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26 cified him. And the inscription of his accusation was 27 written over ; THE KING OF THE JEWs. And with him
they crucify two robbers ; one on his right hand, and 28 another on his left. (And the scripture was fulfilled,
which saith, “ And he was numbered among the trans29 gressors.”] And those who passed by reviled him, shak
ing their heads, and saying, “Ah, thou that destroyest 30 the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself, 31 and come down from the cross." In like manner the
chief-priests and the scribes also derided him among
themselves, and said, “ He saved others ; himself he can32 not save. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, come down
now from the cross, that we may see and believe.” And 33 those who were crucified with him reproached him. And
when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over 34 the whole land until the ninth hour. And at the ninth
hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, “ Eloi, Eloi,
lama sabachthani ?” which is, being interpreted, My 35 God, my God, wherefore hast thou forsaken me? And
some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, 36 « Behold, he calleth for Elijah.” And one ran, and
filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it about a reed, and gave
him to drink, saying, “ Forbear ye ; let us see 37 whether Elijah will come to take him down.” Then Jesus sent forth a loud cry, and expired.
And the veil of the temple was rent in two, from the 39 top to the bottom. And when the centurion, who stood
by over against him, saw that he thus cried out, and ex
pired, he said, “ Truly this man was the son of a god*.” 40 And there were women also beholding at a distance ;
among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mo
ther of James the younger and of Joses, and Salomé ; 41 (now these, when he was in Galilee, followed him also,
and ministered unto him ;) and many other women, who came up with him to Jerusalem.
* the son of God, N. a son of God, W. See Campboll,
42 And when evening was now come, because it was the
day of preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, 43 Joseph of Arimathea, a senator of rank, and who also
himself looked for the kingdom of God, came, and cou
rageously went in to Pilate, and asked for the body of 44 Jesus. And Pilate wondered that he was already dead:
and he called to him the centurion, and asked him whe45 ther Jesus had been any while dead. And when he knew 46 it from the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph : who
bought linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which had been
hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone to the door of the 47 sepulchre. And Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mo
ther of Joses, beheld where he was laid. CH. XVI. And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene,
and Mary the mother of James, and Salomé, bought sweet
spices, that they might go and anoint him. 2 And very early in the morning of the first day of the
week, they come to the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 3 And they said among themselves, “ Who shall roll away 4 the stone for us from the door of the sepulchre?” (But
when they looked, they see that the stone was rolled 5 away :) for it was very great. And they entered into the
sepulchre, and saw a young man sitting on the right
side, clothed in a white robe ; and they were astonished. 6 And he saith unto them, “ Be not astonished : ye seek
Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified : he is risen ; he is 7 not here ; see the place where they laid him. But de
part, tell his disciples, and Peter, that he will go before
you into Galilee : there ye shall see him, as he said unto 8 you." And they went out, and fled from the sepulchre ;
and trembling and amazement seized them ; nor said
they any thing to any one ; for they were afraid. 9 * Now Jesus rose early on the first day of the week;
* Many copies omit the twelve last verses of this chapter ; probably, as Jerom says, because they were thought to be irreconcileable with the other accounts of our Lord's resurrection. Newcome.
and appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he 10 had cast seven demons*. She went and told those that 11 had been with him, as they mourned and wept. But
when they heard that he was alive, and had been seen by
her, they believed not. 12 And after that, he appeared in another form unto two
of them, as they were walking, and going into the 13 country. And they went and told it to the rest : but
they believed not them also. 14 Afterward he appeared to the eleven themselves, as
they were at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and perverseness of heart, because they believed not
those who had seen him after he was risen. 15 And he said unto them, “ Go ye into all the world, 16 and preach the gospel to every creature. He who be.
lieveth, and is baptized, shall be savedt ; but he who be17 lieveth not shall be condemned. And these signs shall
follow those who believe : In my name they shall cast 18 out demons; they shall speak in new languages; they
shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them : they shall put their hands on the
sick, who shall recover." 19 So then, after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was
taken up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. 20 And they went forth, and preached every where ; the
Lord working with them, and confirming the word by signs followingt.
. i. e whom Jesus had cured of raving madness. So Ccisus understood the expression. See Farmer on Dem. p. 105.
+ He, who professes faith in me, shall be admitted to the privileges of the christian cornmunity: he, who does not believe, shall reinain under all the disadvantages of a beathen state.
* At the close of the history some postscripts add, “ The gospel according to Mark was written in Latin, at Rome ; others say in Egypt ; that it was suggested by Peter to Mark the evangelist, by whom it was preached at Alexandria, and in all the neigh. bouring country : also, that it was published ten or twelve years after the ascension of Christ." These postscripts are not of great authority.
THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
many have undertaken to prepare an account of 2 those things which are fully believed among us ; accord
ing as those delivered them unto us, who from the be3 ginning were eye-witnesses, and ministers of the Word* ; it
hath seemed good to me also, having gained exact know
ledget of all things from the first, to write them unto thee 4 in order, most excellent Theophilus ; that thou mayest
know the certainty of those things, in which thou hast been instructedt.
# Viz. Christ. See John i. 1, and Cappe's Crit. Rem.
The remaining verses of this, and the whole of the second chapter, are printed, (in the English edition,) in Italics, as an indication that they are of doubtful authority: for though they are to be found in all manuscripts and versions which are now extant, yet the following considerations have induced many to doubt whether they were really written by Luke :
1. The evangelist expressly affirms, that Jesus had completed his thirtieth year in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Cæsar, chap. iji. 1. 23. He must, therefore, bave been born fifteen years before the death of Augustus, A. U. C. 752 or 753 : but the latest period assigned for the death of Herod is the spring of A. U. C. 751, and he died, pro bably, the year before. See Lardner's Works, vol. i. p. 423—428, and Jones's Deve lopement of Facts, vol. i. p. 365–368. Herod therefore must have been dead up wards of two years before Christ was born. A fact which invalidates the whole narration. See Grotius on Luke iii. 23.
2. The two first chapters of this gospel were wanting in the copies used by Mar cion, a reputed heretic of the second century: who, though he is represented by his adversaries as holding some extravagant opinions, was a man of learning and integrity, for any thing that appears to the contrary. He, like some moderns, rejected all the
5 In the days of Herod, the king of Judea, there was a
certain priest named Zachariah, of the course of Abijah :
and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name 6 was Elisabeth. And they were both righteous in the sight
of God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances 7 of the Lord unblameably. And they had no child, because
Elisabeth was barren ; and they were both far advanced in
years. 8 And it came to pass that, while he executed the priest's 9 office before God in the order of his course, according to the
evangelical histories excepting Luke ; of which he contended that his own was a correet and anthentic copy.
3. The evangelist, in his preface to the history of the Acts of the Apostles, reminds his friend Theophilus, Acts i. 1, that his former history contained an account of the public ministry of Jesus, but makes no allusion to the remarkable incidents contained in the two first chapters : which, therefore, probably were not written by him.
4. If the aceount of the miraculous conception of Jesus be true, he could not be the offspring of David and of Abraham ; from whom it was predicted, and by the Jews expected, that the Messiah should descend.
5. There is no allusion to any of these extraordinary facts in either of the succeeding histories of Luke, or in any other books of the New Testament. Jesus is uniformly spoken of as the son of Joseph and Mary, and as a native of Nazareth ; and no er. peetation whatever appears to have been excited in the public mind by these wonderful and notorious events.
6. The style of the two first chapters is different from the rest of the history--the date of the enrolment, chap. ii. 1, 2, is a great historical difficulty--that John the Baptist should have been ignorant of the person of Christ is not probable, if this narrative be true: John i. 31–34. And there are many other circumstances in the story which wear an improbable and fabulous aspect. Evanson's Disson. ch. i. sec. 3. p. 57.
See likewise the note upon the two first chapters of Matthew, and the references there.
It has been objected, that so large and gross an interpolation could not have escaped detection, and would never have been so early and so generally received.
In reply to this objection it is observed ; that this interpolation was not admitted in. to the Hebrew copies of Matthew's gospel, nor into Marcion's copies of Luke-that it is notorious that forged writings under the names of the apostles were in circulation al. most from the apostolic age. See 2 Thess. ii. 2.--that the orthodox charge the heretics with corrupting the text ; and that the heretics recriminate upon the orthodox- also that it was much easier to introduce interpolations when copies were few and scarce, than sinee they have been multiplied to so great a degree by means of the press : and finally, that the interpolation in question would, to the generality of Christians, be extremely gratifying, as it would lessen the odium attached to Christianity from its founder being a crucified Jew, and would elevate him to the dignity of the heroes and demigods of the heathen mythology.