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article will remember, murdered the husband of a trial, either in the United States or in the of his paramour. Through the connivance of Philippines, whose surroundings called for such a native prosecuting attorney the case was

unflinching loyalty to the single purpose or admin.

istering justice to the exclusion of every other never brought to trial until Pajarillo ran for consideration as did the surroundings under the Philippine Assembly in 1909. Then, at which this trial was conducted. The judicial the instigation of his political enemies, the

attitude maintained by Judge Abreu throughfacts were brought to the attention of an

out the entire proceedings was upon such a

high plane that an intelligent observer not only American prosecuting attorney. The trial was could not have imputed to him the slightest held before Judge Abreu, a Filipino of ability bias, but could not fail to see that as a trial and distinction. In the concluding paragraph judge he was actuated solely by the loftiest of his summary of the case Mr. Jones

sense of duty. said : “ The Filipino judge rendered a verdict

According to Mr. Adams and two ediof murder in the first degree, but made

torials in Manila papers, the explanation of the sentence life imprisonment out of con

the judge's sentence is to be found in the sideration for the high office to which the

provisions of the Philippine criminal code. murderer had just been elected !” Mr. Jones followed this statement with the following:

These provisions make distinctions with refer

ence to homicide that differ from those which It may seem strange to persons not familiar

prevail in the United States. In the Philippine with Latin-American politics that such a man

code murder is defined as “ killing a human could be elected to so high an office.”' The article has called forth no little com

being treacherously, for reward or promise of

reward, by means of inundation, arson, or ment, editorial and otherwise, from the

poison, with deliberate premeditation or with Philippines. As a whole it has evoked

extreme, deliberate cruelty.” When the killgeneral approval save for the first sentence

ing is accompanied with only one of these which we quoted above. This has seemed

“qualifying circumstances,” the death penalty to many an unjust criticism of the able

cannot be inflicted. judge who had presided at the trial. Cer

Although the prosecuting attorney in tainly in publishing this article The Outlook

summing up the evidence declared that the had no intention of reflecting either upon

one which, if the accused was the intelligence or the honesty of Judge found guilty, called' for the death senAbreu. It appeared then, and still appears,

tence, nevertheless the judge decided otherto us that Mr. Jones laid the whole emphasis

wise, for the qualifying circumstances are of his carefully thought out criticisin of Fili

matters of fact to be determined by the pino civilization upon the fact that such a

court. This being decided, the penalty of as Pajarillo could be elected to the

life imprisonment was applied automatically Assembly. Elsewhere in the article he said :

by the law itself. Mr. Jones's statement “ The Filipinos were not at all surprised at the arrest, but they were fairly paralyzed at the

that Pajarillo was convicted of murder in

the first degree, while correct according to conviction. It is probable that not even

the American definition of the crime comthe school system has done so much to increase

mitted by Pajarillo, is incorrect according to the moral courage of the common man, the

the Philippine definition. This, however, does “Tao' of Capiz Province, as did this inci

not affect the nain point which Mr. Jones dent.” Certainly Judge Abreu may be said to share with the prosecuting attorney this

made : namely, that the election of Pajarillo

indicates that the Filipinos are not now fitwhole-hearted praise. Perhaps, however,

ted to form an independent, self-governing more direct evidence of his impartiality may

nation. be desirable.





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In commenting on the Outlook article, Mr.
Isaac W. Adams, the prosecuting attorney,

is quoted by the Manila “ Times”

as saying : JUSTICE

I may further say that on the occasion of this trial not only the province of Capiz but the very court-house itself was surcharged with an atmosphere of political and personal sympathy for the accused. I have never known

Last week, on the anniversary of the death of Alfred Bernhard Nobel, the thirteenth

annual presentation of THE NOBEL PRIZES :

the Nobel Prizes took SCIENCE

place at Stockholm, the Swedish capital. Alfred Nobel, born in Stockholm, became a rich man. He left his immense fortune in trust for the establishment of five annual prizes. The interest on his property has made each prize worth another page The Outlook describes his nearly forty thousand dollars.

work. The first three prizes are for excellence in The Nobel Peace Prize for 1912 being now those departments of science which had most at last disposed of, there remains the prize interested Nobel-physics, chemistry, and for 1913. It goes to M. Henri La Fontaine. medicine. The next two prizes reflected the He, like Mr. Root, is a Senator. He is idealistic side of Nobel's character. He fifty-nine years old, a Belgian, a Professor of offered one for the most remarkable work of International Law, the Director of the Interan idealistic nature in the field of literature, national Bibliographical Institute at Brussels, and the other to the person or society which where he lives, and also the President of the had rendered the greatest service in the fur- Permanent International Peace Bureau at therance of international brotherhood. Nobel Berne. In politics M. La Fontaine is a put the various academies of his own coun- Social-Democrat—a name which has a diftry, Sweden, in charge of the first four prizes, ferent meaning in America from that which and the Norwegian Storthing, or Parliament, it has in Europe. The publications of in charge of the fifth.

Senator La Fontaine make interesting readThis year's presentations of the first four ing, and to those who know him the interest prizes were made by King Gustaf in person. is doubled by the author's personal charm and Three of the winners were present.

Profes- persuasiveness. sor Kamerlingh Onnes, of the University of Leyden, Holland, won the physics prize ; No radical change in the attitude or the conProfessor Werner, of the University of Zurich, dition of the Republican party resulted from the chemistry prize; and Professor Charles

the Conference of some

A REPUBLICAN Richet, who holds the chair of Physiology at

seven hundred Republicans

CONFERENCE the University of Paris, the medicine prize.

in New York City a week Dr. Richet was the winner of this prize ago last Friday. Although it was nominally a doubtless because of his eminence as an Conference of Republicans of New York authority on muscles and nerves; it should State only, it had a National significance be noted, however, that he has been Presi- because of the National character of some dent of the Society for Psychical Research, of the participants.

The chairman of and occupies some place in the literary world the Conference was Senator Root, who was because of his dramas and stories. Por- the Chairman of the last National Conventraits of these men appeared in last week's tion. The Chairman of the State Commitee Outlook.

is William Barnes, who is avowedly an ex

treme conservative, if not reactionary, and has The winner of the literature prize, Rabin- been recognized as the most powerful single dranath Tagore, of Bengal, was unable to be political manager within the party. Three

present. He was other figures of National standing were

represented by notable there : Sereno E. Payne, joint author . LITERATURE AND PEACE

the British Chargé of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act; George W. d'Affaires at Stockholm. His portrait, to- Wickersham, former Attorney-General of the gether with an editorial estimate of his United States ; and Henry L. Stimson, former work, appeared in The Outlook for Novem- Secretary of War. ber 29.

The Conference was attended by many In the award of the prize for Peace the younger Republicans who had two aims : one, pendulum swings half-way around the world, to make the party progressive in its platnamely, from India to America. Incredible form and policy ; the other to eliminate from as it may seem, the Norwegian Storthing's power the reactionary boss.

In its outcome, Committee reported a year ago that in the however, the Conference brought to these whole world it had been unable to discover younger Republicans no real ground for sata person who had

- worked most or best isfaction. Such concessions to progressive for the fraternization of nations, the abolition sentiment as were made were mainly admisor reduction of standing armies, or the call- sions that the practices on which the party ing or propagating of Peace Congresses." has relied in the past and which ultimately The Committee has now found its man- brought it to its present low estate were unElihu Root. It might have found him a desirable. Chairman Root specifically recogyear ago.

But better late than never. On nized in his speech the attempts of the




party had

people to get away from the bad old system, Meade, Sheridan, Sherman, Thomas, Hooker, which we have outgrown.” The conserva- of Admirals Farragut and Porter, and of tive view, however, strongly prevailed. It many other prominent men, and all these men was not unaptly expressed by Chairman became his personal friends. The Outlook Barnes, who said : “ The Republican party once said of him concerning this period in in 1912 determined not to join the proces- his career : “ His task and opportunity were sion of unreason, opportunism, and coward- as a visualizing historian of a dramatic period ice." This estimate of the progressive move- and the biographer in marble of its most ment was not shared by that younger element prominent actors.” Later he made a statue in the party who wished to make the party pro- of Roger Williams, which stands in the Capigressive, but it seemed to be, on the whole, tol at Washington, and another statue of the prevailing view among those present. Williams which is in Providence. As there Although there were cheers for progressive was no portrait of his subject, Mr. Simmons proposals, and although Comptroller Pren- had a free hand in dealing with it. He dergast, who had lately announced his with- handled his subject with vigor, and he introdrawal from the Progressive party, was duced an accessory figure—the impersonawarmly welcomed, no action was taken com- tion of History—at a time when accessory mitting the party to any policy to which the figures were novel in our sculpture.

not been committed before. The later years of his life were spent in Finally, and most significant of all, no action Rome, where he dealt largely with classical was taken looking to the elimination of State figures, among them “Penelope,” “Medusa," Chairman Barnes.

and “ Galatea." One of his most important The upshot of this Conference seems to achievements is the group on the Naval be that the Republicans are acknowledging Monument in Washington ; another is his the necessity for reform, but are retaining in heroic figure of the “ Republic ” in Portland; power Mr. Barnes, the Republican leader and still later he made the equestrian monuwho has most consistently and conspicuously ment of General Logan which stands in withstood reform.

Washington, a very expressive and vigorous figure. One of the most interesting

studies of late years was 66 The Woman of Mr. Franklin Simmons, whose death is an- Endor,” which represents, not a witch, but a nounced from Rome, was a Maine boy who

became a self-educated sculp- Mr. Simmons's industry was tireless. He A VETERAN

tor. Born in the little town produced more than a hundred portrait busts SCULPTOR

of Webster, he attended its in marble, and fifteen public monuments public school, and spent some time later at from his hand stand in various parts of the Bates College.

country. He was a man of delightful social In his school-boy days his recreation was qualities, an admirable talker, a warm friend. modeling figures in the clay which he found in the localities in which he lived ; and while he was still a

mere youth he Not infrequently have Americans been alluded made a portrait bust of Dr. Bowditch, the to as the Goths and Huns of the literary President of Bowdoin College, which showed

and artistic world. The such perception of character and such skill

American collector has

INTERNATIONAL that it gave the novice a local reputation. It

been held up for scorn as

COURTESY also determined bis career ; he resolved to

the apotheosis of the comtrain himself in the use of the sculptor's mercial; and incidentally, of course, held up tools. Accordingly he entered the workshop for cash as the chief possessor of the one of a sculptor in Boston, where he learned many commodity for which we are purported to things by observation and gained something exist, but which never, under any circumby suggestion, but received no regular instruc- stances, is permitted to enter the minds and tion.

the hearts of the good citizens of Europe. When the war broke out he was ready That this international superstition still has for work, and in a fortunate moment he went credence may be reason for excusing a polite to Washington, and almost at once he found smile of satisfaction when we discover the himself in full tide of active professional “Hun” obviously on the other foot. The work. He made busts of Generals Grant, Hun in the case to which we refer was the



To whom, then, do they now belong by right but 1o Scotland, whose chief possession now is the glory of her immortal son? Mr. Gribbel has not yet decided upon the custodian to whom he will intrust the manuscripts, but he has been in communication with Lord Rosebery, who was most active last summer on the Committee of Scots who were attempting to prevent the sales of the manuscripts by the Liverpool Athenaeum. Certainly this act of international courtesy is worthy of record.

Elsewhere in this issue we print a portrait of Mr. Gribbel, and a reproduction of a page from the preface to the poems contained in the · Glenriddell Manuscripts.”.



Liverpool Athenæum, and his opposite Mr. John Gribbel, of Philadelphia.

Perhaps we had better let Mr. Gribbel tell, in his own language, the story of how Scotland regained a priceless possession, the “ Glenriddell Manuscripts ” of her beloved Burns. We quote from a speech which Mr. Gribbel delivered at the annual dinner of the St. Andrew's Society, an organization of Americans of Scottish birth or descent :

When Burns had received from Creech, the publisher in Edinburgh, his share of the proceeds of the 1787 edition of his poems, you will recall that he gave his brother, Gilbert Burns, one-half of the £500 received to pay the debts of the family, and help. Gilbert on with the farm at Mossgiel, and with the remainder Burns leased and furnished the farm Ellisland, in Dumfriesshire. Here Burns made one of the best friends he ever had in Riddell of Glenriddell, who was a man of culture, education, and of local position.

Burns stayed at Ellisland from 1788 to 1791, when he gave up farming and lived in Dumfries. Before leaving Ellisland he prepared a manuscript volume containing his selected poems, finished as he wanted them known by posterity, also another volume containing his manuscript letters, and presented them to Riddell, as a mark of esteem. Riddell died in 1794, whereupon his widow gave back to Burns these two volumes.

Two years later, worn out with toil and disease, Burns died in poverty, but not in debt. A belated wave of appreciation of his genius swept over England and Scotland, in which Dr. Currie was moved to prepare an edition of Burns's poems for the benefit of the widow and children, left in want.

Among other materials which Mrs. Burns put into Dr. Currie's hands for use in his work were these two volumes of manuscripts, which have now been known for over a century as the “ Glenriddell Manuscripts."

In 1953, fifty-seven years after Burns's death, the widow of Dr. Currie's son put the manuscripts into the keeping of the Liverpool Athenæum Library, where they remained for sixty years.

During the summer just passed the English reading world was shocked to read in the public press that the authorities of the Liverpool Athenæum had sold for money their priceless trusted treasures. Hurried efforts were made to stop the transfer of the volumes, but the delivery had been made, and in the excitement they disappeared with the unknown buyer unhindered.' Two weeks


I was astonished bevond measure by having a dealer come to Philadelphia and submit to me for sale the missing manuscripts. Having an aversion to the possession of property of a certain class, I refused to consider them as any possible possession of my own, priceless though they are; but, gentlemen, here they are, sold as merchandise in the market-place and in my possession, but with a purpose which I am sure you will approve.

Something like twenty-five years ago a young journalist by the name of Rudyard Kipling

made prophecy. GAILLARD:

“Some day,” he said

(we quote from memory), “ the American army will make the finest engineering corps in the world.” The American army is to-day a great deal more than a fine engineering corps ; but no one will deny that this prophecy of Mr. Kipling has been justified by the facts. Engineers of the American army owe the high position which they hold to-day not chiefly to their skill in planning means of scientific destruction, but to their constructive achievements in the realm of peace. Not the least among these leaders of the new army was Lieutenant-Colonel Gaillard, now dead on the field of battle. The war in which he was engaged was not with man, but for man, and with the forces of nature. Since 1907 he had been in charge of the central division of the Panama Canal, concerned with the stupendous operations at the Culebra Cut, that nine-mile artificial valley which we have made through the backbone of the Isthmus. His death was directly due to exhaustion from overwork.

Something of his task and of his high courage and patience may be gained from this quotation from Bishop's "The Panama Gateway." Of the long fight with nature at Culebra the author says : - No one could say when the sun went down at night what the condition of the Cut would be when the sun rose the next morning. The work of months and years might be blotted out by an avalanche of earth or the toppling over of a small mountain of rock. It was a task to try men's souls, and it was one also to kindle in them a



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joy of combat which no repulse could chill the few white men familiar with the Indian and a buoyant faith in ultimate victory which sign language, a fact which has won for him nothing could shake. From all quarters of the name of Mole Tequop, “the man who the globe came engineers and others engaged talks with his hands.". Because of the trust in construction operations to view the strug- with which many tribes of Indians regard gle. They came in doubt often as to the him and because of his knowledge of their outcome, but they went away with all doubt customs he has been frequently chosen as removed. . . They were not surprised, an emissary to those who have gone or are after witnessing this wonderful human ma- about to go upon the war-path. General

chine at work, that slide after slide went into Scott performed his latest mission of this sort the Cut without causing the faintest shadow in characteristic fashion. Like young Lochin

. of uneasiness to any one concerned and with- var,

he rode all unarmed and he rode all out delaying the final completion of the task.” alone " into the armed encampment of the Colonel Gaillard was invalided home from warlike Navajos on Beautiful Mountain, ColoPanama only a little while before the flooding rado.” of the great Cut, just too soon to see the vir

He rode alone except for one old Navajo tual completion of the task for which he gave scout who had gone out to meet him forty miles his life.

away from United States soldiers who had been

sent out after the two-wife men had jumped the A second soldier of peace, who has, more

Shiprock agency two weeks before.

There was considerable concern about those over, a reputation as a fighter in the usual Indians not only in the country where they

sense of the word, were but at Washington. The Navajos are BRIGADIER-GENERAL SCOTT: PACIFICATOR is Brigadier-General good fighters. These men were well armed and

their hearts were bitter because somebody had Hugh L. Scott, now

tried to break up their polygamous habits. commanding the Second Brigade of cavalry They had said they were ready to fight until stationed upon the Mexican frontier.

they were killed, and just at this time troops General Scott is one of the few active offi

along the southern edge of the United States cers of our army to whom the Indian prob

are more interested in other things besides

making good Indians out of bad Indians. lem has meant actual war experience. He

Mole Tequop rode into this camp alone, as first saw fighting in the year of the Custer has been said, and the chiefs called for a pow

Hours later he rode out of camp, this massacre, and later fought in the campaign

time with an escort of old men. That night the against the Nez Percé Indians. He served

Navajos began to straggle back to the agency
throughout the Spanish War as adjutant to to surrender, satisfied with what their visitor
General Wood, and has seen service in the had told them and relying upon his advice.
Philippine Islands as Military Governor of the
Zulu Archipelago. From 1906 to 1910 he

As a fitting conclusion to this account of

General Scott's success, which we take from was superintendent and commandant of the

the New York “Sun," is the statement we Academy at West Point.

have received from an officer of the War The important feature of General Scott's

Department “ that the only Indians General career, upon which we have touched so

Scott did not get were two who were absent briefly, is the ability which he has shown

from camp when the powwow took place." as a constructive as well as a destructive

Portraits of General Scott and of the late warrior. He has fought the Indians, it is

Colonel Gaillard

appear elsewhere in this true, when fighting was necessary, but he

issue. has also learned their languages and customs and won their trust by fair dealing. He fought the Moros, it is true, but he came The performance of the much-advertised away from the Zulu Archipelago with the -opera “Rosenkavalier," by the much-adverundying affection of the natives and the

tised Richard Strauss, on

THE UNLIMITING popular title of “Father of all the Moros.”

Tuesday evening, last He is a walking argument for the preserva

week, for the first time in tion and development of our army as a benefi

America, at the Metrocent social force.

politan Opera House, New York City, seemed What makes this reference to General to have no effect in reducing the size of the Scott's career of particular and timely audience that filled Æolian Hall at the same interest is his recent exploit as a pacifi- time to listen to the Kneisel Quartette. This cator of the Navajo Indians. He is one of indication of the growing number of those


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