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ل کا آسان اور بازار را از نام سے بازار ایران به این بیماری اور کو مار

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by


THE N in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. PUBLIC LIBRA?




Bressoof Fohn Wilson & Son.


* Mrs Florenced Jackson, May 15,1918

This Manual retains from the “ Latin Method” the general arrangement of topics, the later reading selections, and a few statements in detail, especially the section on reading at sight, with much of what is said on the derivation and meaning of words. In all other respects it is an independent book, and one for which I am solely responsible.

The object in view has been to provide a full year's course in Latin, which can be studied without the grammar. The fulness, the general statement, the scientific nomenclature required in a book of reference, ill adapt it to the beginner, bewildering him with theory before his mind is steadied and cleared by knowing the simpler facts. The thirty Lessons of Part First, with the accompanying Exercises, contain, it is believed, all of the forms and constructions needed as a preparation for easy reading. These may be followed directly by the earlier selections of Part Fourth,* before proceeding to the more difficult constructions of Syntax.

The Vocabulary to be used with these selections contains the more useful Roots as a guide to the proper study of words. The sections on the formation and meaning of words, with the illustrative lists on pages 126-128, and those given at the end of the book, will be found of advantage at this stage, for constant reference if not for class study.

In the elementary lessons, and in the vocabularies, the practice has been followed of marking as long all vowels known to have been so regarded by the Romans. These have been held to include not only those long “by nature or by “vowel-extension,” but also those before the combinations nf and ns,* together with a few others indicated by analogy, as amānt. If a serious attempt is made to pronounce according to the “ Roman Method,” the best help will be to train the learner's ear to it from the start.

* Taken from Kühner's “ Elementargrammatik," Hannover, 1866, 27th ed.

The systematic study of Syntax is provided for in Part Second by very numerous classified illustrations, both in Latin † and English, which may be used for practice in the writing of Latin during a second year's course. The grammar is here referred to, constantly and minutely, as the subject seems to require ; but the topics may be treated orally, if preferred, the examples in Latin being taken (at sight) as a guide in the exercises which follow.

The composition of this Manual has been studied wholly from the point of view of the elementary class-room; and, while scientific accuracy has been aimed at, the convenience of teacher or learner has in no case been sacrificed to theoretical completeness. Forms have been very fully indicated in the vocabularies; and occasional references to the grammar in the earlier Lessons will enable the teacher to give such further detail as may here and there be desirable.

My grateful acknowledgments are due to several of our best teachers, who have generously aided me by their counsel in the plan and in numerous details of the book. The entire work has received, in addition, the valuable revision and oversight of Dr. HENSHAW, former Principal of Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Massachusetts.

It may be worth while to add that the practice of tasking the beginner with a great mass of grammatical detail – which is fast coming to be considered a serious burden and harm to our scholarship-is one of comparatively recent date, and one which is not found (I believe) in any other country. The schoolboys of forty or fifty years ago, with less of theoretical accuracy and completeness in their studies, were relatively more familiar with the classic authors, and, there is reason to suppose, enjoyed them more, than those of a later day. A scientific etymology, and a syntax expounded on the principles of comparative philology, are a positive and great gain in the newer school. But the detail of these studies appears to belong to the professional scholar ; while their results are best seen in making more vivid and clear the forms of ancient thought and expression that have come down to us. They may be of real help to the youngest learner ; but only when they make the way easier and brighter in which he has to travel. To smooth that way a little is the best service I can hope to render.

* See Cicero, Orator, ch. 48. † Many of these are taken from Wright's “First Latin Steps." Macmillan, 1871.

J. H. A.

CAMBRIDGE, August 21, 1876.

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