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particles, such as, of, to, as, and, &c. require no force of ulterance, unless they happen to be emphatical, which is rarely the tafe. No person can read or speak well, unless he understands what he reads ; and the sense will always determine what words are emphatical. It is a matter of the highest consequence, therefore that a speaker should clearly comprehend the mean. ing of what he delivers, that he may know where to lay the emphasis. This may be illustrated by a fingle example. This fort question, Will ride to town to-day ? is capable of four different meanings, and consequently of four different answers, according to the placing of the emphasis. - If the emphasis is laid upon you, the queltion is, whether you will ride to town, or angiber person. If the emphasis is laid on ride, the question is, whether

your will ride or go on foot. If the emphasis is laid on town, the question is, whether you will ride to town or to ano. ther place, If the emphasis is laid on to-day the question is, whether you will ride to-day or some other day, Thus the whole meaning of a phrase often depends on the emphasis ; and it is abfolutely necessary that it should be laid on the proper words.

Cadence is a falling of the voice ia pronouncing the clofing fyllable of a period.* This ought not to be uniform ; but dif. ferent at the close of different sentences.

But in interrogative sentences, the sense often requiresthe closing word or fyllable to be pronounced with an elevated voice. This, however, is only when the last word is emphati. cal; as in this question: " Betrayelt thou the son of man with a kiss 9). Here the subject of enquiry is, whether the common to. ken, of love and benevolence is prodituted to the purpose of treachery; the force of the question depends on the last word, which is therefore to be pronounced with an elevation of voice. But to this question, " Where is boalling then?" the emphati. cal word is boafting, which of course requires ac elevation of the voice,

* We may obferve that good speakers always pronounce upon a certain kcy: for although they modulate the voice according to the various ideas they express, yet they retain the same pitch of voice, Accent and emphasis require no elevation of the voice, but a more forcible expresfion of the same key. Cadence respects the last syllable only of a sentence ; which fyllable is actually pronounced with a lower tone of voice ; but when words of several fyllables close a period, alkbe fyllables but the last are pronounced on the fame key as the red of the feplencs.


The most natural pitch of voice is that which we speak in ordinary conversation. Whenever the voice is raised above this key, pronunciation is difficult and fatiguing. There is a difference between a loud and an high voice. A person may {peak much louder than he does in ordinary discourse, with out an elevation of voice ; and may be heard distinctly upon the same key, either in a private room or in a large assembly.

RULE IV. Let the sentiments you express be accompanied with proper tones,

looks and geltures. By fones I mean the various modulations of voice by which we naturally express the emotions & pallions. By looks I mean the expression of the emotions and passions in the countenance.

Gelurus are the various motions of the hands or body, which correspond to the several sentiments and paslions which the speaker deligns to express.

All these should be perfectly natural. They should be the fame which use in common conversacion, A speaker should

endeavor to feel what'he speaks ; for the perfeâion of reading and speaking is, to pronounce the words as if the sentiments were our own.

If a person is rehearling the words of an angry man, he should assume the same furious looks, his eyes should flash with rage, his gestures should be violent, and the tone of his voice

threatening, If kindness is to be expressed, the countenance Thould be calm and placid, and wear a smile--the tone should be mild, and the motion of the hand inviting. An example of the first, we have in these words : “ Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels, Of the last in these words : “ Come, je blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foun. dation of the world.” A man who should repeat these differe ent passages with the same looks, tones and gestures, would pass with his hearers for a very injudicious fpeaker.

The whole art of reading and speaking, all the rules of eloquence may be comprised in this concile direction : Let a reader or a speaker express every word as if the sentiments were General directions for esépreffing certain pasions or sentiments.

From the Art of SPEAKING. Mirth or laughter opens the mouth, crisps the nose, leffens the aperture of the eyes, and shakes the whole frams;

bis own

Perplexity draws down the eye.brows, hangs the head, cat down the eyes, clofes the eye lids, Thurs the mouth, and pinches the lip-ther fuddenly the whole body is agitated, the per. fon walks about bulily, stops abruptly, talks to himfclf, &c.

Vexation adds to the foregoing complaint, fretting and tamenting.Paty draws down the eye-brows, opens the mouth and draws together the features.

Grief is expressed by weeping, lamping with the feet, lifting up the

eyes to hoaven, &c. Melancholy is gloomy and motionless, the lower jaw falls, the eyes are cast down and baff Thut, words few and interrupted with fighs.

Fear opens the cyes and mouth, fhortens the 'ntfe, draws down the eye-brows, gives the countenance an air of wildness ; the face becomes pale, the elbows are drawn back parallel with the sides, one foot is drawn back, the heart beats 'violently, the breath is quick, the voice weak and trembling. Sometimes it. produces fhrieks and fainting. Shame turns


the face from the beholders ; corers it with blushes, catts down the head and eyes, draws down the eye. brows, makes the tongue to faulter, or Atrikes the perfon duinb.

Remorse salto down the countenance & clouds it with anxiety. Sometimes the teeth gnash and the right hand beat's the breaft.

Courage steady and cool, opeds the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. The voice is firm, and the accent ftrong and 'articulate.

Boasting is lond and bluftering. The eyes ftare, the face 'is red and bloated, the mouth ponts, the voice is hollow, the arms akimto, the head nods in a threatening manner, the right filt fometimes clenched and brandilhed. Pride assumes a lofty look, the

eyes open,

the mouth pout. ing, the tips pinched, the words now and Itiff, with an air of importance, the arms akimbo, and the legs at a dittance, or taking large 'ftrides.

Authority opens the countenance, but draws down the eyes brows a little, foas to give the person an air of gravity.

Commanding requires a peremp:ory tone of voice and a fevero look,

Inviting is expreffed with a smile of complacency, the hand with the palm upwards, drawn gently towards the body,

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Hope brightens the countenance, arches the eye-brows, gives the

eyes an eager withful look, opens the mouth to half a smile, bends the body a little forward.

Love lights up a smile upon the countenance ; the forehead is fmoothed; the eye.brows arched, the mouth a little open and Imiling, the eyes languifhing, the countenance affumes an enger wishful look, mixed with an air of fatisfaction. The accents are soft and winniag, the tone of the voice Hattering

Wonder opens the eyes, and makes them appear prominent The body is fixed in a contracted Hooping polture, the mouth is open, the hands often raisedo Wooder at firit ftrikes a per Lopidumb; then breaks forth into.exclamations,

Curiosimy opens the eyes, and mouth, tengthens the neek, bends the body forward, and fixes it in one portare, &c.

Anger is expreffed by sapidity, interruption, noife and trepia dation, the neck is ftretched out, toe head nodding in a threat. eniog manner. The eyes red, faring, rolling, Sparkling : the eye brows drawn clown over them, the forehead wrinkled, the nostrils stretched, every Wein fwelied, every muscle #trained. When anger is violent, the mouth is opened anel drawn towards the cars, hewing the teeth in a goalhing posture ; the feet ftamping, the right hand thrownout, threatening with a cleuched fit, and the whole frame agitated.

Peemilhnefs is exprefled in nearly the fame manner, but with more modeiation, the eyes a squint upon the object of displeaíó ure; the upper lip drawn disdainfully.

Malice sets the jaws, or gnalhes with the teeth ; Tends flashes from the eyes, draws the mouth towards the cars, clenches the filt, and bends the elbows.

Envy is expressed in the same manner; but more moderately. Aversion turns the face from the object; the hands spread out to keep it off.

Jealousy shews itself by reftleffness, peevithaess, thoughtfulness, anxiety absence of mind. It is a mixture of a variety of paffions, and affumes a variety of appearances.

Contempt affumes a baughty air; the lips closed and pouting. Modely or bumility bends the body torward, “calts down the cyes. The voice is low, the words, few, and tone oi utteranco fubmiflive. EXAMPLES FOR ILLUSTRATION.

Interrogation or questioning: One day when the moon was under an eclipse, the complaina sd thus to the fun of the discontinuance of his favors..


My deareft friend, said the, why do you not thine on më ai you used to do? Do I not shine


the? laid the fun; I very sure that I intended it.

O no ! replics the moon; but I now perceive the reason. I see that dirty planet the earth bas got betwixt us

Dodfley's Fables. Life is fhor: and uncertain ; we have not a moment to lofe. Is it prudent to throw away any of our time in tormenting our. selves or others, when we have little for honest pleasures? For. getting our weakness, we kir up mighty enemies, and fly to wound as if we were invulnerable: Wherefore all this bukle and noise? The bett use of a short life, is to make it agreeable to oarselves and to others. Have you cause of quarrel with your servant, your mafter, your king, your neighbor? forbear a moment : death is at hand, which makes all equal.

What has a man to do with wars, tumults, ambushes ? You would deftroy your enemy? You lose your trouble; death will do your business while you are at reft

. And after all, when you have got your revenge, how fhort will be your joy or his pain! While we are among men let us cultivate humanity ; let us not be the cause of fear or pain to one another,

-Let us dels pise injury, malice and detraction, and bear with an equal mind such transitory evils. While we speak, while we think, death comes up and closes the scene,

Art of Thinking.

Wonder. Then let us hafte towards those piles of wonderThat scorn to bow beneath the weight of years Lo! to my view the awful mansions rife, The pride of art, the fleeping place of death! Frenedu:

Foy. Let this auspicious day be ever facred ; No mourning, no misfortunes happen on it ; Let it be marked for triumph and rejoicing ; Let happy lovers ever make it holy, Choose it to bless their hopes and crown their wishes : This happy day, that gives me my Califta.. Fair Peniteikt.

Then is Orestes bleft ? My griefs are fled ! Fled like a dream ! Methinks 1 tread in air ! Surprising happiness ! unlook'd for joy! Never let love despair,! The prize is mine! Be (mooth, ye seas, and ye propitious winds, Blow from Epirus to the Spartan coast ! Difret Mother

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