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The following narrative is a genuine human document. As the writer intimates, he came into the office of The Outiook with the hope of selling for immediate cash, to relieve his personal wants, an article which he had written on the economic conditions for casual workers in the city of New York. The article was too technical and sociological to be used, but disclosed training and intelligence on the part of the writer in spite of his exireme dilapidation. Something about his bearing and manner interested the member of the eilitorial staff who talkoil with him. There was a long and frank conversation in which some of the main incidents of his life were relatei. The result was that he was engaged to write the following story of his failure. A small sum of money was advanced to him on account; and on his next visit to the office there had been a great transformation, and there were good reasons for believing that he was now out of the slough of despond and on the road to a permanent recovery of both his selfrespect and his usefulness. No moral need be tacked to his narrative; it carries its own. -THE EDITORS.

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HE fact is—you are a failure at found the issues so involved at each effort to

forty. You bear all the outward reach the cause of my failure that I had given

appearance of a tramp. Through up trying to determine it. In order to answer what combination of circumstances have you, the editor's question I have made another who have held responsible positions on lead- diagnosis. Modern medical science detering newspapers, sunk to this level ?. Your

mines the cause of disease and makes plans case presents a human phenomenon. What to prevent it by a thorough study of its is your story ?”

history. Plain words indeed, but spoken in all sin- If heredity has aught to do with making cerity and simple earnestness by one of the for success, my career was assured from my editors of The Outlook to the writer. I birth. Behind me are generations of emicalled at his office to submit a manuscript for nently successful men. In determining this his consideration, and I realized the truth of fact I have considered the limitations that his statements. I was ragged and unkempt. conditions placed upon their activities. They My linen was filthy. The trousers I wore were of a sturdy Norman-Irish stock, and presented a miracle of greasy effects, brought among them were members of Parliament, about by two nights' employment as a dish- engineers, and soldiers. The latter profeswasher in a restaurant. My eyes were sion was always popular in my family, and bloodshot from lack of sleep. The manu-- my father adopted it. - He served the British script I presented was prepared in the read- Government as an officer for more than ing-room of the Cooper Union. I had slept thirty-five years. He did not possess wealth, in the parks and streets for two nights before but the memory of his sterling character is preparing it. Its appearance would never my most pleasant recollection. His income convince even the most optimistic editor that was ample for the needs of his family of ten it possessed any merit.

I had not eaten any

children. Of course there was no extravafood for more than twenty-four hours. The

gance. He was that marvel of his time—an only means that came to me oí feeling like a Irish officer who hated debt and dissipation human being were supplied by the free city of any character. To my eyes his only vice baths. I managed through a trying crisis to was the barrack-like discipline he enforced refresh my body daily by their use.


upon his sons and under which I chafed. my observation, I might state here that I con- The home in which I was born is a comsider the baths as the most potent factor, modious stone structure in which any number after the public schools, in educating the of children could find room without coming poor towards a higher grade of citizenship. within fighting distance. My brothers and

My experience with editors has been exten- myself could never maintain a proper dissive, and, while the statements of The Outlook tance, and fisticuffs were our prevailing paseditor gave a hard jolt to my egotism, I time. The punishment that father adminisrecognized their truth and the kindliness that tered was never effective, but at each recurring prompted their utterance. The questions he offense it increased in intensity. The effect asked were ever recurring to my own mind that this treatment had on my future during during the trying days of my adversity. I the formative period of my youth was not


my father.



-807 favorable. Another factor in my home life Academy in Woolwich, England, completed that had an ill effect was that my father my school days. I objected to adopting a never invited my confidence. He repelled it.


military career, and announced my objection The fact is that I was never supposed to act by leaving the academy without consulting on my own initiative.

He insisted on my return, and I I had an intense love for books in these vehemently objected. The day of that interboyhood days, and the song and story of my view I left my dear home forever, and, native Ireland supplied me with a wealth of although my father lived for fourteen years legendary lore that fed the imagination. My after, our only communication to the time of primary education was obtained in a private

private his death was through a third person, usually school whose head master spent most of his my dear mother. time bemoaning the injustice done to the What effect did the headstrong, willful Church in Ireland by the Act of Disestablish- spirit I displayed in this crisis, and which ment. The training in the rudiments was remains with me even to-day, have on my very thorough, and we received a special ultimate failure ? course in English poetry that familiarized us I turned to America at this period, as I with Goldsmith, Pope, Dryden, Scott, and knew the broken relations with my father Byron. Here, also, I became familiar with would not be resumed until the heat had died Washington Irving's “Life of Napoleon out on both sides. I informed my mother Bonaparte, a work I have never heard of my wishes, and my father made liberal spoken of during my eighteen years in Amer- financial arrangements for my transportation ica. In Dr. Jackson's School for Young and maintenance for a considerable time.. Gentlemen we used it as a text-book, and it The day I set foot in the new land, as I still was highly regarded by our staff of teachers love to call the United States, was the day, both as a literary production and on account when I really began the battle of life. I was of its historical merit.

nearly twenty-three years old, and nature, I entered Trinity College, Dublin, and for training, and social environment had combined four years enjoyed the educational and social in giving me a generous and effective equipprivileges of that great institution.

I had as

ment for the struggle. I possessed an my teachers during some period of this time abundance of good health and indomitable such men as Sullivan in English literature, energy. An optimistic outlook on life and cerTyndall in science, and Mahaffy in Greek. tain social qualities multiplied my opportunities. My time was not, however, given over exclu- A letter of introduction from a mutual sively to study. I maintained a fair standing friend to the then city editor of the Philadelphia in my classes and always made a creditable “ Public Ledger " obtained me a hearing and showing at the semester examinations. I later employment as a reporter. The genfound much time for pleasure, as we called it. tleman I refer to is still an active newspaper We drank a little, smoked a whole lot, gam- man and as enthusiastic a story-hunter to-day bled more than was good for us, and went as I was in my cub days. He is Robert M. as deeply into debt as tradesmen would per- McWade, Washington correspondent. Almit. The home restraint was removed, and though he handled my copy without any I wallowed in my new freedom. I obtained regard to my feelings, I learned many things my degree and stood cighteenth in a class of in newspaper-making and efficiency from sixty-eight. From the reports I have re- him. The surroundings in the “ Ledger ceived from time to time every member of office at that time were most delightful. the class has been successful with the excep- Many men of genius were connected directly tion of myself and two others.

or indirectly with its columns. In order to In the light of my experience as a failure reach the editorial rooms one was compelled at forty, I am satisfied that the loose habits to climb several flights of steps, but to me of living I contracted during this college during the short eight months I was employed period helped along toward the final result. on the paper the climb could be likened only It was in those days a case of buying to-day to a modern Jacob's ladder. I never was and paying at some convenient future time. employed in any office in which the relations This habit remained with me until about between the members of the working force fourteen months ago, when I realized the were more friendly. My view of life sweetfolly of it.

ened and broadened under the influence of Some months spent in the Royal Military my surroundings. The “ Ledger" handled

news as news.

I was

A tragedy was a tragedy and popularity of my propaganda. The ownerwas handled in proper fashion in the news business manager introduced me everywhere. columns. If any readers of our paper craved My star was at its zenith, when everything the morbid, excruciating relation of a news went awry one beautiful spring day, because story, they would be compelled to look else- I had made false statements when I took the where. The “ Ledger” was healthy and position. I claimed to have been in the would have none of that kind of writing. United States for many years and that I had

I lost my position with the “Ledger" had more than five years' practical experience. because of a maudlin sense of duty to a My undoing was the result of a desire on the woman of my acquaintance. In the course part of one of my employers to have me of my daily rounds I overheard, two city identified with the political party which the clerks discussing the woman in a manner that

paper favored.

He was chairman of the I did not like. I told them the woman was county committee, and he nominated me for a friend of mine. One of the men persisted the secretaryship of that body. My name was in his statements, and I was Irish.

duly returned to the State Committee, and I the conqueror, but there was not much glory received my commission from that body. I in the achievement. My resignation was in was not conscious of the honor conferred on order. After writing it I never returned to me until this time, and I spent a bad night try-. the office to find out what action had been ing to decide what to do. Finally I took the taken on it. I might add that I was about matter in the light of a joke and confided my as well acquainted with the woman in ques- dilemma to the city editor of the opposition tion and had as good cause to protect her paper, who had formerly worked in Chicago. fair name as that of any of the thousands of He saw a “story,” pumped me dry under the women I have interviewed since that time. guise of friendship, and then proceeded to Furthermore, I became satisfied that the “roast” me unmercifully. He explained that statements made by my adversary were only I, an immigrant, only two years in the country, too true.

was seeking political preferment, and, it apI was out of employment, but I had some peared, had already been elected to an office money in bank, and I decided to try the by the party. He warned me against illegal

. Middle West for a position. I advertised, registration and voting, and cited the State and received several answers. One offered statutes prescribing the punishments. He me a managing editorship in a city of nearly literally drove me out of town.

In my year 70,000 population in the State of Michigan. in the city I had become well acquainted, and I jumped at it, and, while the salary was not everybody gave me the laugh when I apover-generous, the power and prestige that peared on the streets. The raillery was kept I dreamed of in my boyhood was in my up, and I waited patiently for a good opporgrasp and I held on to it. As an executive tunity to leave the city without showing the I was a misfit from every view-point. This white feather. The time came when I was fact I realized before I was a week on the offered a better position on another newsjob, but, strange as it may seem, I became a paper. Making sure that the most proficient local celebrity within a month.

newsmongers in the town read the offer, coming the editorial column was made up of I went to Chicago to make train connections, reprint, mostly dealing with National and as it were, to my new job. I never saw the State politics. Through observation, and for town whence the offer came, and I hardly the purpose of giving my personal ideas to think I ever will. I arrived in Washington, the public, I decided on a local editorial policy. District of Columbia, a few days later, and I “ boosted” the city's great possibilities and another chapter in my history of failure was knocked the feet from under the Board of written in that beautiful city. Aldermen, which body was engaged in the For five years I worked in the Nation's ever ancient and always new game of graft- capital, with varying degrees of success. I ing with paving contracts. The big adver- worked in various capacities as a newspaper tisers who were visited daily by one of the

Part of the time I was connected owners of the newspaper noticed the inno- with the office of one of New York's great vation. They lauded it, and the owners were dailies, and through this work got in contact satisfied that they had procured a paragon at with the United States Senate and the plans the salary of a “piker."

of Federal legislation. My incompetence was lost sight of in the During this period of years I became more

Before my





rounder ” than the duties that devolved on me demanded.

I did not dissipate to any great degree, but I kept late hours, slept as few hours a day as tired nature absolutely demanded, and worked prodigiously. I spent money very freely, and never counted the cost of any pleasure while I possessed the money to enjoy it. In this manner my small bank account was soon exhausted, but I had obtained a wide knowledge of men and things through my association with the corps of Washington correspondents, men appointed to the position because of many years of able and faithful service in the home office of their newspapers.

Every young newspaper man who enters the National capital field and wishes to make a permanent connection learns in a short time that if he has ability and character and can obtain a foothold on the Washington “Star” his future is assured. During the five-year period mentioned this was my ambition, and I finally realized it. I also decided that I was becoming a little too fond of hearing the ice tinkling in the high-ball glass, and I decreed a war on the appetite.

I was young, stubborn, and ambitious for the respect and confidence of my employers and my associates. So thoroughly did I rout the appetite that I did not taste malt or spirituous liquors of any kind for more than eight years.

I worked hard and spent my vacations in travel. During my


of service on the “ Star" my assignments varied from that of the ordinary emergency man to the “covering” of the House of Representatives and the White House. When the management of the paper decided to issue a Sunday edition, I was transferred to that department as assistant editor. My superior was sick a great deal, and this threw much responsibility on my shoulders. The prestige of the paper helped the Sunday edition, and its success was assured from the initial issue.

In this new position I edited copy, wrote an occasional story, assisted with the book reviews, made up," and sometimes was authorized to purchase “ feature” stories. My work was satisfactory, and I enjoyed a good salary. I saved some money every week. Some young men whom I knew were projecting a syndicate Sunday magazine section about the time that I had been associated with the “ Star" for eight years.

They put all their own money into the venture, and I willingly joined them to the extent of my last dollar. A high-salaried egotist in New York took charge of our supplement. In three months it ceased publication and my savings were gone.

Here was a crisis that would try the metal of any man. It found me wanting in every essential. I lost courage and returned to the use of stimulants. When my day's work was over, I adjourned to a café and spent the evenings in drinking and card-playing. Thanks to a splendid constitution, I threw off the effects of the indulgences of the night before the next day's work began. This condition of affairs continued for almost two years.

Then I decided that I was going to indulge my appetite any time during working hours when the nervous tension became too great. This was the beginning of the end. Friends advised me to "cut it out." I heeded no advice. I was always looking for trouble. My nerves were shattered and I began to realize that I was losing my grip.

One day my chief left a note on my desk calling my attention to my repeated and continued absences from my desk during office hours. The tone of the note was kindly, but I became almost insane when I received it. I grabbed a piece of paper and wrote my resignation—to take effect immediately. I sent it to him at his club, where he was playing golf. I have never seen him since that day. That was my last position of a perma

a nent character. My health was ruined and my system was undermined by my excesses. A few months' employment here and there have supplied my needs and the stimulants which I craved. I finally drifted to New York, and sank deeper and deeper in ,degradation. I became so shabby that I could not obtain work as a reporter, and I decided to try something else. I sold (or tried to sell) vacuum cleaners from door to door, and could not make my room rent out of

Then I tried addressing envelopes, and could not make sufficient money to pay room rent and buy food. I always was compelled by my desire to have enough money on hand for my alcoholic food. I came to look upon this as necessary.

Such is the history of a failure. Many elements combined to produce it. The love of alcohol finished the work.


my work.

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GREAT SCULPTOR Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the first of American and one of the foremost of modern sculptors, died at his home in Windsor, Vermont, six years ago last August. His

Reminiscences,” in two volumes, edited by his son, supplements the other biography of himself which he has left in his two studios at Windsor, preserved by Mrs. Saint-Gaudens as a memorial of her husband. Although overshadowed by serious illness for a long time before his death, the sculptor was busily at work until the very end. The Whistler Memorial to be put in position at West Point had been completed and was being reproduced in marble ; the Phillips Brooks Memorial for Boston, the Magee Monument for Pittsburgh, the Hanna Monument for Cleveland, the statue of Lincoln seated for Chicago, had passed out of the sculptor's hands, and the groups for the Boston Public Library had been so far advanced that it will be possible to complete them.

Saint-Gaudens's personality was singularly attractive; and his sensitive face, interesting in molding and in line, had been painted or photographed many times, and more than once with striking fidelity. These portraits and the great number of striking works which were the fruit of Saint-Gaudens's active genius may be taken in connection with “ The Reminiscences of Augustus SaintGaudens” (The Century Company, New York) as conveying an unusually vital impression of a lovable man of genius. Without the slightest pretension to literary skill, and with a modesty which was never for a moment violated, Saint-Gaudens had used his pen in a very characteristic way, and his criticism and characterization of his contemporaries from the art point of view were singularly lucid, dispassionate, and distinct. Although a man of imagination in the most original sense—a man, that is, of striking genius-Saint-Gaudens had the sanity of nature and the clarity of vision which often go with the highest genius. He knew when his work was well done ; and as Thackeray, another modest man, laid down his pen when he had finished the scene in which Rawdon Crawley wreaks his wrath on Lord Steyne and gave expression to his delight in what he knew was a stroke of great art, so Saint

Gaudens, looking at a finished achievement, could write:

I think I told you that my“ Victory” is getting on well. It's the grandest “Victory," anybody ever made. Hooraah! And I shall have the model done in a month or so. On the other hand, I do not know whether I have told you that the cloak has been the sticking-point on the " Sherman.” Well, I pointed and cast it with reluctance; and now, after a good rest, I went at it again to-day with a rush and with a new and simpler arrangement which I was able to make on the manikin. I worked like the devil until Antonio, my handsome Italian boy, brought in the lighted lamp because it was so dark, and tonight I feel I have that cloak now, just as I have the “ Victory.”

As a teacher the fine qualities of St. Gaudens's nature were constantly revealed. He was sympathetic and helpful ; sometimes, his students thought, too considerate and gentle in criticism.

“Then when the prepared student came to my father's hands," writes his son," he was told to work as naïvely and as primitively as possible, to leave no tool marks showing, to make his surfaces seem as if they had grown there, to develop technique and then to hide it. He assured them that they need never fear ruining their imagination or their sense of beauty by their attention to the fundamentals while in class. Æsthetic qualities, if ever in them, would remain, though they could not be acquired at any price if not inherent. They were in the school to learn to handle their tools and to copy the model accurately and absolutely, until the ability to construct became automatic. They should be right even if they had to be ugly, and to that end they should take all the measurements they wished of a model, almost pointing the model down to their statue if they desired. Occasionally an inspired youth would remark that he never measured his work, upon which my father would promptly rage, for he said: "You will have trouble enough in producing good art as it is, without scorning such mechanical means as you can take. Besides, continuous measuring will train your eye to see accurately. Nobody can give the length of a foot offhand as well as a carpenter.'

The statue of Phillips Brooks came at the end of his life, and profoundly interested and moved him. He “ caressed” the figure, trying all manner of experiments with the pose and the dress.

Then, while he ruminated upon his task, a sincere change in his attitude towards his subject came over him. Hitherto, though educated a Catholic, he had never found appeal in the historical self-chastising doctrines of Christianity. Only the joy of religion had drawn from him any response. He always remembered his aversion to his schoolmates who, according to

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