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5. Cæsar, who would not wait the conclusion of the consul's speech, generously replied, that he came into Italy not to injure the liberties of Rome and its citizens, but to restore' them.

6. If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous ; and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours' only, but also for the sins of the whole world'.

7. Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called the sons of God! therefore the world knoweth us' not, because it knew him' not.

8. It is not the business of virtue to extirpate the affections of the mind, but to regulate them:

9. It may moderate and restrain', but was not designed to banish' gladness from the heart of man. 10. Those governments which curb' not evils, cause"!

And a rich knave's a libel on our laws. 11. For if you pronounce, that, as my public conduct hath not been right, Ctesiphon must stand condemned, it must be thought that yourselves' have acted wrong, not that you owe your present state to the caprice of fortune. But it cannot be. No, my countrymen ! it cannot be

have acted


in encountering danger bravely, for the liberty and safety of Greece'. No! by those generous souls of ancient times, who were exposed at Marathon'! by those who stood arrayed at Platæa'? by those who encountered the Persian feet at Salamis'! who fought at Artemisium! By all those illustrious sons of Athens, whose remains lie deposited in the public monuments'! All of whom received the same honourable interment from their country: Not those only who prevailed', not those only who were victorious'. And with reason. What was the part of gallant men they all performed; their success was such as the Supreme Director of the world dispensed to each.

Note. When two objects are compared, the comparative word has the strong emphasis and falling inflection, and the word compared has the weak emphasis and rising infection.*

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It is a custom
More honoured in the breach' than the observance'.
2. I would die' sooner than mention it.

This is the case when it is the intention of the speaker to declare with emphasis, the priority or preferableness of one thing to another.

DOUBLE EMPHASIS. * RULE.---The falling inflection takes place on the first em

phatic word, the rising on the second and third, and the falling on the fourth.t


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1. To err is human'; to forgive divine'. 2. Custom is the plague' of wise men, and the idol of fools'. 3. The prodigal robs his heir', the miser' robs himself". 4. We are weak', and ye are strong 5. Without' were fightings', within' were fears'. 6. Business' sweetens pleasure, as labour' sweetens rest'. 7. Prosperity' gains' friends, and adversity' tries' them.

8. The wise' man considers what he wants', and the fool what he abounds' in.

9. One' sun by day'by night ten thousand shine.

10. Justice appropriates honours' to virtue', and rewards' to meril'.

11. Justice' seems most agreeable to the nature of God', and mercy' to that of man'.

12. It is as great a point of wisdom to hide ignorance', as to discover" knowledge.

13. As it is the part of justice never to do violence', it is of modesty' never to commit offence'.

14. If men of eminence are exposed to censure' on one' hand, they are as much liable to flattery' on the other!

15. The wise' man is happy when he gains his own' approbation, and the fool' when he recommends himself to the applause of those about' him.

16. We make provision for this' life as though it were never to have an end', and for the other life as though it were never to have a beginning!

17. Alfred seemed born not only to defend his bleeding country', but even to adorn' humanity':

18. His care was to polish' the country by arts', as he had protected it by arms'.

When two words are opposed to each other, and contrasted with two other words, the emphasis on these four words may be called double.

+ The pause after the second emphatic word must be considerably longer than that after the first or third.

19. Yielding to immoral' pleasure corrupts' the mind, living to animal and trifling' ones debases' it.

20. Grief is the counter passion of joy. The one' arises from agreeable, and the olher from disagreeable events,—the one' from pleasure, and the other' from pain',--the one from good', and the other' from evil'. 21. Fools' anger show', which politicians' hide'.

22. The foulest stain and scandal of our nature
Became its boast. One' murder makes a villain',
Millions' a Hero'. War' its thousands' slays,
Peace its ten' thousands.

In arms opposed,
Marlborough and Alexander vie for fame
With glorious competition ; equal both
In valour and in fortune: but their praise
Be different, for with different views they fought;
This to subdue', and thať to free' mankind.*



RULE.The rising inflection takes place on the first and

third, and the falling on the second of the first three emphatical words; the first and third of the other three have the falling, and the second has the rising inflection.


1. A friend cannot be knowon' in prosperity'; and an enemy cannot be hidden' in adversity'.

2. Flowers of rhetoric in sermons or serious discourses are like the blue and red flowers in corn, pleasing' to those who come only for amusement', but prejudicial' to him' who would reap the profit'.

3. Man is a creature designed for two different states of being, or, rather, for two different lives. The first life is short' and transient ; his second', permanent and lasting'.

4. The difference between a madman and a fool is, that the former' reasons justly', from false data ; and the latter'erroneously', from just' data.



Though some of the examples under the head of emphasis are not atrictly emphatical, yet the words marked as such will show how similarly constructed sentences may be read.

+ When three emphatic words are opposed to three other emphatic words in the same sentence, the emphasis is called treble.


5. He raised a mortal to the skies', She' drew an angel down.

6. Passions' are winds' to urge us o'er the wave', Reason' the rudder', to direct and save';

7. This without those' obtains a vain' employ, Those' without this', but urge us to destroy'.

8. The generous buoyant spirit is a power
Which in the virtuous mind doth all things conquer.
It bears' the hero' on to arduous' deeds:
It lifts' the saint to heaven'.

Note.--- In the following examples the treble emphasis, though not ex. pressed, is evidently implied.


1. To reign is worth ambition, though in hell ;

to reign' in helli than serve' in heaven'. 2. I would rather be the first man in that village' than the second in



RULE I.—Personal or adjective pronouns, when antecedents,

must be pronounced with accentual force, to intimate that the relative is in view, and in some measure to anticipate the pronunciation of it.


1. He, that pursues fame with just claims, trusts his happiness to the winds; but he, that endeavours after it by false merit, has to fear, not only the violence of the storm, but the leaks of his vessel.

2. The weakest reasoners are always the most positive in debate ; and the cause is obvious; for they are unavoidably driven to maintain their pretensions by violence, who want arguments and reasons to prove that they are in the right.

3. A man will have his servant just, diligent, sober, and chaste, for no other reason but the terror of losing his master's favour, when all the laws divine and human cannot keep him whom he serves within bounds, with relation to any one of these virtues.

4. And greater sure my merit, who, to gain

A point sublime, could such a task sustain.

Rule II.-When the relative only is expressed, the antece

dent being understood, the accentual force then falls upon the relative.


1. What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy,
The soul's calm sunshine, and the heartfelt joy,
Is virtue's prize.

2. Who noble ends by noble means obtains,
Or failing, smiles in exile or in chains,
Like good Aurelius let him reign, or bleed
Like Socrates, that man is great indeed.


Is that emphatic force, which, when the composition is very animated, and approaches to a close, we often lay upon several words in succession. This emphasis is not so much regulated by the sense of the author, as by the taste and feelings of the reader, and therefore does not admit of any certain rule.



What men could do
Is done already: heaven and earth will witness,

If' Rome' must fall', that we are innocent. 2. There was a time, then, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians were sovereign masters both by sea and land; when their troops and forts surrounded the entire circuit of Attica ; when they possessed Eubea, Tanagra, the whole Baotian district, Megara, Ægina, Cleone, and the other islands, while this state had not one ship, not' one wall'.

In these examples, if the words marked as emphatic are pronounced with the proper inflections, and with a distinct pause after each, it is inconceivable the force that will be given to these few words. This general emphasis, it may be obsorved, has identity for its object, the antithesis to which is appearance, similitude, or the least possible diversity.


Is that part of a sentence which is equally related to both parts of an antithesis' but which is properly only once expressed.

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