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RULE VIII.—Nouns in opposition, or words in the same

case, where the latter is only explanatory of the former, have a short pause between them, either if both these nouns consist of many terms, or the latter only.


1. Hope the balm of life, soothes us under


misfortune. 2. Solomon the son of David and the builder of the temple of Jerusalem, was the richest monarch that reigned over the Jewish people.

Note.-If the two nouns are single, no pause is admitted ; as, Paul the apostle ; King George ; the Emperor Alexander.

RULE IX.-When two substantives come together, and the

latter, which is in the genitive case, consists of several words closely united with each other, a pause is admissible between the two principal substantives.


I do not know whether I am singular in my opinion, but, for my own part, I would rather look upon a tree in all its luxuriancy, and diffusion of boughs and branches, than when it is cut and trimmed into a mathematical figure.

RULE X.-Who, which, when in the nominative case, and

the pronoun that, when used for who or which, require a short pause before them.


1. Death is the season which brings our affections to the test.

2. Nothing is in vain that rouses the soul: nothing in vain that keeps the ethereal fire alive and glowing.

3. A man can never be obliged to submit to any power, unless he can be satisfied who is the person who has a right to exercise it.

Note.-There are several words usually called adverbs, which include in them the power of the relative pronoun, and will therefore admit of a pause before them ; such as, when, why, wherefore, how, where, whether, whither, whence, while, till or until : for when is equivalent to the time at which ; why, or wherefore, is equivalent to the reason for which ; and so of the rest. It must, however, be noted, that when a preposition comes before one of these relatives, the pause is before the preposition ; and that, if any of these words is the last word of the sentence, or clause of a sentence, no pause is admitted before it: as, “ I have read the book, of which I have heard so much commendation, but I know not the reason why, I have heard one of the books much commended, but I cannot tell which," &c.

It must likewise be observed, that, if the substantive which governs the relative, and makes it assume the genitive case, comes before it, no pause is to be placed either before which, or the preposition that governs it.

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EXAMPLE. The passage of the Jordan is a figure of baptism, by the grace of which the new-born Christian passes from the slavery of sin into a state of freedom peculiar to the chosen sons of God.

Rule XI.- Pause before that, when it is used for a



It is in society only that we can relish those pure delicious joys which embellish and gladden the life of man.

Rule XII.-When a pause is necessary at prepositions and

conjunctions, it must be before and not after them.

EXAMPLES. 1. We must not conform to the world in their amusements and diversions.

2. There is an inseparable connexion between piety and virtue.

Note 1.-When a clause comes between the conjunction and the word to which it belongs, a pause may be made both before and after the conjunction.


This let him know,
Lest, wilfully transgressing, he pretend

Surprisal. Note 2. When a preposition enters into the composition of a verb, the pause comes after it.


People expect in a small essay, that a point of humour should be worked up in all its parts, and a subject touched upon in its most essential articles, without the repetitions, tautologies, and enlargements, that are indulged to longer labours.

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RULE XIII.-In an elliptical sentence, pause where the

ellipsis takes place.

EXAMPLES 1. To our faith we should add virtue ; and to virtue know. ledge; and to knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience ; and to patience godliness ; and to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity.

2. The vain man takes praise for honour, the proud man ceremony for respect, the ambitious man power for glory.


Rule XIV.-Words placed either in opposition to, or in ap

position with each other, must be distinguished by a pause


1. The pleasures of the imagination, taken in their full extent, are not so gross as those of sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding. 2. Some place the bliss in action, some in ease :

Those call it pleasure, and contentment these.

RULE XV.—When prepositions are placed in opposition to

each other, and all of them are intimately connected with another word, the pause after the second preposition must be shorter than that after the first, and the pause afler the third shorter than that after the second.*



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1. Rank, distinction, pre-eminence, no man despises, unless he is either raised very much above, or sunk very

much below, the ordinary standard of human nature.

2. Whenever words are contrasted with, contradistinguished from, or opposed to, other words, they are always emphatical.

As those classes of words, which admit of no separation, are very small and very few, if we do but take the opportunity of pausing where the sense will permit, we shall never be obliged to break in upon the sense

* In the examples annexed to this rule, the prepositions, as they are emphatic, are printed in italics, and the pause comes after them..

when we find ourselves under the necessity of pausing ; but if we over. shoot ourselves by pronouncing more in a breath than is necessary, and neglecting those intervals where we may pause conveniently, we shall often find ourselves obliged to pause where the sense is not separable, and, con. sequently, to weaken and obscure the composition. This obscrvation, for che sake of the memory, niay be conveniently comprised in the following

verses :

In pausing, ever let this rule take place,
Never to separate words in any case
That are less separable than those you join :
And, which imports the same, not to combine
Such words together, as do not relate
So closely as the words you separate.



1. The patlı of piety and virtue pursued with a firm and constant spirit will assuredly lead to happiness.

2. Deeds of mere valour how heroic soever may prove cold and tiresome.

3. Homer claims on every account our first attention as the father not only of epic poetry but in some measure of poetry itself.

4. War is attended with distressful and desolating effects. It is confessedly the scourge of our angry passions.

5. The warrior's fame is often purchased by the blood of thousands.

6. The erroneous opinions which we form concerning happiness and misery give rise to all the mistaken and dangerous passions that embroil vur life.

7. Peace of mind being secured we may smile at misfortunes.

8. Illeness is the great fomenter of all corruptions in the human heart.

9. The best men often experience disappointments.

10. The conformity of the thought to truth and nature greatly recommends it.

11. Hatred and anger are the greatest poison to the happiness of a good mind.

12. A perfect happiness bliss without alloy is not to be found on this side the grave.

13. The true spirit of religion cheers as well as composes soul.

14. Reflection is the guide which leads to truth. 15. The first science of man is the study of himself. 16. The spirit of light and grace is promised to assist them that ask it.


Now, my co-mates, and brothers in exile,
Hath not old custom made this life more sweet
Than that of painted pomp? Are not these woods
More free from peril than the envious court ?
Here feel we but the penalty of Adam.
The seasons' difference, -as, the icy fang,
And churlish chiding of the winter's wind,
Which when it bites and blows upon my body,
Even till I shrink with cold, I smile, and say, —
This is no flattery ;-these are counsellors,
That feelingly persuade me what I am.
Sweet are the uses of adversity;
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head;
And this our life, exempt from public haunts,
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing.


WARRIORS and chiefs ! should the shaft or the sword
Pierce me in leading the hosts of the Lord,
Heed not the corse, though a king's, in your path:
Bury your steel in the bosoms of Gath!
Thou who art bearing my buckler and bow,
Should the soldiers of Saul look away from the foe,
Stretch me that moment in blood at thy feet!
Mine be the doom, which they dared not to meet.
Farewell to others, but never we part,
Heir to my royalty, son of my heart !
Bright is the diadem, boundless the sway,
Or kingly the death, which awaits us to-day! BYRON.

3.-THE JACKDAW. THERE is a bird, who, by his coat, And by the hoarseness of his note,

Might be supposed a crow;

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