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A very striking effect, and such as can only occur in buildings of equal magnitude, will be acknowledged by every spectator of taste, which is produced by two vistas, as seen first from the fire place in the dining room; and, secondly, from the north end of the library to the opposite window, in the smaller drawing room. The great drawing room, or state chamber, contains many original and most valuable portraits of the Earls of Arundel, and Dukes of Norfolk, in nearly a complete series, concluded by the late noble owner, as restorer of Arundel Castle.
As an appendage and continuation of the gallery upon the first floor, is a paved way upon the ancient walls, extending to the old gateway, and passing through the new one, 246 feet long, and eight feet wide, from whence, toward the west, is a commanding view of the maritime part of the county, the English channel, and the whole range of the Isle of Wight in the extreme distance.
The new gateway was begun in 1809. The whole height, when finished, will be 188 feet, and 68 to the under side of the turrets. Connecting the restored with the ancient buildings, this gateway is a very prominent feature in the side of the castle fronting the west, which, in its whole composition, is greatly superior to the others. From this point, the elevation of the keep is truly magnificent. A broad terrace, with an embattled parapet, supports the castle on the west and south sides.
On the north side of the castle, beyond the surrounding vallation, or ditch, which is of very great depth, is the little park, entirely surrounded by an earthwork still perfect, and in many parts gyergrown with trees. Two principal entrances have been discovered, which are faced with Caen stone ; and about the centre of the enclosure, are some foundations of a large building. The best supported conjecture is, that this was a summer camp, made, in early Norman times, for the soldiery attached to the defence or service of the castle. These earthworks were increased when the town and castle were put into a tenable state, by Lord Hopton, the Royalist general, before the siege.
At a small distance beyond it, upon the brow of the hill, stands “ Hiorne's Tower," a triangular building of squared flint, consisting of a centre and three turrets, and nearly 100 feet high, which commands, toward the west, a very fine maritime prospect. It was erected from a plan of Francis Hiorne, in 1790.
The ancient park, now converted into a farm, with the Ruelle Wood, (so called from its having been cut into forest walks, or streets of trees), is situated more northward, and at several furlongs
ARUNDEL CASTLE, SUSSEX. [The annexed plate is contributed to this work by His Grace the Duke of Nor
folk ; and exhibits a south-west view of the castle, as seen from the Brighton Road.]
In the year
The honour and castle of Arundel, for its antiquity, extent, and dignity, is the most remarkable in England. The castle is situated on the west coast of Sussex, distant from Chichester eleven miles on the south east, and about three miles from the sea. 1102, Henry 1. settled it in dower upon Adelsia, or Alice of Loraine, his second wife. Her subsequent marriage with William de Albioi, conveyed this honour to him, and his lineal descendants. Hugh de Albini, fifth earl of Arundel of that house, died in 1943, leaving four sisters, coheirs ; in consequence of which, the honour was divided into four several parts. The castle and honour of Arundel were assigned to Fitz Alan, who had married Isabel, the second co-heir, and who assumed the earldom, by tenure only, and was the progenitor of seven earls of Arundel, in a right line of succession, to the death of Thomas Fitz Alan, in 1415, without issue.
Upon the death of Thomas, earl of Arundel, in 1415, a claim was made by John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, son and heir of his sister Elizabeth; but in 1433, full possession was given to John Fitz Alan, baron Maltravers, nephew of the last mentioned earl. From that period it devolved in succession upon six earls, of the united families of Fitz Alan and Maltravers, till the death of the last earl Henry, in 1579, whose daughter had married Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk. The only issue of that marriage was
c. M. VOL. VIJI.-- NO, 67.
from the castle, with which it is contemporary. About 1786, the new park, containing what were formerly sheep down and a rabbit warren, to the extent of 1145 acres, was first made by the late duke, and a few years since, a flint wall, with lodges, was built completely around it, containing a space sufficient for a thousand head of deer. This beautiful spot owes much to nature, and is formed by a very deep dell, which ends in a morass, anciently a lake. As the lines of its surface are perpetually varying, new views present themselves. The western acclivity is clothed with old beach trees, and has the appearance of the adjoining forest. The opposite banks, with the downy expanse of their summit, have been judiciously covered with flourishing plantations by the late duke, and are marked out with continued terraces. From thence the sea-view towards the west, and of the luxuriant valley with the frequent windings of the Arun, and scattered villages, present scenes which may be said to be peculiar to this county.
The ancient sepulchral chapel adjoins the parish church, anciently a priory dedicated to St. Nicholas. This chapel was part of a collegiate foundation, established by Richard, earl of Arundel, in 1986; and it has ever since continued to be the chief burying place of his successors. Its monumental splendour has suffered considerably from age, the violence of Cromwell's soldiers, who were quartered in this chapel during the siege of the castle in 1643, and subsequent neglect.
The present dining room in the castle was originally the private chapel. Soon after his accession to the title, the late duke resolved on 'fitting up a portion of the ruins of the old college, and appropriating it, in future, as a chapel, and residence for a clergyman. When the repairs were completed, the late venerable pastor, Mr. Wyndham, who had hitherto resided in the castle, removed to his new habitation ; and, for upwards of thirty-five years, he continued to assemble his congregation in the present chapel. The altar-piece is a much admired representation of the Nativity: it is supposed to be of the Carracci school, and is universally believed to be an original. Mr. Wyndham died in February, 1825, at a very advanced age, and was succeeded by the Rev. Mark Tierney, the present incumbent.
· The present Duke of Norfolk succeeded to the title in 1815.His
grace has only one son, the present Earl of Surrey, born 1791, and married to the Lady Charlotte, daughter of the Marquis of Stafford, by whom he has four children living, the eldest of whom, Henry Granville Howard, Lord Fitz Alan, was born November 15th, 1815.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PROTESTANT, AND THE RESTORATION OF THE CATHOLIC RELIGION
IN BEARNE. 1566.-1620.
The kingdom of Navarre, ou the death of Albert its sovereign, without issue male, in 1562, descended to his only daughter, Jane, the wife of Anthony, Duke de Bourbon. Henry IV. of France was the offspring of this marriage. In 1563, Jane, having survived her husband, established the Protestant religion in Béarne. One of her first legislative enactments, was to order the magistrates of Béarne, under pain of death, to prohibit and prevent the immemorial processions on the feast of Corpus Christi. The Protestants having seized the cathedral of Lescar, she, to testify her unequivocal approbation of the proceeding, celebrated in it with great pomp, on the following day, the Huguenot rite of our Lord's Supper, and soon afterwards, her commissioners destituted the clergy, and established Protestant ministers in their stead. In 1564, she ordered all the inhabitants to attend the Protestant service, under pain of rebellion ; and in 1566, entirely abolished the Catholic religion. At this time a large majority of her subjects were Catholic: the states met and remonstrated against her proceedings ; but she shewed no regard to their remonstrances; and having aggregated herself to the leaders of the Protestant rebels throughout France, she retired to La Rochelle the nucleus of the Huguenots.
By her direction the Count of Montgomeri possessed himself of the town of Onthes, and massacred, without distinction of rank, age, or sex, 5,000 of its Catholic inhabitants, and burned their churches and monasteries. Some Catholic gentlemen having submitted to him upon a capitulation, were, on the 24th August, 1569, inhumanly put to death during a meal. Even at this day, places are shewn at Pau, Oleron, and other towns that were scenes of these cruelties; and a spot on St. Sever is yet pointed out, from which 200 Catholic priests were precipitated. Similar atrocities of the Count of Montgomeri were perpetrated at Tarbes, Condom, and Geaume. An ordonnance of the 20th of the following November proscribed every exercise of the Catholic religion, and organized the Protestant worship throughout the state,
In 1571, the queen returned to Béarne, and propounded a Confession of Faith, to be signed by all her subjects; they were also
C, M. VOL. VIII.-NO, 67.