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their instructions, beat their chests and named themselves miserable sinners.”

" Crawthumpers he and his brothers used to call them. But now, as he gave the subject more and more individual thought, Christ no longer stood to him as the head of a cult that announced bewildering self-contradictions and endless punishment of sin, but became the man of men, a teacher of peace and happiness.

From that time Saint-Gaudens began to express a genuine faith in his conception of the physical image of Christ as a man, tender yet firm, suffering yet strong. It scarcely coincided with other representations in the past, though, of course, a few of them proved the exception to the rule, the “Bon Dieu ” at the Cathedral

of Amiens, Dagnan-Bouveret's “Christ,” and Rembrandt's Christ in the “Supper at Emmaus.” Rather the greater share of influence from pictorial work came, as I have said, from Tissot's “Life of Christ,” so well illustrated by the author.

Few American biographies have the interest and importance of this autobiography of a great sculptor who has given American art a new standing in the world. Mr. Homer Saint-Gaudens has edited his father's memoirs with admirable taste and skill, supplementing them by letters and the recollections of friends.

Life of Lyman Trumbull. By Horace White.

Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. $3. Who was Lyman Trumbull ? will now be asked by many, for it is twenty-seven years since he died, full of years and honors. That he was one of the very great men of the Nation, worthy of unfading remembrance for his illustrious services during the most critical period of its history, no thoughtful reader of this record can fail to acknowledge. Strange though it may seem that it has not sooner appeared, it is quite as well that, like Secretary Welles's recently published “ Diary,” to which it is a helpful companion, it has waited for this passing of the passions and prejudices of the storm-epoch through which Trumbull's public career continued from 1854 to 1873. Like Welles's“ Diary,” it reveals the undercurrents and cross-currents of ambition, prejudice, and policy that thwarted statesmanship and cost the country dear. The materials of this volume are drawn mainly from Dr. White's intimate personal knowledge, the public record of Trumbull's speeches in Congress during his three terms as Senator from Illinois, and several thousand letters to him, now in the Library of Congress. For many years the editor-in-chief of the Chicago “ Tribune,” Dr. White was in close relations with Trumbull, cordially agreeing with his views and course, and now their fittest representative. A loyal supporter of Mr. Lincoln, notwithstanding differences of judgment, Trumbull's estimate of the great President in a letter to his son Walter, here published for the first time, is of outstanding importance among the papers preserved in this volume for its impartial retouching of the popular ideal in the interest of historical truth. Much evidence of this comes out in Trumbull's narrative of vari

The greatest public service he ever rendered he performed as one of the then called “ seven traitors” who, at the cost of vilification and banishment from public life, barely defeated the attempt of their party to oust President Johnson from office-an attempt now universally condemned as a revolutionary assault on the Constitution. Trumbull's course

in that crisis was said by a noted political seer to have cost him a place in the roll of Presidents. This centenary year since the birth of the aụthor of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which put the seal of finality on the Emancipation Proclamation, is appropriately commemorated by this story of his life, a valuable source book of National history, in whose making he bore an influential part. Writings of John Quincy Adams. Edited by

Worthington Chauncey Ford. Vol. II, 1796-18). The

Macmillan Company, New York, $3.50. Special interest attaches to this volume for its light upon our international problems and their handling at a critical time in our history. The election of Adams as successor to Washington had been hotly resented by France as a continuation of Washington's refusal to make common cause with her quarrel against Great Britain as pledged for her aid in our war for independence. John Quincy Adams, as our Minister at The Hague and afterward at Berlin, had his hand in all matters relating to this controversy and its results in the short naval war which in 1799 ended French depredations on our commerce. His correspondence with President Adams, Pickering, the Secretary of State, and others, fills this volume. It vindicates Washington's judgment that he was the ablest man in our diplomatic service. His comments on European politics, his incisive remarks on “the pestilential principles of the terrible Republic" of France, and on the aid and comfort given it by the machinations of French partisans in the United States, are a valuable contribution to the history of that perilous time. Many letters of Adams to his mother treat these and other topics more freely than his official correspond


ous events,

Roads from Rome. By Anne C. E. Allinson.

The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.25. Mrs. Allinson tells us in her preface to this delightful volume that its main purpose is to show that the men and women of ancient Rome were like ourselves; and she compasses her end in half a dozen chapters which deal with Catullus, Lucretius, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and

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other Romans whose conditions, lightly sketched, bring into view the social and political circumstances in which they lived and wrote. The portraits are drawn with easy stroke, and the pseudo-classical manner is conspicuously absent from this volume, which has the leisurely quality of the essay and the point and verisimilitude of the biographical study. Something of the atmosphere of “Marius” envelops these Romans, because Mrs. Allinson, like Pater, lets the Roman temper and spirit escape from material forms and facts. The biographical facts are drawn from the writings of the men who appear, and are cast into imaginative forms; the chapters are, so to speak, steeped in literature. There are many valuable books written in these days, but books of meditative quality, of literary feeling, of the quiet mood in which sensitive things ripen, are not common, and to this class of books Mrs. Allinson has made a happy contribution. “On this soft autumn afternoon among the Italian hills,” she writes, “ Horace could still remember his startled amazement when he first saw the radiance of Greek coloring. He had not realized that the physical aspect of mountains and sky would be so different from the landscape about Rome, and he never lost his delight in the fresh transparency of the Athenian air. One of his earliest experiments in translation had been with Euripides's choral description of the blest children of Erechtheus going on their way, daintily enfolded in the bright, bright air.'” Mrs. Allinson understands the difference between writing about things and giving things the stage and letting them show themselves in natural relations and under normal conditions. Romance of the American Theatre (The). By Mary Caroline Crawford. Little, Brown & Co., Bos

$2.50. This pleasantly written book gives much interesting information concerning our first playhouses, old-time stars, and the relation these bore to the English drama in the days of Nance Oldfield, David Garrick, Peg Woffington, and others. It will interest all lovers of the theater, and will enlighten those who are inclined to look upon the theater as an evil place rather than, as it ought to be, a place for healthful recreation and an educational institution for the dramatic presentation of the problems of every race and country. The chapter entitled “The Rise of the Theater as an American Institution” is particularly interesting to students of American drama ; for, as the author says:

chapter, “ The Theaters of New York and the Drama To-Day,"contains information nowhere else accessible in book form. This volume pleasantly supplements books like William Winter's “Wallet of Time" and Dr. Burton's “The New American Drama," as a part of a literary tripod to uphold the history and traditions of the American stage. Constructive Natural Theology. By Newman

Smyth. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1. Dean Stanley half a century ago remarked, “Whatever is good science is also good theol. ogy." These four lectures, recently given at Yale, stimulate religious teachers to go to school to nature as interpreted by science for fresh inspiration and larger, serener faith. The interpretation of nature, says Dr. Smyth, “is a question of formative creation at the beginning and of human values at the present end of evolution.” What, he asks, is the personal value as it is realized in the ideal personality of Christ ?who is, he adds, “ the final fact of nature “the spiritual dynamic of the world.” The most important of the physical sciences for the theologian is biology, and Dr. Smyth holds that “examination in general biology should be required of candidates for the degree of Bachelors in Divinity,” as it is at New ollege, Edinburgh. Our theological seminaries, generally speaking, have been seriously deficient in the field of constructive natural theology. Children of the Wild (The). By Charles G. D.

Roberts. The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.35. A lucky nephew is taken off camping by his Uncle Andy. Their wilderness adventures bring up in various ways stories (told over the campfire and elsewhere) about young animals, “ the children of the wild.” Mr. Roberts knows animals, and he also evidently knows boys. His stories are well written, sound in their natural history and stirring in their incidents. Tales from Washington Irving's Traveller.

Illustrated by George Hood. The J. B. Lippincott

Company, Philadelphia. $2.50. Washington Irving's “ Tales of a Traveller" appears this year in a very attractive illustrated edition, the illustrations being by George Hood. The book will doubtless be a holiday favorite. Trade of the World. By James Davenport

Whelpley. The Century Company, New York. $2. Mr. Whelpley's volume is valuable because it is a reflex of first-hand investigation. If he tells us about Austria or Germany or Belgium or Italy or Japan or China, it is because he has visited practically every country about which he writes. Particularly at the present time, when the new tariff has called forth a new interest in international trade, this volume is timely. It would have been easy to make such a volume too encyclopædic and too statistical. But Mr. Whelpley has known how to set forth his facts in a way to appeal to the ordinary reader.

Lovers of liberty no less than lovers of the theater should give devout thanks that the British officers who served in America during the Revolution were exceedingly fond of " stage performances." ... On the one hand, this absorption increased the non-preparedness which made it possible for the Yankees to win ; and . by giving good plays these officers notably advanced the progress of the stage as an American institution. The book is illustrated with portraits and many reproductions of rare old prints; and the final


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“ Stevenson's · A Child's Garden of Verse'is European yield. Man per man, however, the our best Christmas seller,” said a leading New American farmer produces more than twice as York bookseller the other day. “Special edi- much as his European contemporary, but he tions of standard works, illustrated by popular requires practically five times the area upon artists, come next; then the old favorites, the which to do it. "If the American farmer will Dickens and Washington Irving stories." cultivate one-half the area and do it well, it will

David Warfield does not believe in the stereo- increase his total production and net him doltyped repetition of a rôle—at least not in “The

lars where he now makes quarters." Auctioneer.” “ As to set methods,” he says, In a talk to store employees Mr. J. W. Hin“ I don't know what I do. When on the stage I rath, an efficiency engineer, says in the December am apt to change my plans entirely around. I bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Assodo the things that come to me naturally.” It ciation: Remember that everything you do in seems that it's burlesque that gives an actor the the store, and outside of it for that matter, has privilege of taking these liberties—“Burlesque some influence on making a customer decide taught me to never mind cues, to put on my either to come again or go elsewhere to trade.” own feelings at the moment."

This is a golden motto which might well be inMr. F. Hopkinson Smith, in an interview about scribed on the pay envelope of every departhis new book, “ In Dickens's London,” was

ment store employee in our great cities. It asked which he preferred-Dickens or Thack

might result in fewer resolutions on the part of eray. “He grinned a little as he answered, “I

customers never to go in that place again.” like Thackeray best. When I get blue,' he The Century Opera House in New York City said, 'I just get out my Thackeray—this book is to be remodeled after the close of the present oftenest-each page, each paragraph, is a gem.” ” season so as largely to increase the number of His cure for the blues was “Vanity Fair." the cheaper seats. Under the new arrangement The Imperator will hereafter sail direct for

the house will seat 3,500 instead of, as now, Cherbourg, France, instead of making a call at

Plymouth, England. Leisurely travelers will

Under the heading “Madonna Yet to Be regret the change, for a glimpse of Plymouth on Painted,” a Roman Catholic contemporary a bright spring day makes one wonder why the says: “There is a picture yet unpainted. It is Pilgrim Fathers ever left that charming place the picture of the Madonna in her declining for the “bleak New England shore.”

years.” It may also be said that a Madonna The citizens of Imperial Rome, in the year

yet unpainted is the Jewish Madonna. Painters A.D. 300, says the “ Scientific American,” were of every nationality have painted the Madonna favored with a supply daily of over 400 gallons

as an idealized type of their own race, but what of water per capita, as against a daily supply of great painting portrays her as of the race to about 100 gallons per capita for the citizens of

which she really belonged ? New York at the present writing. No doubt Six hundred and forty-four Yale students, much of this overplus of water in Rome was about a seventh of the total enrollment-are wasted ; the rest went to supply the splendid pub- said to be earning at least a part of their way lic and private fountains and the magnificent through the University. Their total earnings public baths, for, as the “Scientific American are reported as amounting to $72,000 a year. remarks, the Romans of those days had a “pas- Though this does not make a high average, sion for cleanliness."

these facts may well be set off against the stories The three great contributions made during of extravagant living on the part of wealthy the nineteenth century to the power of the

students, some of whom spend thousands of world—the dynamo, the gas engine, and the

dollars a year while supposedly getting their steam turbine-were all made by Europe, says

education. William Hard in " Everybody's Magazine," A Kentucky humorist declares that for simwriting of “ Better Business.” Our estimate of plicity of living his people deserve the blue ribhow much we can learn from the foreigner, bon. Discussing the matter of breakfasts, he says Mr. Hard, is too frequently indicated by says: “ The standard Kentucky breakfast has the aphorism quoted in the foreign export trade, been from immemorial times fixed by Lexing. “If the foreigner does not understand English, ton. It is simple, manly, stimulating, and above speak louder.” We need more receptiveness all free from ostentation: Rise at 5:30 A.M. ; to the fresh ideas of other nations, is the edi- three cocktails; a chew of tobacco; coffee." torial comment of “ Everybody's.”

Needless to say, this humorist must belong to The yield per acre of cereals in the United the almost extinct race of“ Colonels” and probStates, according to Mr. Howard H. ss,

ably resides at a “tavern.” President of the National Soil Fertility League, Wall Street recently had a record “dullest is approximately only forty per cent of the day” in stocks; on November 24 only 57,274

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shares were dealt in. Previous low records fellows, do you? We always used to throw back were February 14, 18SS, when the transactions any under two feet. Oh, I tell you fishing isn't amounted to 47,203 shares, and “ blizzard day” what it was when we were boys !" in the same year, when only about 1,500 shares Few people, says the " Progressive Farmer," were sold.

are careful enough in writing their names and This is apparently an off year among the

addresses. Printed stationery, it says, should budding dramatic geniuses. For the first time be used by the up-to-date farmer. This would since it was offered, it is reported, the John not only be of advantage to the farmer's Craig dramatic prize at Harvard will not be

business standing, but would prevent trouble, awarded, for the reason that none of the plays

confusion, and loss. The“ Progressive Farmer" submitted is deemed of sufficient merit to de- advises every farmer to name his farm and have serve such distinction.

this and his own name printed on letters and

envelopes. A sensible idea. New York City now takes first place among the cities of the country as to the amount of

Raisuli, the Moroccan chieftain who was at postal savings deposits. On October 31 of this

one time famous by reason of his kidnapping year there were 33,839 depositors, with a total of exploits, was recently visited by Mr. George E. $3,092,099 on deposit, in the New York postal

Holt, who describes his experience in “Travel.” district. More than 61 per cent of the deposit

Raisuli was found in his stronghold, the walled ors were of foreign birth, and they held over 80

town of Arzila, and readily granted an interper cent of the deposits.

view to the traveler. He was invited to come

to America. "Allah forbid !" was the quick It is always difficult for theatrical managers reply. “I fear my welcome would be too corto fill rôles that call for exceedingly small per

dial.” Raisuli realized the fact that the Perdisons; and in trying to find a heroine for a

caris kidnapping was not forgotten. recent production in London of “ Hänsel und

The “American farm-house" Gretel” the search extended to Wales, where a

type of archi. young lady, Miss Sybil Vane, was found, who is

tecture, with improvements suggested by clever

architects, seems to be growing in favor with only four feet nine inches in height, but whose

suburban residents. “ House and Garden" for voice is of three octaves compass. She is said to be the smallest prima donna ever seen in

December prints some exceedingly attractive

pictures and plans of such houses. The gamLondon.

brel roofs, spacious porches, and general aspect Items of current interest as found in news- of solid comfort of these houses make them paper headlines are: “Not Even in Charity most alluring May Catholics Dance the Tango” (according to

I am an exceedingly clever man,” said Mr. Cardinal Farley's ruling), “Mrs. Pankhurst

Bernard Shaw in a speech reported in the Sails with $20,000 Raised for Militants' Cam

Metropolitan " magazine. 'You laugh ; but paign,” Bramwell Booth and Ballington Booth United After Seventeen Years' Estrangement,”

I presume you are not laughing at the fact, but

only because I do not bore you with the usual “Dudley Field Malone Sworn in as Collector of

modest cough. Now pick out somebody not the Port of New York,” Gianakopulos the

quite so clever. How much am I to have, and Greek Wins the Yonkers Marathon."

how much is he to have ?" Mr. Shaw argued Unmarried persons are to be subject to an that equality of income is socially desirable, and extra levy of twenty per cent in the new French that public education, sanitation, municipal income tax, a despatch announces. Another dwellings, old age pensions, inheritance taxes, newspaper despatch, however, affords some

etc., are all plans for redistributing the national consolation to bachelors; it is that Sir Thomas income on a basis of equality, and that this Lipton, in building his new yacht, Shamrock IV, tendency is to continue until incomes are prachas employed only unmarried men, for the tically equal throughout the community. reason that “married men might betray the

The last four per cent grade of any considerasecrets of her construction to their wives.” Sir

ble length on any transcontinental main line, Thomas, it may be added, is a bachelor himself, according to the “ Railway Age Gazette," that and is perhaps prejudiced in favor of similar on the Denver and Rio Grande Railway over unfortunates.

the Wasatch Mountains, has just been replaced Fishing through the ice in a Vermont lake is by a two per cent grade. A saving in operating described by a writer in the “ National Sports- expense of several hundred dollars a day will man” as the finest of winter sports. Even the

be effected by the change. criticism of some humorous natives failed to “What is the meaning of the word adage ?” quell the enthusiasm of the fishermen. The the schoolmaster asked. “ A place to put cats comment on this line, concerning the into," was the boy's answer. “What put such pickerel that had been caught: “Why, good an idea into your head ?:' Well, sir, doesn't it gracious, boys, you are robbing the cradle! say in Shakespeare, ‘Like the poor cat in the You don't mean to keep those little fifteen-inch

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The Outlook


DECEMBER 20, 1913






Copyright, 1913, by the Outlook Company The Future of the New Haven Road.. 815 Christmas Thoughts Myths and “Observing” Elections in Santo'Domingo 815 Legends.....

827 The Conflict in Mexico..

Senator Root and the Peace Prize..... 829 A Brave Old Woman


The President and the Nation's Property 830 The Campaign Against Finland.

Letters to Unknown Friends

831 The Right of Public Assembly.


By Lyman Abbott The Doumergue Cabinet...


Hetch Hetchy: A Poll of the Press... 833 The Case of Pajarillo.


Current Events Pictorially Treated
Filipino Justice.

Facing Page

836 The Nobel Prizes..

Rio de Janeiro....

837 A Republican Conference.,


By Theodore Roosevelt A Veteran Sculptor....


The Christmas Carol of the Bees (Poem) 841 An Act of International Courtesy. 821

By Nora A. Smith Gaillard : Soldier of Peace...


From Saint Nicholas to Santa Claus... 842 Brigadier-General Scott: Pacificator.... 823

By Charles Johnston The Unlimiting Limits of Chamber Music 823

Great Meadow and Sing Sing..

846 One Way of Solving the Minimum Wage

By Frank Marshall White

The Spectator.

854 A National Discussion of Housing. 825 The Centennial of America's Christian

The New Books.

857 Connection with India .. 826 By the Way....


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