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MERRY

CHRISGDAS
IG matters not whether you rejoice

with St. Nicholas or Kris Kringle, with
well-known and dearly beloved old Santa
Claus, or have passed out of youth's land

fancy- Christmas comes but once a year; and on that day of days the heart goes out in affection for kith and kin. AG this time there is no more appro e priate expression for this feeling than a gift of Gorham Silverware. Beautiful articles of wide variety in Gorham Silver ware are now displayed for your selection including pieces suited to the purse of all. G ORHAD, Silverware is always

identified by this trade-mark, and is sold by leading @the jewelers everywhere.

STERLINO

COPYRIGHT 1913

THE GORHAM CO.

SILVERSMITHS
NEW YORK

GORHAM SILVER POLISH - THE BEST FOR CLEANING SILVER

UNION HIGI SCHOOL

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AN DO, CALIF,

The

LYMAN ABBOTT

Editor-in-Chief HAMILTON W. MABIE

Associate Editor

DECEMBER 20, 1913

THEODORE ROOSEVELT

Contributing Editor R. D. TOWNSEND

Managing Editor

Mr. Elliott's recent statement that there are railway men who are as high-minded and patriotic and as great believers in the United States and its future as any class of men in this country is beyond question. If such men are to be in control of the management of our American railways, they must be given a fair chance to prove their patriotism and high-mindedness.

to

For the first time in forty years the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, which

has served as the deTHE FUTURE OF THE

pository of the savNEW HAVEN ROAD

ings of thousands of people through New England, has failed to declare a dividend. This is the natural and inevitable consequence of the recent history of that road. It is something that could easily be foreseen ; nevertheless, even foreseen calamities bring hardship. This has been a real calamity to many people. And it does not relieve their present distress to know that the causes of that calamity are declared to be in the process of removal. On the other hand, it will not relieve that distress for anyone

cry out against what is past, or to hamper those who are honestly and bravely trying to improve conditions.

It was for the purpose of rehabilitating the road that Mr. Howard Elliott was called, first to its presidency and then to the chairmanship of che Board of Directors. We have had occasion recently to refer to the new spirit of the New Haven road as exemplified in its dealings with its employees. We believe that even those who have suffered the most from former bad management will freely acknowledge that it is only fair to assume, until proof to the contrary appears, that the new spirit will be exhibited in the relation of the management of the road to its stockholders and to the public. The time for destructive criticism seems to us to be past. Whatever criticism is now offered should be offered in the spirit of reconstruction; and such criticism will be, we believe, welcome. What is needed even more than that is co-operation on the part of the public. It must not be forgotten that such a road as the New Haven is, in fact if not in terms, a National possession, and as it goes down or up public interests go down or up with it.

The undertaking of the present Administration at Washington to send certain men

from the United OBSERVING" ELECTIONS

States to “ob. IN SANTO DOMINGO

serve” elections on Monday of this week in Santo Domingo has not only evoked a protest from the Dominican Government, but has also occasioned concern in the minds of those Americans who know what benefits have resulted from the part that the United States has taken in rehabilitating that country and are anxious that those benefits should be conserved.

It was first reported that the President intended to send a commission to supervise the Dominican elections. This report was not altogether ill founded, for the United States Minister to Santo Domingo made a statement to that effect. This report has been denied, or rather modified, by the Secretary of State, Mr. Bryan. In a statement issued last week Mr. Bryan says that these Americans who have been sent to visit the principal polling-places in Santo Domingo do not constitute a commission for which the United States Government asks any official sanction, but go simply as individuals ” to lend moral support to the President of the Dominican Republic in his efforts toward securing free elections, “in order that, if any questions should arise as to the good faith of any one concerned, undeniably im

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partial witnesses may be available to bear by is shipped. Tuxpam, further south on testimony to exactly what happened."

the coast, in a less degree, has the same To understand the importance of this action kind of importance, and its fall is likely to it is necessary to recall that in 1907 the follow that of Tampico. The insurgents United States entered into an arrangement greatly need a seaport. Their advance so far by which the customs duties of Santo Domingo southward is a serious danger to Huerta's were to be collected by representatives of hold on Vera Cruz and even on the capital. the United States. Under this arrangement, The attack upon Tampico was pushed vigor. out of the receipts from customs the obliga- ously last week, and on Friday reports were tions of the Dominican Government, which current that the Federal garrison had surrenthreatened to bring about serious international dered. Half a dozen or more war-ships of complications, have been fully met, the foreign Powers clustered about the harbor, remainder that has gone into the Dominican ready to assist refugees from the city. Mertreasury has exceeded the former total chant ships were chartered by the naval revenue, and the cause of frequent revo- commanders on which to place refugees. lution has been in process of removal.

Admiral Fletcher, on the Rhode Island, comUnfortunately, political considerations in manded three American vessels, and his the United States have interfered with the arrangements were effective and extensive. efficient administration of this arrangement The combatants seem to have realized that a by the removal from the island of those who large landing force could be employed if were acquainted with the facts and condi- necessary, and foreign property and persons tions, and by the countenancing of debts of were respected so far as war conditions a revolutionary government based on assassi- allowed. It is said that Admiral Fletcher nation. The present United States Minister warned the Mexican Federal gunboats in the went to Santo Domingo without any previous harbor against firing in such a way as to knowledge of conditions or of his duties, and endanger non-combatants. now the Administration has put into operation Ojinaga, a Mexican border town, is the a plan which is arousing resentment among place where the hundreds of refugees from the Dominicans. The intention behind this Chihuahua arrived last week. With them act is undoubtedly of the highest character. came a Federal army of three or four thouIt springs from the desire of the Administra- sand men under command of General Mertion at Washington to further the cause of cado. These troops arrived, say the desconstitutional government in Latin America ; patches, without food, with little ammunition, but the method by which this intention is and worn by a hundred miles' march. The designed to be carried out does not seem to condition of the civilian refugees, many of be adapted to a Latin-American country with whom walked the entire distance, may be national habits and laws as widely differing imagined. Most of them were allowed to from those of the United States as are those pass the Texan line into Presidio. The Fedof Santo Domingo.

eral troops at once set to work to fortify What the United States is called upon to Ojinaga in imminent fear of an attack by the do with reference to Santo Domingo is not to army of General Villa, the largest part of attempt interference in its elections, but to which he sent in hot pursuit of the Federals carry out with efficiency and tactfulness the before he occupied Chihuahua. arrangement that has proved its own value. From Mexico City the news of last week Only thus can the United States save from included that of the long-delayed declaration wreck its most promising Latin-American by Congress that its own election was valid, venture.

that the Presidential election was null be

cause returns were not received from the There were, last week, three chief centers of number of districts required by law, and that news interest in Mexico : Tampico, Ojinaga, a new election should be held next July—in and Mexico City. short, the Huerta programme.

A detailed THE CONFLICT

Tampico, attacked by but extremely improbable report was that

the insurgents under Gen- Huerta was about to join forces with Zapata, eral Aguilar, who lately seized Victoria, is the semi-brigand, semi-rebel chief, and estabof importance because it is a Gulf sea- lish a new Mexican capital at Iguala, far to port and the place from which most of the south and beyond a mountain range. the oil from the extensive oil district near The rumor followed news that Zapata had

IN MEXICO

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а

A BRAVE OLD WOMAN

been attacking Federal forces within fifteen age, nor sickness, nor imprisonment, nor miles of the capital.

exile can break her courageous spirit”. Nowhere have the Federal arms been vic- prediction which has been fully confirmed by torious of late. As one reads of the insur- her life-history since. gents' forward movements and bold campaigns, their ultimate success seems—or would seem in any place but Mexico—all but certain. Although the Czar has been recently

prosecuting with all possible vigor his cam

paign against the Jews,

THE CAMPAIGN Catherine Breshkovsky, sent to Siberia three

he is not neglecting the

AGAINST FINLAND years ago as a revolutionist, recently made a

campaign which he becourageous attempt to escape, gan fourteen years ago against the Finns. and one which was all but suc- In his coronation oath he swore that he

cessful. The accounts cabled would “ maintain the Constitution which was from Russia state that she changed clothing granted to the Grand Duchy of Finland by with a man political prison who for three his Majesty the Emperor Alexander Pavlodays deceived the police by impersonating her. vich, of glorious memory,” but he violated She had a false passport and some money, that oath, as he afterward violated the solemn and was on her way to Irkutsk in a peasant's promise that he made to the Russian people cart when arrested. Fellow-conspirators had in the Freedom Manifesto. Ever since 1899 cut the telegraph wires, but communication he has been trying to destroy the Finnish was restored too soon to allow the plan to suc- Constitution, which he swore to maintain, ceed. Probably the intention was to reach the and to punish Finnish officials who do not railway and proceed to Mukden and Korea. share his view as to the nature of an oath. The despatches add: “The valiant old woman The judges of the Finnish courts are sworn had stood five days and nights of exposure in to obey the Finnish Constitution, and when the bleakest frozen waste of the world without the Czar calls upon them to enforce a law heaviness of heart or damage to her health.” which has never been sanctioned by the FinShe will probably now be sent into some even nish Diet, and which is therefore absolutely more remote place of exile.

unconstitutional, they firmly decline to break Madame Breshkovsky, who is often their oaths merely because the Czar has called “ Babuska,” or Grandmother," by

broken his. They are then arrested, taken her friends and allies in Russia and America, to St. Petersburg, and tried in a Russian believed in revolution in Russia because court for refusing to give force to an unconthere was no other way of obtaining free stitutional law. speech or free political action.

She was

Last September sixteen Finnish judges contried in 1910 (not her first trial, conviction, or demned by the St. Petersburg Circuit Court for exile) at about the same time with Mr. Tchai- refusal to recognize the validity of the sokovsky. Our readers will remember the called “ Equality Law" of 1912 were arrested earnest anc successful effort by public men at their homes in Finland and taken under in this country to have these trials open rather guard to a Russian prison, where they are to than secret.

be confined for a period of sixteen months. Mr. Tchaikovsky was fully acquitted, but On the following day the same Court senthe indomitable woman fighter for liberty tenced Judges Sandbeck and Lukander, of was convicted and sent to the Kara mines the Viborg Court of Appeals, to four months? for a year at hard labor, and thence to the imprisonment for the same offense. TwentyEast Siberian town of Kirensk, on the Lena one Finnish judges and officials are now River, whence the attempt to escape was undergoing punishment for refusal to violate made.

their oaths, and the Czar not very long Mr. George Kennan saw Madame Bresh- ago began criminal proceedings against the kovsky in her exile in the Transbaikal in members of the City Council of Helsing1885, and, writing after her conviction in fors. 1910, he said : " Her future is darker now Just at present it is Finnish judges and because she is twenty-five years older, and officials who are suffering ; but the Russian her health has been broken by hardships, campaign of aggression will soon affect the anxieties, and long imprisonment. All who masses of the people. To adopt the vivid know her, however, feel confident that neither metaphor of the Russian Liberal press, the

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THE RIGHT OF

PUBLIC ASSEMBLY

CABINET

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Finns, “ having been flogged with whips, are be possible to imprison a few hundred recalto be scourged with scorpions."

citrant judges and officials, but will it be possible to overcome the passive resistance of a

whole nation ? Shortly before the prorogation of the Russian Duma for the summer recess the Czar caused- Last week Senator Gaston Doumergue suc

to be introduced a bill ceeded in forming a Ministry to succeed the to extend to Finland the

Barthou Cabinet, over

THE DOUMERGUE
Russian laws concerning

thrown the preceding political crime. If this bill is enacted, its effect

week by the French will be to abrogate the rightof public assembly, Chamber of Deputies. The crisis which led which the Finns have enjoyed for centuries ; to that overthrow was peculiarly interesting to subject the Finnish press to the restraint and complicated ; 'it involved not only politiof “compulsory orders,” which are to be cal and military conditions, it was also vital enforced, as in Russia, by fine and imprison- from financial and economic points of view. ment; and to brand as a “ criminal organi- The particular incident which ended the zation ” the Social-Democratic party, which Barthou Ministry was the question of taxing is the strongest force in the Finnish Diet. If Government bonds. The retiring Premier the bill becomes a law, the famous omnibus favored no taxation ; the incoming Premier section, No. 129, of the Russian penal code is said to favor such taxation. He is also will restrain or prevent almost everything believed to have approved the essential points that the Finns have been accustomed to do, in the income tax bill as passed by the except to breathe.

Chamber. With regard to army measures, The fate of the bill will depend largely he would, so the papers say, apply the new upon the Octobrists, who hold the balance of three-year military service law, but only as a power in the Russian Duma. If they vote ter porary necessity, hoping to reduce the with the Nationalists in open session, as they service as soon as the international situation did in the committee to which the bill was appears to justify such action. As to elecreferred, Finland may be reduced politically toral reform in the direction of proportional to the level of a Russian province, where the representation, the Premier is believed to be governor makes laws (“compulsory orders ”) a “ middle-of-the-roader,” expecting to comat his own discretion and enforces them by promise the differences between the Chamber his own power.

It is not certain, however, and the Senate in this matter. As to that the Octobrists will hold together on the education, he is known to be

a deterquestion of completely subjugating Finland. mined supporter of non-sectarian public When the bill was favorably reported from schools. committee by a vote of 20 to 4, Baron Mey- M. Doumergue is something over 6fty endorf, the ablest and most respected of the

He is a lawyer. He has been Octobrist leaders, gave notice of his intention Minister of the Colonies and Minister of to abandon his party, for the reason that he Commerce in previous Cabinets. In the was not in sympathy with the Nationalistic Senate he has been a leader of the Radicaltendencies, and did not favor the extension Socialist faction, the strongest group just of Russian political laws to Finland. “I now in French public life. Its principles are prefer,” he said, “ to run wild or do nothing. radical rather than Socialist. What we know I am too much of an alien' myself to take as Socialism in this country is in France part in a game which has for its object the represented rather by the so-called “Unified creation of a Nationalistic majority in the Socialists.” They are really the only true Duma."

Socialists in that country. The “ritual murder and the Finland case will undoubtedly be made the subjects of fierce debate in the Duma. Meanwhile An article on Filipino Politicians and Indethe Finns will continue to offer passive pendence," by 0. Garfield Jones, appeared resistance to the Czar's Russianizing policy,

in The Outlook for Septemand the work of subjugation will become

ber 20. In this article Mr. increasingly difficult as larger and larger

Jones .cited as a proof of classes of the population begin to feel the native incapacity for self-government-the case iron grip of the monarch's hand.

of Pajarillo. Pajarillo, as readers of that

years old.

case

THE CASE OF

PAJARILLO

It may

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