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would look more like a crazy quilt than any- particularly valuable. Outside the first two thing else. The signature of one of the chief hundred claims there are comparatively few executives is required every time a horse is tracts useful for anything except grazing, and to be transferred from one department to the price the homesteader must pay therefor another, or when a dog is sold. A dozen is little less than the market value. The signatures, vouchers, and letters are required expenses of the thousands who traveled to to authorize a purchase involving the expendi- the filing places probably exceeded greatly the ture of one cent. There are wholly or quasi market value of the entire body of land disindependent boards in every branch of the tributed. city government—boards possessed of arbi- The eagerness exhibited by the applicants trary powers which serve only to keep petty is taken by many to mean the existence of a jealousies alive and to block efficient work. fierce land hunger, urging men to take long In short, the District government is an un- chances in the hope of securing homes. On wieldy hodgepodge.

the contrary, the real basis of the interest in As a result, Washington still has some dire this drawing was much like that of other social needs which can hardly be duplicated similar events, the inborn gambling spirit, in any other large city of the United States. awakened by the presence of a stupendous Here are a few of the most flagrant ones lottery with a few capital prizes worth $5,000 which the social workers of the city have to $10,000 each. Tens of thousands of taken this occasion to call to the attention of those who registered were already well-to-do, the President :

many already owned valuable farms, and some Washington has no city hospital but the are said to have. deeded away hundreds of jail hospital; she has no school nurses ; she acres to their wives or friends before regishas a very defective child labor law, and no tering that they might safely enter the lists. legal limitation whatsoever to the working Doubtless a form of land hunger does exist, hours of omen ; she has no provision for just as it always has existed ; but in this the care of the feeble-minded; and she boasts instance the money for which it was advera series of inhabited blind alleys where tuber- tised that the choice claims could be sold was culosis and baby death rates are as shock- an important impelling cause. Land drawingly high as the standard of morals is low. ings have become an established form of

The Bureau of Municipal Research has speculation for many Westerners, and they framed fifteen hundred searching questions registe: each time, hoping to win a fortune based on a knowledge of customary deficien- at a moderate expenditure of time and cies in city administration. Washington could money. The man who really wants to till not pass a very high examination in these.

the soil can find opportunity without beginning T is no doubt that the experience of on the unbroken prairies of the high plains. being surveyed by those who know how to With the great ranches of Texas being do such things would be a wholesome expe- broken into farms, with the Southern States rience for the National capital. There is a bringing forward their fertile valleys and question, and it is a fair one in the minds of fruitful climate, with the East awaking to many, whether it is necessary to spend modern methods of scientific agriculture, $15,000 to have it done; whether, instead, it there is little excuse for the man who has might not be done from within by those most money enough to make the trip to a land familiar with the city's needs.

drawing and to pay the Government's price for the raw land, with courage enough to

break the prairie and bring it to productiveMore than seventy-five thousand persons ness, to seek a claim given in such manner registered for the land drawing in north- and in these distant places.

western Nebraska, Land hunger is a healthy appetite, and LAND LOTTERIES

where, on October should be satisfied. The Western farms, LAND HUNGER

28 and the days often too large for proper tillage, should be following, were distributed 531 sections of divided into smaller holdings and made to Government land in the North Platte forest produce their maximum of the earth's fruits. reserve and in the Nebraska military reser- The man who desires to farm should use his vation. No other drawing, considering the intelligence and obtain a foothold where the area to be disposed of, has attracted so many efforts of his hands will give the largest seekers for claims. The land itself is not harvest. Perhaps the Government's plan of

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IN AMERICA

disposing of its reservations by lottery is the ment of $1,000 to each union by the Jewish best that can be devised; but the mere fact Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society. that tens of thousands register for a chance Other co-operative enterprises that have at the drawing-clerks, merchants, land- proved profitable are the fire insurance comowners, and small capitalists prominent in pany of the Jews of Ulster and Sullivan Counthe aggregation—does not prove anything ties in New York State, which has saved these as an index of the real attitude of the average farmers $35,000 in two years, and a purcitizen toward farming as a vocation.

chasing bureau, established in New York City in 1910. This bureau, which began with a

capital of $300, has done business amounting One would hardly expect a race of shop- to $135,000, thereby effecting a large saving keepers to make a success of farming, but to its members, and has been instrumental in

that is exactly what the introducing to some of the least progressive JEWISH FARMERS

Jews of America farms improved machinery and modern agra

doing. The Convention rian methods. of the Federation of Jewish Farmers of Evidence that this return of the Jew to the America in New York City from November soil is not a mere passing whim is found in 16 to 19 served to call attention to the fact the fact that the Jewish Aid Society awards that the Jews of this country are in increas- an increasing number of scholarships in State ing numbers leaving the city for the country, agricultural schools each year to Jewish and, what is more, are succeeding in their new young men and young women, and by the environment by exerting there the same in- fact that the Hebrew enrollment at most of dustry and painstaking care that have made these schools is steadily growing. It is estithem successful as merchants.

After all,

mated that there are now in the Cornell Colfarming is only a business, and business lege of Agriculture alone more than one methods properly applied are as certain to hundred and fifty Jews. bring results in the field as in the shop.

The Federation of Jewish Farmers, organized four years ago to “ improve the material The American Government sent a suggestion and social position of Jewish farmers,” has to the recent conference among the Balkan now fifty-one branches in fourteen States,

States held at Bucha

BALKAN IDEAS OF with a membership of more than five hun

rest, to the effect that

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY dred. Two hundred delegates were present

the new treaty to be at the Convention and exchanged views on signed there should assure religious liberty to the practice of their profession, and on less all those dwelling in the territories affected. palpable but important matters concerning The suggestion was turned down, on the the position of the Jew in American society. ground that the constitutions of the various

The Hebrew farmers have adopted all the Balkan countries already had granted religious up-to-date labor-saving equipment of their liberty. We are now learning by the treatGentile neighbors, and have gone a step ment which Servia and Greece are according further than soine in forming co-operative to the subjects of the territories conquered systems of fire insurance and credit, which from Turkey what is meant by religious might be imitated to advantage, and which liberty in the Balkans. incidentally furnish another illustration of the

A despatch from Monastir, largely a Bul“one-for-all and all-for-one” spirit that cen- . garian and Greek as well as Servian city but turies of persecution have inculcated in the now within Servian territory, is in point. It

reports that the Servian military and civil Four years ago the Jews organized the officials are asking the Bulgars to sign docufirst agricultural credit union in America. ments declaring that their ancestors were They now have seventeen of these unions, Servians, that their Bulgarian feeling is with an aggregate capital of $9,165 and a only superficial, and that they desire Sertotal loan record of $73,624. Their net vian rule. It also reports that the Serprofits have amounted to $1,317, which is a vians have closed the Greek churches and rate of more than thirteen per cent yearly on Greek schools in Monastir. On the other their capital. The unions have been formed hand, they have opened a Servian church by the sale of shares to the extent of $500 or and have notified the Bulgars that they, more among members, and by the advance- the Bulgars, are to attend that church.

race.

Only a few weeks ago, so we learn, a guard was set at the door of the Protestant church and he endeavored to turn back any Bulgars who approached. One man who insisted on going to the Protestant church on - the ground that he had attended the church for thirty years was called to the police station and given to understand that, under penalty of losing his property, he must attend the Servian church.

At Koritza—or Kortcha—the AmericanAlbanian school has been closed. The Greeks have taken possession of it on the ground that the district is to become Greek.

The Albanians have shown a more liberal spirit in their attitude towards this question than have the Servians or the Greeks. The Greek Church, the Roman Catholic Church, and Mohammedanism have all made progress in various regions of Albania. It is interest ing, however, to note that throughout the new principality many Albanians welcome Protestant Christianity as a liberty-loving religion.

INTERVENTION IN MEXICO

The Administration has made an honest, patient, and persistent attempt to secure peace, order, and good government in Mexico by an appeal to the Mexicans themselves to secure such government by a peaceful and orderly election, and to that end it has endeavored by moral pressure to bring about the resignation of Mr. Huerta and the consent of Mr. Huerta and the opposing factions to abide by the result of such election.

This experiment has failed. Yet it cannot be said that it was not worth while to make the experiment. It has at least demonstrated that the American people have no wish to intervene in the affairs of Mexico and will not do so unless intervention is forced upon them.

This failure, however, leaves the Administration facing a very simple alternative. We must either abandon all attempt to secure peace, order, and good government in Mexico, or we must forcibly intervene for

ing Mexico that we shall proceed to take such measures as we think necessary to preserve order, secure peace, and protect the persons and property primarily of all foreign residents in Mexico, but secondarily and necessarily, as a matter of course, of all peaceable and lawabiding Mexicans as well.

Whether we thus intervene by blockading the ports of Mexico or by invasion of Mexican territory by land forces is purely a question of method. Blockading the ports is just as truly war as invasion of the territory. We cannot adopt either method without accepting the full consequences of such warlike measures.

Such intervention probably would cost America much in money and in lives. But to abandon the peaceable and law-abiding residents in Mexico-Americans, Europeans, and Mexicans—to the factional fight carried on under leaders no one of whom hesitates at wholesale robbery and murder would cost America more than money and more than lives. It would cost her honor.

It is not too late for the Administration to secure, or attempt to secure, the co-operation of South American republics in this endeavor for the welfare of the two American continents. It is not too late for the President to call into conference the official representatives of Chile, Brazil, and the Argentine Republic, and through them invite the co-operation of those countries in this endeavor to secure justice and liberty for a neighboring community given over to anarchy and brigandage.

It is interesting to note that at the same time that The Outlook urges this policy upon the Administration as a necessary extension and application of the Monroe Doctrine, which in its essence is the duty of the strong nations toward their weaker neighbor, the principle is advocated by a writer whose object it is to prove that the Monroe Doctrine is “s

an obsolete shib boleth.” In his volume devoted to this thesis, which is published by the Yale University Press, Mr. Hiram Bingham writes the following paragraphs as the practical conclusion to which all his preceding pages brought him :

Furthermore, the very next time any awkward situations arise in one of the less firmly established republics, let us at once call a family gathering (of the Pan-American republics] and see what, if anything, needs to be done.

“If it is necessary to maintain order in some of the weaker and more restless republics,

that purpose.

66

Abandoning the attempt would necessitate notifying the European Powers that we no longer hold ourselves responsible for the protection of the persons and property of their citizens in Mexico, and it would inevitably follow that we must consent that they should themselves furnish protection by such methods as they deem expedient.

Intervention would necessarily mean notify

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why not let the decision be made, not by our

Where knowledge is free; selves, but by a congress of leading Ameri

Where the world has not been broken up can powers ? If it is found necessary to send

into fragments by narrow domestic walls;

Where works come out from the depth of armed forces into Central America to quell truth; rebellions that are proving too much for the Where tireless striving stretches the arms recognized governments, why not let those

toward perfection;

Where the clear stream of reason has not forces consist not solely of American ma

lost its way into the dreary desert of dead habit; rines, but of the marines of Argentina, Brazil, Where the mind is led forward by Thee into and Chile as well ?”

ever-widening thought and actionIs there any reason why the plan of

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let united intervention by leading American

my country awake.” powers in Mexican affairs is not practical ? In the second place, Tagore speaks of what If there is no such reason, why not at once all the loftiest literature speaks—of the things take steps to that end ?

of the soul. And these things with him are intimately at one with the things of nature.

A flower, a mountain, a cloud—all suggest A BENGALI POET

God. And so Tagore talks to us.

Has ever For the current year the Nobel Prize for

poet spoken of the love of God with greater literature has been awarded to Rabindranath simplicity ? So keen a critic as Mr. Yeats Tagore, the Bengali poet. This is the first has said that, when he tried to find anything time the prize has gone to an Oriental. It is Western to compare to Tagore's work, natural, therefore, that the event should turn

Thomas à Kempis's " Imitation of Christ " our thoughts towards the Orient.

came to mind. Tagore's religious message is The poet upon whom this honor has fallen resonant with simple conviction and reverberbelongs to a family in Bengal notable not ates with the fervor of the Upanishads, the only for wealth but for intellectual distinction.

oldest speculative treatises of the Hindus, Rabindranath Tagore was born in 1860. He

the words of which are always on his lips. gave early promise of ability ; but, although

Tagore's poetry has the outline of a great he learned quickly, he much preferred the etching in which one line suggests many and fields and the woods to the school. When where calm spaces are left for the fancy of those he was eleven years old, he was sent to the

who are to enjoy the work. The spaciousness Himalayas so that he might early make the of Tagore's poetry typifies the serenity of a acquaintance of the great mountain solitudes race which deliberately makes and takes time of India. At the age of seventeen he was sent

for much meditation—á far remove from our to England, where he thoroughly acquainted bustling, “ step-lively ” Western civilization. himself with the English language. His

Tagore is a born poet. With him poe face—his favorite portrait appears on another

is not an emotional experience which comes page—even suggests a slight European cast, upon his soul from without; it is grounded reminding one faintly of the face of Dante in the very nature of his being. Even his Gabriel Rossetti.

boyish longings and fancies had a genuine On his return from England to Bengal poetic tone, and expressed themselves pro

A little book of poems young Tagore wrote poetry more vigorously fusely in verse. than ever. It was essentially lyric poetry.

written when he was fourteen is still read His work steadily advanced in substance and

with delight by his countrymen. As he adquality. Its first characteristic was its patri

vanced in years the substance and quality of otism. This has persisted all along, and has

his work steadily developed. finally earned for Tagore the name of “the To Bengal he is the prophet of a new Soul of Bengal.” His songs have passed life. His poems, novels, short stories, throughout India, and have already exerted dramas, and essays form a whole literature much influence in developing a racial and in themselves, and for more than a quarter national consciousness. They have been of a century have been influencing a large sung at conferences and congresses, as well

part of India. as in the streets and fields. The patriotic Tagore's style is entirely different from that tone of Tagore's verse appears in the follow- of any other lyric poet, Eastern or Western,

of the century.

His words are both unex“ Where the mind is without fear and the head

pected and delicately expressive. The sugis held high;

gestiveness of his work is artless but abun

66

ing lines :

dant. And, above all, the sense of rhythm a Goethe, a Schiller, a Wordsworth, a Tennyand the wealth of meter which he has given son, a Browning. But what are the poet to his mother tongue would alone place him voices which reach us from the literature of in the front rank.

the East ? An Omar Khayyám? But how The award comes at the right time. A many since his day? In reality, we arc, generation, even a decade ago, such an award with Tagore's help, only just beginning to might have provoked much surprise. The lift the curtain which has hidden the Eastern West was then being interpreted to the East, it literature from us. is true, but not so much the East to the West. Not the least of the services of the Nobel What did we know about Persia, India, China,

Prize for literature lies in the fact that it has Japan? A smattering of geography, a very already turned men's thoughts from the little knowledge of manners and customs and more beaten paths to what an Echegaray of forms of government. But of the thought, has written in Spanish and what a Mistral the ideals, of the East, how much did we has written in Provençal. Now the service know? In these recent years we have be- goes beyond, to the Orient itself. Its latest come better acquainted with the Eastern man. award will spur the men of the West to We have come to respect, we have come to inquire what the men of the East have said admire, his gentleness, his instinctive courtesy,

and have to say. his generosity, his seeming imperturbability, The award will interpret the East to the his mental subtlety, his love of country, his West as the East has never before been reverence for authority. And as we have interpreted. It thus becomes a historic come to respect some of his customs which event, a turning-point in the understanding at first did not appeal to our Western ways, of one hemisphere by the other. so we are coming to appreciate some of his modes of thought and principles of life. He is no longer a mysterious-looking, im

A WORD IN SEASON penetrable figure, one in every physical and mental way alien to us. When such men as The season to which men and women in Anesaki, the Japanese, a preacher of the all kinds of shops look forward with dread is philosophy of religions, and Tagore, the fast approaching. While the world that buys Bengali, a poet and a prophet, come to our is thinking of its purchases the world that shores, as they have done, they bring to us sells is thinking of long hours, exhausted air, a quick, new understanding of their civiliza- and prostrating fatigue. Christmas has be tions and we greet them as men and breth- come too often a burden, and the festival of

The world, as interpreted by them, glad tidings and of the renewal of friendship becomes fraternal and spiritual.

a heavy tax on the most generous; while to Men have written about the re-entrance of those who stand behind counters it brings Asia into the commercial competition of the such physical exhaustion that it makes the world. They have written about the vigor very thought of giving hateful. The comand continuity of art in Asia. They may mercialization of Christmas is nothing, less now begin to write about Asia's part in the than a tragedy; and the perversion of the field of intellectual effort. This does not most beautiful festival of Christendom into a mean that the Eastern countries have lacked vast opportunity to sell things is a fearful either vigor or continuity of intellectual any satire on our common sense as well as on more than of æsthetic effort. But it does our sense of what is fit and spiritual in the mean that we have not yet appreciated the commemoration of the greatest gift of God Oriental mind and what it has produced. to men, and the pouring out of love by

To most of us the mind of the East is men to one another. Christmas does not like a closed book. Tagore, we believe, will need referming, but our way of celebrating it open it for us. This is as it should be, for with a debauch of shopping and a habit of of all literatures and of all civilizations the giving, not as a matter of affection but as a poets are the great interpreters. In our West- matter of social convention, stands in sore ern literature we have a Dante, a Petrarch, need of radical reformation. The task is and a Chaucer to interpret the Gothic age, difficult, but by no means impossible of aca Shakespeare and a Spenser to interpret complishment. We have changed our Nathe Renaissance, a Lessing tù interpret the tional birthday from a day of barbaric din eighteenth century, and, for the later period, and the yearly slaughter of a small army of

ren.

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