large crowd, marching on the sidewalk five

municipality that is or six abreast. There is not a particle of threatened with industrial war.

testimony showing that this defendant obReaders of The Outlook will remember structed or interfered with any person or that during the progress of the cent Pater- persons. . . . Why the crowd followed him son strike the authorities of that city attracted is not made to appear, and the mere fact to themselves no little notoriety because of that he or any number of persons were walkthe manner in which they handled the admit- ing upon the sidewalk, no other fact appeartedly difficult situation that confronted them. ing, would not render him liable to the charge Believing that the Industrial Workers of the of obstructing or interfering with persons on World, the organization responsible for the the street. ... If it can be said that whenconduct of the strike, must be defeated at all ever a person who is walking along a public costs, they fought its revolutionary ideas and highway, quietly and peaceably, shall be folideals by lawless practices, apparently with lowed by a crowd, that he may be adjudged little realization of the fact that the best de- to be a disorderly person upon the ground fense the law can have is its proper use. One that he is obstructing or interfering with instance that showed the spirit in which the other persons upon such street, then almost strikers were handled was the arrest and con- every person having something more than a viction of Haywood, Tresca, and Lessig for local reputation sufficient to arouse the curi

disorderly conduct.” These three men, who osity of the public would be liable to be aphad incurred the hostility of the Paterson prehended as a disorderly person. police more by reason of their prominence No such construction has ever been given as labor leaders than by any overt acts, were to this law, and, in my judgment, never walking along the streets of the city followed should. ... This conviction has not the by a large crowd of strikers when their arrest slightest evidence to support the judgment occurred. They

sentenced to six that this defendant was at the time commonths in jail by Recorder Carroll, of the plained of a disorderly person." Passaic County Court. An appeal was taken in the case of Haywood. It was in setting aside his sentence that Justice Bergen, of the Since the Supreme Court of the Philippine New Jersey Supreme Court, rendered the Islands decided in 1907 that there was no opinion to which we have referred.

applicable law either of the The Act under which Haywood was

United States or of the archiconvicted, he said, “ declares that persons

pelago punishing slavery as a who shall loiter or assemble on the streets or crime, the Philippine Commission has enpublic places of any city, being under the deavored to persuade the Philippine Assem




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