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The Usurping Senate


by the name of Peteet, with his wife and rupt practices. What would a patriotic to appealing to the League of Nat two daughters, crossed the border from Mexican wish to do for his people? First, for support. San Diego, California, to Tia Juana in to recover their land. Next, to drive out search of a “good time." Leaving his those who have exploited them. And yet wife sick at a hotel, he went with his Mexico is nominally a civilized nation daughters from one resort to another, with treaty obligations to other nations,

UIET and even humdrum drinking here and there. Finally, at one and with a powerful neighbor who has

these times of ours are, we of the saloons the daughters were good use for the oil and other wealth

none the less in the midst drugged and outraged. When the father which is being developed and has good revolution in the United States. came to himself, he collected his small reason to wish to help her rise and be- Are we not? family and with them returned to San come stable, and prosperous, and con- What is revolution but the efforto Diego. There all four, by mutual con- tented.

part of the people to do by extra-le sent, committed suicide.

We should not forget that less than means a thing that might be done Mexico has thus been arousing the three hundred years ago England was legal means, to substitute for the est hostility of large groups of Americans. expelling Catholic priests from her do- lished method a novel method, wh She has alarmed and antagonized those main, and was violently struggling with latter, if the revolution succeeds, who have a strong sense of property the exploiters of her land and people. comes in time the established methor rights, those who are loyal to their re- And as for Tia Juana-has it not been Is such an effort any the less reve spective churches, and those who, kept going, with all its abominations, by

kept going, with all its abominations, by tion because it is insidious rather t1 whether moral themselves or not, do not people from the United States? Is it so violent? want foreign immorality to flourish at much a Mexican disgrace as an Ameri- Certainly not. their expense or the expense of their can disgrace?

Where in the United States at 1 fellow-countrymen.

Mexico is a problem because it is a time is the effort making to substitute And the case against Mexico is strong. sixteenth-century country in a twentieth- extra-legal for a legal method in gove We do not have such complaints against century environment. What would have ment? our neighbor to the north. Canada does been normal a few centuries ago is an- The effort is making in the Senate not try to confiscate the property of archy to-day. The world has moved, the United States, where certain se Americans within her borders, or to ex- and left Mexico behind. Perhaps there tors, including a majority of the Ju pel American priests, nuns, and minis- are some things of value which the world ciary Committee, are trying to have. ters, or to permit dives and dens of vice has passed by that Mexico still has- Senate itself assume a function wh along our border. It is natural that leisure and the love of music and the legally and Constitutionally belongs those who have property rights in Mex- beautiful, for instance. But the twen- the Department of Justice. They h ico should expect the American Govern- tieth century cannot very well adjust it- been proposing to conduct an investi ment to protect those rights as Great self to the sixteenth; the sixteenth will tion of the Aluminum Company Britain protects the rights of his Brit- have to adjust itself to the twentieth. America to determine whether or tanic Majesty's subjects. It is natural And the process is going to be a slow that company has engaged in trade pri that church people should protest against one and calls for patience.

tices in restraint of trade, in violation treatment that seems to them like sąv- There has been a cry for intervention. the anti-trust laws and of a consent ( agery. It is natural that the people of Let us not fool ourselves into thinking cree entered against it fourteen years such a State as California should de- that we can honorably begin interven- by a Federal court in Pennsylvania. mand that something be done to clean tion without carrying it through. We The Department of Justice alrea up a plague spot in their neighborhood tried that twice-once by bombarding has conducted an investigation of th where open gambling, thieving, drinking, Vera Cruz, and once by sending Per- kind and has announced that there is and dope dealing seem to be the only shing on a wild goose chase after Villa— ground for proceeding against the Al "industries," and where faro dens, gin and both times it resulted only in hu- minum Company of America. mills, opium joints, and houses of ill miliation for us. The only intervention Now let it be assumed for the purpo fame are the only "monuments."

that can count will be of a sort that in- of this argument that the Alumiou But let us look at the situation for a volves a responsibility for Mexico which Company of America has in fact violate moment from the Mexican point of view. no American statesman has yet dared the consent decree, that it has engage

For generations the people of Mexico assume. Perhaps we ought to assume it. and continues to engage in practices co? have been exploited. Poor, they were There was a time, during the period of trary to the law. . deprived of their land. Accustomed to

Accustomed to anarchy there, when we could have suc- Let it be assumed further that the i tyranny, they were subjected to new cessfully assumed it. "But to intervene vestigation made by the Department bondage. Ignorant, they were kept in simply to settle some oil rights, or to Justice, because of incompetence or slol ignorance by the Church. When the make Mexico stop expelling priests and or corruption, was abortive. arbitrary rule of Diaz broke of its own clergymen, or to clean up a frontier Under that state of facts, Congre weight, they fell the prey of factions. town, would be to start a policy that might proceed by legal means to sen Incapable of developing their resources would lead us either to another humiliat- the ends of justice and of vindication for themselves, they have naturally al- ing failure or to a vast enterprise for the law. It would be the duty of t1 lowed those resources to fall into the which our people are at present wholly House of Representatives to impeach ti hands of foreigners, largely through cor- unprepared—or possibly to start Mexico Attorney-General and such other of als of the Department of Justice as to say that, if this change is to be years ago. When a revolution fails to We been derelict in duty. It would be brought about, it should be done by go forward, it must almost inevitably go

e duty of the Senate to try those offi- Constitutional, and not by revolutionary backward, and Senator Walsh appar10 !ils and, if they were found guilty, to methods-by an amendment to the Con- ently is not supported in his forward

nove them, to the end that their places stitution rather than by an arbitrary movement by his own party associates. ght be taken by other officials who assumption.

Senator Robinson, of Arkansas, the uld do their duty.

And if one branch is to be made su- Democratic leader in the Senate, is preLet it be assumed, violent as the as- preme even by legal means, should that pared to offer a substitute resolution mption is that the President would branch be the legislative?

directing the Senate to go no further I appoint officials who would perform It is well to remember that the hard- than it went in the oil cases—that is, to $ specific duty, but would appoint est struggle in the history of English

est struggle in the history of English- recommend grand jury action. If, howtcials who, by reason of incompetence speaking peoples has been that with irre- ever, the will of the majority of the neglect, or deliberate intention, would sponsible legislative authority. It was Judiciary Committee prevails despite ve the guilty corporation still unpun- not by accident, but by design, that the this discouragement, the situation will ed. Congress would have still its legal Congress was limited by the Constitu- become the more dangerous. It might ans of procedure. It could by the tion to the powers therein granted. have been hardly more than the bid of he process impeach, convict, and re- Here are questions that the people a party for political advantage, but that ve from office the President of the ought to think about.

is in the main renounced by Senator ited States.

Perhaps the statement ought to be Robinson's action. If the Senate now The majority of the Judiciary Com- made that, though this is the boldest assumes the power which belongs to the tee of the Senate, for whom Senator stroke so far, the revolution now seems Department of Justice, the action can be lsh, of Montana, is the spokesman, less likely to succeed than it did two nothing short of usurpation. re chosen not to employ these legal ins, but to substitute for them extra

A Humorous Saint 11 means--the assumption by the ate, without legal authority, of the

By LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT y in the discharge of which the Detment of Justice is said to have failed.

Contributing Editor of The Outlook uch a proceeding is revolutionary in HIS year of our Lord 1926 will “Little Flowers,” which were woven t it amounts to seizure by the Senate

see the seven hundredth anni- about his name by his devoted followers "xecutive powers granted by the Con

versary of the death of one of and disciples. He had an appreciation ution to the President.

the gentlest saints and most romantic of the droll and the comic. On one t is revolutionary in that it seeks to figures of Christendom-St. Francis of occasion, in an exhortation to his discire, or would have the effect of mak- Assisi. But it was neither the gentleness ples, he went so far as to point his moral

the legislative branch of the Gov- nor the romance of St. Francis that first with an excellent pun. Paul Sabatier, a nent supreme, whereas under the drew me to him; it was his joyous sense French Protestant and a most painstakistitution it is co-ordinate in power of humor. This delightful quality of St. ing and loyal biographer of St. Francis, i the executive and the judicial Francis, and of his early associates and says that "in the history of the early ches. It would overturn the princi- followers, is a thing quite distinct from, Franciscan Mission there are bursts of that sovereignty is lodged solely in although undoubtedly related to, the laughter which ring out high and clear.” people and, instead, would lodge su- spiritual joy and serenity which saints of It was Paul Sabatier's biography ne power in one of the three branches all ages have professed and felt. A sense which, about thirty years ago, first atovernment, the legislative.

of humor, says Emersion, speaking of tracted my attention to St. Francis and the Senate can arrogate •to itself Abraham Lincoln, enabled him "to keep to the quality of his humor. From that superiority of power over one de- his secret; to meet every kind of man biography I learned that one of the prement of the executive branch, it can and every rank in society; to take off cepts of the Rule of the Franciscan Orhe same for all departments of that the edge of the severest decisions; to der, a Rule which is believed to come ich-even for the third branch of mask his own purpose and sound his from the hand of the saint himself, inTnment, the judicial.

companion; and to catch with true in- culcates a sense of humor. It reads, in ere, certainly, is nothing less than stinct the temper of every company he the colloquial Latin which St. Francis lution.

addressed; and, more than all, it is to wrote and spoke, as follows: e would be a bold man-or, per- a man of severe labor, in anxious and

Caveant fratres quod non ostenan excessively timid one-who exhausting crises, the natural restora- dant se tristes extrinsicus, nubilosos d say that no change in our form of tive, good as sleep, and is the protection et hypocritas; sed ostendant se gau

dentes in Domine, hilares et convenirnment is desirable. It may well be of the over-driven brain against rancor the lodging of supreme authority and insanity."

enter gratiosos. where is desirable. It is not im- St. Francis possessed this kind of a This may be fairly put into English in ble that one of the three branches sense of humor. It appears definitely, these words: wernment ought to be able to com- once, at any rate, in the very creed which

Let the brothers take care not to 1 the other two.

he wrote, and it peeps out frequently in appear long-faced, gloomy, or overit it is neither too bold nor too timid the legends or stories, the Fioretti or pious; but let them be joyous about



their faith in God, laughing and agreeable companions.

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I once translated convenienter gratiosos by the term "good mixers.” But I found this colloquialism grated slightly on the ears of a good friend of mine, a devout Catholic, who felt that it was a little inappropriate to apply so modern a phrase to so sanctified a spirit as St. Francis. But why not? The great Master of St. Francis was accused by the conventionalists of his day of being a mixer with publicans and sinners; and a conservative and entirely respectable British journal, the "Quarterly Review," recently said that the gratiosus side of Jesus has been too much neglected. In reviewing Bruce Barton's "The Man Nobody Knows,” which may almost be called a colloquial life of Jesus, the "Quarterly” remarks that the book “brings out admirably that side of the personality of Christ which superstition has denied to him—his joy of life, his laughter, qualities which he must have possessed if he were to win (as he did win the hearts of children and of the every-day multitude." This power of attraction St. Francis

From “St. Francis of Assisi,” by Johannes Jörgensen Courtesy of Longmans, Green & Co. also possessed—and quite naturally. His

St. Francis of Assisi father was a rich merchant and his

Reproduction of the painting by Spagnoletto in the Palazzo Reale, Genoa mother a lady of the gentry. Intended

friar says that more than once he saw Francis. One day Friar Juniper cut to be a wealthy business man and sup- St. Francis take a stick and, drawing it the foot of a pig, pasturing in the for plied by his father with plenty of money across his arm like a fiddle bow on a to cook and give to a fellow-friar and leisure, he was a gay, lively, and fiddle, sing psalms of praises to the Lord was sick. Naturally, the owner of popular young man about town. He

in French; and French was pre-emi- pig came to the brethren in a state even went to the wars in search of mun- nently the joyous language of his time. fury. But when Friar Juniper explain dane glory. But after a sudden con tr

Perhaps these hymns were his own com- to the man that he had done it out sion, which some would like to think not

position. There is one still in existence, spirit of charity and of service to G less miraculous than St. Paul's, he aban- which is at least ascribed to him, the and by his spirit of simplicity so wroug doned wealth and war and became the famous "Hymn to the Sun." It was per- upon the owner of the pig that he apostle of poverty and peace. But he haps suggested to him by the 148th then and there converted and gave never was, like some of the saints on the

Psalm. In it he calls upon all creatures was left of the pig to the friars for the calendar, an eremite; to the end of his

to praise the Lord, especially Brother sustenance and announced that he wou comparatively short, but superlatively Sun, radiant and splendid; and Sister hereafter devote himself to a life influential, career he maintained his love Moon, luminous and lovely in the sky; piety, St. Francis's indignation and a of life and joy and the beauties of na- and Brother Wind, the master of cloud noyance with Friar Juniper was chan ture. Nor, apparently, did he entirely and fair weather; and Sister Water, to compassion and he exclaimed to lose the power of employing the lan- precious and pure; and Brother Fire, lu- companions, “Would to God, my bre guage of the trenches and the camps, for minous, mighty, and strong; and Mother ren, that I had a whole forest of se an ardent disciple and companion, Earth, which gives us fruits and flowers junipers!” Thomas of Celano, tells us that on one of many colors. The man who wrote One of the pleasantest stories of occasion he vented his indignation on a this surely loved life and its beauties. Francis is that of his sermon to the bird friar, who showed a too great fondness He loved, too, in a way, if the Fioretti On one of his preaching missions for the society of ladies, in words may be believed, the very foolishness of stopped by the wayside and said to scarcely suitable to be literally repeated men. One of his favorites was a Friar companions, “Tarry here for me by in the biography of a saint. His instinc- Juniper, who was all the time doing the way, and I will go and preach to tive gayety sometimes cropped out in an most senseless things by way of express- little sisters, the birds." Whereupon unexpected way. The same contem- ing his faith and devotion, and all the bade the birds to be grateful to the porary biographer who describes his time exciting equally the vexation, the Creator for the feathers with which the vigorous denunciation of the amorous amusement, and the compassion of St. were clothed, for the wings with whis

could fly, and for the pure air into history has been actuated by a more gen- After a short rest at Cortona, where hich they could soar. And the birds, uine and passionate love of peace, sim- dropsy set in, Friar Elias had the deathis related, acknowledged the lesson by plicity, and brotherly kindness. He lived stricken saint carried to Assisi, and at retching their necks, spreading their to see the brotherhood which he founded Bagnora the sorrowful procession was ings, opening their beaks, and looking become a highly complex organization, met by an armed force sent by the autently on him. By the devout this is possessing large properties and torn with thorities at Assisi, who were fearful lest karded as one of the miraculous signs sectarianism. Even his last illness was the men of the rival city of Perugia the saintship of St. Francis. It is tainted by the love of money on the part might snatch the body and thus deprive ther, I think, a sign of his humorous of some of his followers-a love which them of its lucrative possession.” sdom. By choosing the birds as a he had tried so hard during his devoted In spite of this touch of lucre, Assisi ngregation and professing to preach to life to eradicate. “In March, 1226,” has been for seven hundred years, and em on the duty of gratitude he was says an admiring English biographer, will continue to be for seven hundred ally taking the surest and most capti- "he was under a famous physician at years to come, the mecca of those who ting route to the ears and hearts of his Siena. Admonished by a severe hemor- are inspired by truth, simplicity, brothman hearers.

rhage, he dictated his spiritual Testa- erly kindness, self-sacrifice, and devotion It is well for St. Francis that he had ment to Benedict of Prato—a last touch- to an ideal when they see these divine sense of humor, for without it he must ing appeal for the pure, strict, and qualities displayed in a fellow human we been unutterably sad. No man in single-minded observance of his Rule. being.

A Greek Speaks

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The Outlook's Editor in Europe HERE is always something brew- and Gevgheli, on the Jugoslavian fron- to leave no time for watching Italian

ing in the Balkans. Just now tier (complaint being made that our developments in the eastern Mediterra

something special is brewing. It passenger and freight rates are excess- nean region.” not yet got into the newspaper head

ive and our rolling stock inadequate.) s. But it may. Under any circum

“(3) The policing of the zone by EFORE the war Austria wanted to ex

Jugoslavs, and not by Greeks. nces, Greek opinion concerning it is

tend her territory to the Ægean at eresting. Here it is.

“Are not these demands, especially the Salonika. Now Jugoslavia does. Were In very recent international conflicts, second, what you might call a bandit's not both desires due to a legitimate urge le with Italy, once with Bulgaria, we 'hold-up'? They would be laughable did towards commercial expansion? reks had to pay the piper. Now we they not mean a war menace.

“Surely. But they were also due to e a conflict with Jugoslavia. Who “In reply, we feel like saying:

'the big head. As did Austria-espepay? We shall see.

“(1) The free zone might be some- cially in view of Greek interior unrest"Judge for yourselves. Jugoslavia has what enlarged, but not doubled.

so may Jugoslavia think herself strong ts on the Adriatic Sea. But she wants “(2) Railway tariffs might be re- enough, particularly with Bulgar supon the Ægean also; first, because it duced and rolling stock increased, but port, to win this tempting goal by force ald be the far shorter and cheaper

no one save Greeks may acquire new of arms. let for her Macedonian commerce; shares in the railway, company.

"Let her try! “(3) In the free zone the Greek I, second, because, in case of war, Government certainly declines to per

“In and around and north of Salonika ly could block the Jugoslavian Adri

we have concentrated strong contingents mit Jugoslavian political as well as 1 ports, and without one on the Ægean commercial control.”

of our army. It is perhaps not a vain pslavia would have no sea access.

boast of one of our ablest generals, Pan

HY did the Jugoslavian Govern- galos, now Dictator and commanding the ed the force of this double plea and

ment-led by that Elder States- army, to say, as he has done, that it will nted to Jugoslavia a free land-and-sea man, Premier Pasitch, and by his astute be the best in the Balkans. le at the port of Salonika, a city of Foreign Minister, Nintitch-make such “But whether our executive be a King eral hundred thousand inhabitants. amazing demands?

or a President or a Dictator, we, the that zone Jugoslavia exports and im

"In my opinion, because Jugoslavia, Greek people, will never allow our neights with entire freedom from Greek

with monarchical Serbia in the saddle as bor's efforts to appropriate our own retoms barriers, so that now Jugoslavian its chief quantity, is no longer its own sources. amerce at Salonika is an important

master. It is being urged to extremes by “Our resistance must needs be, first of ction of the total. That fraction has

the Croats, now represented in the Gov- all, through entirely peaceful means; as ved so profitable that, suddenly and

ernment, but who have no love for it. a League of Nations member, we should, lly, the Jugoslavian Government has They long to put it in a hole and then of course, appeal to that body for its de to ours the following demands, as

proclaim a Croat, if not a Jugoslav, re- good offices in mediation. But, should cedent to a revival of the former public.

we be attacked, there will be no shrinkbo-Greek Treaty:

“Another incentive may have been a ing from the use of force in the just "(1) The doubling of the free zone.

hint from an Italian source. Italy would defense of our economic and moral "(2) The acquirement by Jugosla- hardly be unwilling to see Greece so rights.” 2 of the railway between Salonika occupied on the European mainland as Paris, February 1, 1926.

Well, the Greek Government recog- Why did the Jugoslavian Govern

Politics, Pandemonium, and Cucumber Peel

A Letter about Theatricals from Moscow


"Son," on the Place of Triumph! The

Heinz Evers would be able to prop
For some time already I had grand entrance to the chief hall is full of characterize such a scene! I am

the intention to answer your people. On both sides of the broad sure that even you, who are so kind letter from home, but could not do stairs are rooms where people indulge in and do not get excited about any 3 it before, having been so very busy. high-play roulette and hazard; the en- would not be spared a little shud

Knowing your great interest in every- trance fee to each gambiing hell is one looking on at these things. At any thing that concerns art and considering ruble. The company is rather mixed, a cock-fight or serpent dance by H. your prominent talent for dancing, I may elegant dresses from Paris intermingling Evers are trifles in comparison with presume that you will be interested to with shabby blouses and jackets. One play. hear something about the theaters in sees ladies whose dresses are cut out far Therewith England is destroyed Moscow. I will then start with a short over the limit, whereas the more elegant there remains only France, which is description of what I have seen myself. men chiefly sport a dark lounge suit, the as is well known, to be very suscept In the first place, the Theater of the coat looking a little overgrown, the trous

to all kinds of vices. The clever An Revolution. It is extraordinarily cheap ers wide and exceedingly short. Many cans very successfully make use of

a good seat in the fourth or fifth row foreigners are present; one hears Eng- French quality. They overwhelm from the stage costs 50 copeks; but the lish, German, French. The seats are unfortunate ones with such a quantit place is unventilated and exceedingly very expensive, but the theater is sold the most crafty vices that they lose dirty. The audience is frightful. The out every evening.

power of resistance and quickly common tovarisch (comrade) in top I have seen “What Price Europe?" surely go to the devil. Some scenes boots, golif (riding breeches), and leather

and do not regret having been there. I also shown here on the stage which jacket is predominant. The greater the only wish that you were present also. very strongly upon the nerves, but surprise, owing to the talented acting of Because the actors piayed brilliantly, not think that your pure mind wo the artists, which one could not possibly pointedly amusing and ghastly from suffer me to go into particulars. W have expected in such surroundings. beginning to end. The story is, in all this is being done in western Eur They act so entrancingly that one for- short, as follows: A trust of American the tovarischi have not been idle. W gets audience, bad air, and all the dirt, milliardaires decides to destroy the old immense energy they have dug tum and gives one's seli entirely up to the "rotten” Europe and to colonize it then to Germany, France, and England, play.

Germany goes to rack and ruin have saved through those tunnels The decorations are the strangest of all in dancing. The play takes place in the their own people that is, the who's in this theater: no side scenes, but only Café Risch, Unter den Linden, at Ber- the proletarians of these countries. E wooden scaffoldings, or, as they are lin; everything true to nature, including ing, of course, with the victory of called here, frames. Everywhere there the big Negro doorkeeper, Jimmy. La- Bolshevism over the Americans in are poles, ladders, small steps, just like dies and gentlemen are dancing zealously ticular, over the world in general, those being used in the erection of a new round the tables. Suddenly there appear great noise, many lighting effects, building. The actors are obliged to American airplanes and throw bombs on with sailors on the stage. climb about on these "scaffoldings,” a the dancers. Consequently, a ghastly On the stage of Meyerhold's there proceeding that in the excitement of act- effect: moaning, yelling, dying pairs are no side scenes either, only wooden ing might occasionally surely be far from wallowing in their blood. This is the end titions or screens, which are being rů easy to them. I personally cannot see of Germany.

there and back during the change any reason for these frames on the stage. England is being starved out, the scenes; this still increases the noise I have heard that this arrangement is Americans cutting it off from all and the intended confusion on the stage. said to have come from western Europe, every connection with the outside world. general din is being heightened owing and therefore I hope very soon to get an On the stage an elegant gentlemen's the orchestra playing almost incessa explanation about this point from you, as party in evening dress by dim violet- jimmies and five-steps, on quite you have lately visited several larger colored lights. But they eat the fingers normal instruments. The music towns in western Europe.

of one of their friends, whom they had make faces to the audience, roar o The play that I saw was a short story slaughtered previously, and now they are sionally loudly, and knock each o of the Revolution, full of political jokes all almost beside themselves from hun- with the fiddles and drums on the he and very drastic humor. Kerenski, ger. One of them plays a holy hymn on This conduct of the orchestra irrita among others, was represented. One the harmonium and accompanies the me in the beginning to some extent, could fully admire his inexhaustible ca- play with low whining. In spite of the had heard up till now only well-beha pacity for talking, as well as the dexter- hunger and the approaching madness, the bands, who did not allow themse ity with which he could kiss in a moment gentlemen behave faultlessly; they talk such unmusical jokes. a whole crowd of young girls without with subdued voices about shooting and In the third theater which I visited stopping in his speech. The play ended, other indifferent things, until suddenly audience were sitting on carpeis on as the custom here is, with a great one of them, going out of his mind, floor. Gentlemen and ladies were cro apotheosis, with many sailors on the breaks out into terrible laughter. The ing as near as possible together, or in stage and glorification of Bolshevism. others there and then lose their artificial nearest vicinity of the provisions bror

The theater of the Revolution had attitude. They throw themselves upon along. If any one of the artists actes already made upon mę, a novice, a cer- the maniac, and there begins a wild chase their liking, sandwiches, apples, or pie tain impression. But what was that in over and under tables, chairs, and cup- of chocolate were thrown to him, w comparison to Meyerhold's Theater in

boards, till at last the unfortunate one is the lucky receiver ate up on the the magnificent building of the former seized and done with. Perhaps a Hanns there and then. Actor who

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