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icks or Personalities.
H. V. Coryell 183 Chinese Friendship for America.
Gully, The Mistress of the.
J. F. Thornton, Jr. 528 Karnak, In the Halls of...
Minnesota, In Picturesque..
Skin, Feathers, and Fur..
lifornia, Democracy in..
R. L. Buell 178 Plants, Immigrant Stations for....L. E. Theiss 360
Play, Teaching the World to..........E. S. Brown 689
Answer to a Timid Lover..Bernice L. Kenyon 183
Billy Peg-Leg's Fiddle.
Bill Adams 309
nversations, Imaginary.... Winifred Kirkland 527
Niece, at Houghton Farm....H. T. Pulsifer 388
.M. F. Egan 225
Politics, International, in the Berkshire Hills.
W. J. Abbot 52
Providence, Peregrinations About.
Newton Fuessle 695
.Meade Minnigerode 701
sarmanent, What the French Statesmen
Archibald Rutledge 64
st, The Far, and the Conference,
Rio Grande, The Valley of the Lower.
T. H. Price 525
Roman Question, The...
C. H. Meltzer 250
Duncan Aikman 643
Roosevelt Country, The..... Hermann Hagedorn 254
Root, Elihu-A Study of the Man and His
Andrew Ten Eyck 429
Rubber's Right of Way..
..E. S. Babcox 18
Ladd Plumley 218
Rural Unrest, The Cure for........C. W. Holman 566
X. B. Wood 261
C. H. Meltzer 683
Serpents of the Trail... ... Archibald Rutledge 22
Francis Rogers 214
Ships, The Relative Importance of Capital,
F. J. Cleary, U. S. N. 392
Simango, Kamba, The Story of (From Kraal
Natalie Curtis 61
Simplicity, Honesty, Honor E. H. Abbott 462
Skiing, The Knack of..
Elon Jessup 610
O. E. Maxwell 534
eenhorn, A, at the Gate....Natalie De Bogory 523
My Father-The Friend of Children.
Washington, Booker T.
Laura S. Portor 391
.P. V. Collins 3+
Stop-Now Policy, The...
.E. H. Abbott 508
er-Racial Commission, An, at Work.
Tools, You Can't Work Without.
Kingsley Moses 358
Top o' the World..
.Wallace Hutchinson 90
Burges Johnson 128
Valley, The Toughest Town in the..James Race 149
Wages, The Liquidation of..........R. H. Tingley 660
Washington Conference, With the, from the
in Inspiring Life (J. A. Allen)
Rebecca M, Samson 521
White Coal for Black. ..J. W. Harrington 91
Morris Bishop 303
Why the Who's Are Who..
E. P. Butler 561
Natalie Curtis 61
Walter Robb 512
Yellowstone Park, The Cascade Corner of.
Aborigines, The Question of, in the Law and
Practice of Nations (Snow)
herhood, Wanted-Motives for.
Business, American, Books on...... Alfred Lief 28
Helen M. Scarth 574
Christopher Morley 437
Divine Comedy of Dante Alighiere, The. Vol.
E. H. Abbott 678
Dryden, John, The Poetry of (Van Doren). 104
H. L. Watson 368
E. A. R., The Earlier.... Fullerton Waldo 531
Elders, The Discourse of the.........L. R. Morris 67
Europe, Modern (Hazen).
Gregorio Nieva 135
Fabre, Jean Henri, The Life of: The Ento-
Quiet Interior (Jones).
Glass of Fashion, The (A Gentleman with a
Novel, The American (Van Doren).
Problems of a New World (Hobson)
Retail Selling, The Human Side of (Leigh)...... 29
E. F. B. 437
Silver Fields (Robinson)...
Swaziland, Adventures in (O'Neil).
Ward, Artemus, The Life of (Martyn)
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SEPTEMBER 7, 1921
TEST is to be made before the
the constitutionality of the present Federal Child Labor Law. In the lower Federal court which declared the OwenKeating Child Labor Law unconstitucional two years ago a decision which vas upheld by the United States Supreme Court-a decision has just been rendered of the same general tenor relating to the present law. In this case, arising in North Carolina, Judge Boyd maintains that the regulation of labor is one of the powers retained by the individual States and not delegated to the Federal Government. He also holds that it is a violation of the rights of a State for Congress to attempt to regulate labor by the imposition of a tax, as in this case. It will be remembered that the law imposed a Federal tax of ten per cent on profits derived from manufactures in the making of which child labor had been employed contrary to certain restrictions laid down by the law. These restrictions are practically the same as those in the Owen-Keating Law, and have been published in these columns repeatedly.
The real difference between the two laws is that the one already pronounced minconstitutional forbade the transportation of products of factories where the Testrictions as to child labor were not observed, while the present law imposes a tax on those products.
There is certainly an important sense in which the regulation of child labor is a National question. The situation is something the same as it is with the question of divorce. Each State has or may have its own law, and no National, consistent system of dealing with the question is now possible. Moreover, if one State has sound and efficient restriction of the evils of child labor and another Siate has little or no restriction, the manufacturers in the first State are obviously at a great commercial disadvantage as compared with those of the second. It is chiefly, we judge, on this latter argument that the case of child labor restriction by National action is based.
There has been a change in the personnel of the United States Supreme Court since the Owen-Keating Law was pronounced unconstitutional. That decision was made by a majority vote of five to four. Chief Justice White was then on the bench and voted with the majority. Now Chief Justice Taft is on
the bench, and his stand may change the Supreme Court, taken as a body.
As we have often pointed out, the Supreme Court has approved the use of the Federal taxation power for other purposes than those of raising money, as, for instance, in the case of the manufacture of phosphorus matches. Such a tax as that on child labor products would come under the head of an indirect tax; the limitation of the Constitution that such indirect taxes must be uniform means, as has been generally held, that the same rate must apply everywhere on the same products.
The human aspects of the question need no exposition. That children of tender years should be safeguarded from overwork or from working at all in factories under certain conditions really means that they should be protected as regards health, education, and their development into good and desirable citi
army (for in a small way it was an army), most of its members well armed, could not but arouse terror and endanger public safety.
Earnest and most commendable exertions of the State authorities and labor leaders persuaded the leaders of this armed mob that they were doing their cause more harm than good, and before they reached Mingo the greater part of them were persuaded to return to their homes. Unfortunately, however, several hundred, perhaps a thousand, of the miners refused to retire and resisted a force of State troopers who advanced to enforce their withdrawal. A sharp interchange of shots took place and sev. eral miners were killed or woundedi.
Mining troubles have long existed in this part of West Virginia. The mines in that section are generally under control of owners who refuse to employ union workers. As the unions strong in near-by localities, and as the miners are mostly men accustomed to the use of the rifle and easily enraged, a very bad state of things has existed. The miners say that the system of paid mine guards in voglie in Logan and Mingo is contrary to law and oppressive. Attacks by the miners on mine guards are undoubtedly equally criminal. А Congressional investigation of the trouble is to begin at once.
The obvious conclusion is that law and order must be established, and the prime responsibility for that rests with the Governor of the State. It is equally true that once law and order are estab
do to insure peace and justice in the world will appear at the Washington Conference.
THE PERSONNEL OF THE
ROBABLY no one expected President
P to .
son's Paris mistake and try personally to conduct negotiations for our Government in the forthcoming Conference. Il any such fears existed, they were imme diately dispelled by the announcement from the White House that Secretary Hughes would head our delegation. As such, he would naturally become President of the Conference. Aside from the appropriateness of this distinction to one who occupies the position of American Foreign Minister, Mr. Hughes bas certain qualifications for such a taskhis habits of mind are judicial, his action is deliberate if sometimes instant, his decision is firm as is his integrity, and, finally, his utterances have been terse, cautious, and to the point.
While the appointment of Mr. Hughes has been welcomed by all sorts of politi. cal opinion, President Harding's choice of the second member of the American delegation has not received such a compliment. And yet here again it was espected that Mr. Harding would not re peat Mr. Wilson's blunder in ignoring the Senate in the membership of the Paris Commission. It was expected that Mr. Harding would choose a delegate from the Senate, and, if so, the logical thing would be to ask the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Henry Cabot Lodge. No sooner was this choice announced, however, than the New York "World” declared that a "most serious blow to public confidence had been dealt," that "Senator Lodge has done more to disturb the peace of the world than any other man since the ab dication of the German Kaiser," and that Mr. Lodge “is a militarist and imperialist." The incitement for this extraordinary language seems to be found in a statement by Mr. Lodge during a recent Senate debate in which he said that we had cut to the bone our appropriations for expenditures "absolutely necessary for any government that means to protect itself against dangers which may come to any nation.” The majority of Americans, we believe, will not on this account share all the anxieties of the "World."
lished there should be impartial prose- gards the clauses about reparation, milicution of all violators of the law and tary restriction, economic and financial that the personal rights of the dispu- matters, and other things less important. tants on both sides should be upheld. From what responsibilities are we reBeyond this, the authorities should re- lieved? We are not in any way bound member that the general public, as well by the League, unless we so elect; we as worker and employer, have an inter- need not take part in reparation or est and a right in such matters, and that other commissions unless we choose; we industrial questions should be brought are not bound by the political, labor, under the principles of arbitration and and delimitation provisions, or by the conciliation, with due regard to the Treaty agreements as to Egypt, Shanrights of all the three parties to every tung, Turkey, Siam, Bulgaria, Morocco, industrial war-namely, the worker, the or Liberia. One comment made is that capitalist, and the public at large.
"Secretary Hughes has succeeded in do
ing what some persons have regarded as THE PEACE TREATY WITH
impossible. He has safeguarded the GERMANY
United States at every point and effecVORMAL peace relations between Ger
tually unscrambled the Versailles pact many and the United States will and the League Covenant." exist when the Treaty, signed at Berlin The Treaty negotiated is in accord on August 25 by the American Commis- with the Knox-Porter peace resolutions. sioner, Mr. Ellis L. Dresel, and the Ger- Austria and Hungary are dealt with man Foreign Minister, Herr Rosen, shall separately. be approved by our Senate and the Ger- It has been urged with vehemence in man Reichstag, and ratifications ex- some quarters that the present Adminischanged between the executives of the tration came into power largely through two countries. No doubt is felt as to the votes of Republicans who wanted to see Senate's ratification.
the United States enter the League with Thus formally will come to an end the the Lodge amendments attached. Just war entered into by this country to how far this is a fact it would now be assert its own rights, to stop German impossible to prove. More than that, it assaults on American life and property, would be futile. The situation has and to prevent German domination on changed and is changing all the time. sea and land.
Nothing is more mobile than the public What rights do we obtain under the mind as relates to large questions like treaty? Briefly, those stipulated for our this. The country at large wanted this benefit under the Treaty of Versailles, matter settled quickly and with full with the League Covenant eliminated. guaranties to American rights for the Specifically, this puts the rights of the future. This the President and SecreUnited States with respect to Yap and tary Hughes have accomplished. It was other German overseas possessions upon simply impossible at this time to take an equality with other Powers. So also up again the long, dubious trail of the our equal rights are protected as re- Versailles Treaty. What America may