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Man" he also gave to the world a quarto volume of letters between himself and so of his friends. It is supposed that he was anxious to introduce this Correspondence the Public, and that he contrived, by a maneuver, to place a portion of it in the ha of Curll, the Bookseller, that his publishing it might afford a pretext for issuin genuine edition.
In the composition of the "Essay on Man," his imperfect acquaintance with Theol and Metaphysics had, unfortunately, thrown him under the guidance of Lord Boli broke; a man whom he highly esteemed, of great genius, learned and acute, but Infidel. The consequence was that, while intent upon inculcating religious and m precepts, he was unwittingly promulgating the dogmas of the Fatalist and the The This brought upon him a severe castigation from Crousaz, a Swiss Professor of s note, who openly denounced the Poem as tending to set aside Revelation, and to est lish a system of Natural Religion. In the dilemma in which Pope now found hims Warburton (then just rising into notice) voluntarily stepped forward as his champ and published, in the "Republic of Letters," a "Vindication of the Essay on Man.
This assistance Pope very gratefully acknowledged; he recommended Warburton Mr. Murray, by whose influence he was appointed preacher at Lincoln's Inn; and, his introduction to Mr. Allen, he married the niece, and succeeded to the estate, of gentleman. He also left Warburton the property of his Works, which Dr. John estimates at £4000.
About 1740 Pope printed the "Memoirs of Scriblerus," a fragment of a work ori ally projected by himself, Swift, and Arbuthnot, which was never completed; and 1742 a new edition of the "Dunciad," enlarged by the addition of a fourth book. this he attacked Colley Cibber most unmercifully, for no evident reason; unless, as Johnson suggests, he thought that, in ridiculing the Laureate, he was bringing into tempt the bestowers of the laurel. Cibber, who had on several previous occasi manifested great forbearance, now lost all patience; he amused the town with a pam let, in which he describes Pope as a "Wit out of his senses;" and attributes his illto his (Cibber's) having made a ludicrous allusion to the damnation of the farce "Three hours after Marriage," while acting Bays in the Rehearsal; and ascribes authorship of the piece to Pope. It is a pity that Pope suffered his vexation to sub his better judgment: he should have remained silent. On the contrary, in 1743 dethroned Theobald, and constituted Cibber the hero of his "Dunciad;" much to deterioration of the Poem, and certainly inconsistently with fact. Cibber could not fa be classed among the Dunces; if, alternately he soared and groveled in Tragedy, Comedy is of very superior excellence, possessing wit, humor, tenderness, and elegan and, if his practice and habits were anything but moral, his dramas (during a sea of unrestrained licentiousness) were strictly so: he seems to have been guided, in respect, by the feeling he expressed to Mrs. Bracegirdle, the actress, who, upon inq ing of him "How it happened that his writings were so very moral, and his life so v immoral?" received for answer, that "Morality in the one was absolutely indispensal but not exactly so in the other." Cibber, who had declared his intention to "have last word," quickly published another pamphlet, which is described by Richardson son of the Painter) as having perfectly agonized Pope.
The health of Pope now began to fail, and he contented himself with occupying time in the revisal of his Works for a collective Edition; in this he was assisted by W burton. He lingered some months under an accumulation of infirmity and disease, expired on the 30th of May, 1744.
If this admirable Poet may be considered fortunate in having Warburton for original Editor of his Works, he has been peculiarly unfortunate with respect to so who have succeeded him :—a bevy of fifth-rate authors, also, anxious to reduce standard of poetic excellence to their own level, have, of late years, done their utm to cloud the luster of his fame as a poet, and to depreciate his character as a man. L Byron, contemning the cant of criticism, and the paltry cavils of scandal, thus dispo of the one and the other.
"The attempt of the poetical populace of the present day to obtain an ostraci against Pope is as easily accounted for as the Athenians' shell against Aristides; th are tired of hearing him always called The Just.' They are also fighting for life; if he maintains his station, they will reach their own by falling. They have raised Mosque by the side of a Grecian Temple of the purest architecture: I have been amo the builders of this 'Babel,' but never among the envious destroyers of the Clas
Temple of our predecessor. I have loved and honored the fame and name of that illustrious and unrivaled man, far more than my own paltry renown, and the trashy jingle of the crowd of schools' and upstarts who pretend to rival, or even surpass, him. Sooner than a single leaf should be torn from his laurel, it were better that all which these men, and that I, as one of their set, have ever written, should
'Line trunks, clothe spice, or, fluttering in a row,
"In society he seems to have been as amiable as unassuming: he was adored by his friends; friends of the most opposite dispositions, ages, and talents. By the old and wayward Wycherley, by the cynical Swift, the rough Atterbury, the gentle Spence, the stern Warburton, the virtuous Berkeley, and the cankered Bolingbroke ;'-the soldier Peterborough, and the poet Gay; the witty Congreve, and the laughing Rowe; the eccentric Cromwell, and the steady Bathurst, were all his associates."
THOMAS PARNELL was born in Dublin, 1679. His father, a native of Cheshire, had retired to Ireland at the Restoration, where he purchased some considerable estates, which, with his property in England, were inherited by his son. At the age of thirteen Parnell entered Dublin College, and took his degree of Master of Arts on the 9th of July, 1700. He was ordained Deacon the same year, and, three years after, entered into priests' orders: in 1705 he was collated to the Archdeaconry of Clogher. He married Miss Anne Minchin, a beautiful and amiable lady, to whom he was most devotedly attached. Up to this period he had led a very retired life, but he now began to make periodical visits to England, and quickly formed an intimacy with the first literary characters of the day; more particularly with Swift, Pope, Gay, and Arbuthnot. These, with himself, formed the Scriblerus Club: to the "Memoirs" of which he contributed the "Essay concerning the Origin of Sciences." His politics had been those of his father, who was a stanch Whig; but his connection with Swift seems to have wrought a change in his opinions, and he attached himself to the party of Oxford and Bolingbroke. In 1711 his wife died, and he received a shock by the event which he never recovered; his spirits, always unequal, sunk under a lasting depression: and, unable to raise them by mental effort, he desperately sought relief in intemperance, and plunged into excesses which brought him to a premature end. It is probable that he from time to time endeavored to combat this infatuation, for the year after his wife's death, he wrote a poem on "Queen Anne's Peace," was carried to the Court, and introduced to the ministers by Swift, and succeeded in gaining the esteem of Bolingbroke, and the ardent friendship of Harley.
The dissolution of the ministry on Queen Anne's death, prevented Parnell from attaining preferment through that channel; but Swift, having recommended him to the Archbishop of Dublin, his Grace bestowed on him a Prebend, and afterward the vicarage of Finglass, worth about £400 per annum. He died at Chester, while on his way to Ireland, in July, 1718, in his thirty-ninth year, and was buried in the Trinity Church of that city. Parnell was endeared to his friends by his generous, affable, and kind disposition; he displayed much eloquence in the pulpit, and became very popular in London, where he frequently preached during his visits; and he holds a very respectable rank as a Poet, for his elegance, simplicity, and perspicuity. Little of his poetry was published during his life; but shortly after his death, Pope, with friendly solicitude for his fame, made a careful selection of it; which he dedicated, in a splendid copy of verses, to the Earl of Oxford.
Parnell's principal poems are, "Hesiod, or the Rise of Woman," "An Allegory on Man," a "Night-piece, on Death," the "Hymn to Contentment," a "Fairy Tale," and the "Hermit." The two last are the most celebrated, and, in their several styles, are altogether admirable: he also translated the "Pervigilium Veneris" of Catullus, and "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice," printed with Pope's version of Homer.
The prose of Parnell is not equal to his poetry. Pope complained that the "Life of Homer," which Parnell wrote for him, gave him more trouble in correction than com- . posing an original one would have done. His classical learning, however, enabled him to render great assistance to Pope, who had a high opinion of his perfect knowledge of the Greek Language, and of his correct critical judgment. His other prose works are, his "Life of Zoilus," a cutting satire on Dennis, the critic; and his papers in the " Spectator" and "Guardian."
ZACHARY PEARCE, the son of a wealthy distiller, was born in Holborn, 1690. was educated at Westminster, where he was chosen one of the King's scholars, was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1710. In 1713 and 1714, while at University, he wrote his papers in the "Guardian" and "Spectator:" and in 1716 acquired great reputation and powerful patronage by an edition of "Cicero de Orator which he dedicated to Lord Chief Justice Parker; through whose recommendation him to Dr. Bentley, the Master of Trinity College, he obtained a fellowship.
In 1739 he was m
Pearce entered into Holy Orders in 1717, and became Lord Parker's chaplain; years after he was appointed to the rectory of Stapleford Abbots, in Essex, and in 1 to that of St. Bartholomew, by the Royal Exchange, London. Through the inte of his patron (then Earl of Macclesfield) he was presented to St. Martin's in the Fie in 1723, and received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, in 1724. Dean of Winchester; in 1748 Bishop of Bangor; and in 1756 Bishop of Roches and Dean of Westminster. He had held these dignities about seven years, when pressure of age and infirmity induced him to solicit permission to resign them; but application having been made through Lord Bath, the jealousy of the ministers, apprehended his Lordship had a successor ready to be nominated, embarrassed King, and prevented him from allowing the see to be vacated. Five years afterward was permitted to resign the Deanery. In 1773 he lost his wife, after a union of f two years he survived her but a short time, dying on January 29, 1774, a eighty-four.
Beside his edition of "Cicero de Oratore," he published "An Account of Tri College, Cambridge;" a "Letter to the Clergy of the Church of England, on the o sion of the Bishop of Rochester's commitment to the Tower;" an edition of "Lo nus ;" an 66 Essay on the Origin and progress of Temples," printed with a "Ser preached at the Consecration of St. Martin's Church;" the "Miracles of Jesus vi cated," in answer to Woolston; and "Two Letters against Dr. Conyers Middle relating to his attack on Waterland." He also, in 1733, rescued the text of Mi from the absurdities of Bentley, in his "Review of the Text of Paradise Lost," wh Dr. Newton characterizes as a pattern to all future critics ;" and in 1745 he publis an edition of "Cicero de Officiis."
It is remarkable that Dr. Pearce is the only person from whom Johnson acknowled having received any assistance in the compilation of his Dictionary; this assista however, extended only to about twenty etymologies, which Pearce sent to him and mously. The Posthumous Works of Pearce were edited, in 1777, in two volumes, by the Rev. Mr. Derby, and dedicated to the King. The dedication was written by J son, who retained a respectful and grateful remembrance of the obligation, thoug slight one, which Pearce had conferred upon him. These volumes consist of "A Č mentary, with notes, on the four Evangelists, and the Acts of the Aspotles," and New Translation of St. Paul's first Epistle to the Corinthians, and a paraphrase notes." Dr. Pearce was a profound scholar, an acute and judicious critic, an amia man, and a sincere christian: he lived respected and beloved; and his life was as ful and as honorable as it was protracted.
HENRY MARTYN was the son of Edward Martyn, Esq., of Melksham, Wilts. He was b to the Bar, but bad health prevented him from prosecuting his professional duties. In 1 he took a prominent part in writing "The British Merchant, or Commerce preserve a paper opposing the ratification of the Treaty of Commerce made with France at Peace of Utrecht; being an answer to Daniel De Foe's "Mercator, or Commerce trieved." The Treaty was rejected; and Martyn was rewarded by being made Ins tor General of the Customs. He died at Blackheath, March 25, 1721, leaving one who was afterward Secretary to the Commissioners of Excise.
It is probable that Martyn contributed many papers to the "Spectator," altho now only one is directly ascribed to him. Steele (Spectator, No. 555) places him the head of his correspondents, and pays him this very marked compliment: "The I am going to name can hardly be mentioned in a list wherein he would not desc the precedence." We have no other record of Martyn, except the interesting port drawn of him by Steele in No. 143, of the "Spectator."-"Poor Cottilus (so nam it is supposed, from his house at Blackheath, which he termed his Cot'), among many real evils, a chronical distemper, and a narrow fortune, is never heard to co plain. That equal spirit of his, which any man may have, that, like him, will conq
pride, vanity, and affectation, and follow nature, is not to be broken, because it has no points to contend for. To be anxious for nothing but what nature demands as necessary, if it is not the way to an estate, is the way to what men aim at by getting an estate. This temper will preserve health in the body as well as tranquillity in the mind. Cottilus sees the world in a hurry with the same scorn that a sober person sees a man drunk."
JOHN BYROM was the younger son of a Linen-draper at Kersall, near Manchester, and was born in 1691. He was sent to Merchant Taylors' School, in London: and, at the age of sixteen, being found qualified for the University, he was admitted a pensioner of Trinity College, Cambridge. He took his degree of Master of Arts, and in 1714 was elected Fellow, and became a great favorite with the master, Dr. Bentley.
It was in this year that he began his contributions to the "Spectator;" all compositions of decided merit: the most celebrated of them is the pastoral poem of "Colin to Phoebe," written, it is said, in compliment to Joanna, daughter of Dr. Bentley, which has maintained its popularity to the present day. Its effect is, however, somewhat marred by the ludicrous air of some passages, which detract from the simplicity and elegance of the whole. In 1716 he went to Montpelier for the benefit of his health, and resided there some time. On his return he began to practice as a physician in London; but he took no degree, and soon abandoned the scheme, in consequence of his forming a strong attachment to his cousin, Elizabeth Byrom, who, with her sister, had come up from Manchester on some business of their father, Mr. Joseph Byrom. Byrom followed the lady on her return home, and married her, in opposition to the will of her parents, who objected to the union on account of his straitened circumstances.
His uncle utterly discarded him: and Byrom, having expended all his little store, was thrown entirely upon his own exertions for subsistence. He had, while at Cambridge, invented a new system of Short Hand; and this he now began to teach in Manchester, with signal success. Revisiting London, he also there met with great encouragement; and (having obtained a decided victory over a rival professor, named Weston, who had challenged him to a trial of skill) he soon was enabled to derive a very handsome income from his numerous pupils; among whom was the celebrated Earl of Chesterfield, and many other persons of rank and eminence. For several years he regularly pursued his avocations: in London during the winter months, and during the summer in Manchester, where his wife and family continued to reside. In 1723 he was admitted into the Royal Society as a Fellow; and No. 488 of the Transactions contains a paper of his writing, On the Elements of Short Hand.
His elder brother dying about this time, without issue, Byrom succeeded to the family estate, and was at once placed in ease and affluence. He fixed his residence in the country; and, from occasionally amusing himself in writing verses, the habit seems to have grown upon him almost to a degree of mania; every subject he took in hand, whether tragic, comic, religious, antiquarian, controversial, moral, or literary, was dealt with in rhyme; the general quality of which may be estimated by Mr. Pegge's remark upon Byrom's Metrical Challenge, respecting the identity of St. George of Cappadocia with the patron of the Order of the Garter. "My late worthy friend, Mr. Byrom, has delivered his sentiments on this subject in a metrical garb; for, I presume, we can scarcely call it a poetical one."
Of his pieces, the best are his poems on "Enthusiasm," and on the "Immortality of the Soul;" his "Careless Content," and the popular tale of The Three Black Crows." He died September 28th, 1763, in the 72d year of his age, having lived in general estimation as a man of respectable talents, and great industry: humane, virtuous, and devout.
JONATHAN SWIFT (the posthumous son of Jonathan Swift, an Attorney, and Steward to the Society of King's Inns, Dublin) was born in that city on November 30, 1667. His grandfather, the Rev. Thomas Swift, Vicar of Goodrich, in Herefordshire, had suffered severely in his fortune by his adherence to Charles I, and left a family of twelve or thirteen children very slenderly provided for. Four of his sons settled in Ireland; the eldest of whom, Godwin (Attorney-General for the Palatinate of Tipperary), for some years supplied the means of subsistence to the widow and orphan children of his brother. It is supposed, however, that this was not done very graciously; for Swift seems to have entertained little respect for his memory: while, on the contrary, he
always spoke in terms of reverence and affection of his uncle Dryden Swift; who, Godwin's death, took upon himself the maintenance of the destitute family.
When six years old, Swift was sent to the school of Kilkenny; and, when four was admitted a Pensioner into Trinity College, Dublin. His studies and pursuits not of a kind suited to forward his views of advancement in this seat of learning had conceived a strong dislike to Logic, and entirely disregarded it, although it w that time deemed of paramount importance: and this, together with his irregula and insubordination, threw great difficulty in the way of his obtaining a Bache degree, which was at last conferred by a Special Grace. The disgrace he had thu curred seems to have only tended to exasperate and render him callous: for, in Ma 1686, he was publicly admonished for notorious neglect of his duties, and in Noven 1688, he was suspended for insolent conduct to the Junior Dean, and for exciting sension in the College.
In 1688 he quitted Dublin; and, coming over to England, visited his mother, was then residing in Leicestershire. By her advice he addressed himself to Sir Wi Temple (whose wife was related to the family), and succeeded in obtaining his pa age; the immediate advantage of which was the opportunity it afforded him of pros ing his studies upon a scale which he seems to have adopted as a penance for previous dereliction of duty. His application now was most intense and severe, the extensive knowledge he thus acquired soon raised him in the estimation, and him the confidence of his patron. He was admitted to the private interviews of William and Temple, when the former honored Moor Park with his presence; frequently, when Sir William happened to be confined by the gout, was deputed to at his Majesty in his walks about the grounds. It was on these occasions that the taught Swift the Dutch method of cutting asparagus, and (Swift, probably, ha hinted at his precarious circumstances), offered to make him a Captain of H Swift's hopes and expectations, however, were fixed upon Church preferment; an 1692 he went to Oxford to take his degree of Master of Arts, and met with a rece there which highly gratified him.
It is possible that Sir William Temple, anxious to retain Swift about him, thoug accomplish his aim by keeping him in a state of dependence: but it is certain that became impatient, and when, after frequent application and remonstrance, he was a offered a situation in the Irish Rolls of about £100 a year, he rejected it with dis and immediately quitted Moor Park for Ireland, with the intention of taking Orders. To this end, a reference to Temple, as to his conduct, was necessary; a has been thought that Sir William, feeling that he had dealt ungenerously by hi addition to the usual testimonial, forwarded some direct recommendations; for obtained Deacons' Orders in October, 1694, Priests' Orders in January, 1695, and mediately afterward, the Prebend of Kilroot, worth about £100 a year. He scarcely settled, when he received an invitation from Temple to return to him: he return; and was thenceforth treated, not as the needy dependent, but as the resp and confidential friend. Four years passed in an uninterrupted intercourse of esteen friendship between them, when the death of Temple, in January, 1698-9, threw upon the world, to gain by his own energies the provision which patronage had fail bestow on him. He edited the literary remains of Temple, and dedicated them t King, reminding him at the same time, by a petition, of a promise he had made hi a Prebend at Canterbury or Westminster: but his efforts were unavailing, and h linquished his attendance upon the Court in disgust. Further disappointments aw him: Lord Berkeley (one of the Lords Justices of Ireland) had invited him to be his Secretary and Chaplain, and he had accepted the invitation; but was quickly su seded in the former office by a Mr. Bushe, who procured it for himself. Lord Berk by way of amends, promised him the first living of value that should be at his disp but, when the Deanery of Derry became vacant, Swift found that Mr. Bushe had forestalled him, and that he could only obtain it by the payment of £1000 to B His anger toward both the Judge and his Secretary was extreme: he instantly thre his Chaplainship, and took his leave of them in these words: "God confound you for a couple of scoundrels." Lord Berkeley soon became apprehensive of the sequences which might arise from the hatred and scorn of a man like Swift, who, time to time, continued to attack him with all the bitterness of satire; and he end ored to pacify him by presenting him with the Rectory of Agher, and the Vicarag Laracor and Rathbiggan. In 1700 the Prebend of Dunlavin was added to these,