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Jupiter; the name Tarpeius fell into disuse, with the exception of the rock on the south-east side of the hill, from which malefactors were cast down, and which still retained the name. Virgil applies to it the term “Tarpeiam Sedem,' the word sedem evidently referring to the temple of Jupiter, built there at a later period. It received its name Capitolinus from the legend of the head of a certain Tolus having been discovered in digging the foundations of the temple of Jupiter in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus.

There are two summits to this hill, with a depression between them, which was called the Intermontium. The north-east summit was the arx, or citadel, and the south-west summit the Capitolium, on which was the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. The word Capitolium was sometimes, however, applied to the whole hill. Dionysius tells us it was included within the boundaries of the city by Romulus after the death of Tatius, who raised an earthen rampart, which began at the north-east end of the Capitol, took in the Forum, encircled the Palatine, and joined the Capitol again at the south-west cliff, near the river. In the space between the Capitol and the arx (inter duos lucos') he built an asylum for all supplicants. On this hill Romulus dedicated also a temple to Jupiter Feretrius, where he deposited the spoils of the general of the people of Canina, whom he had slain in battle. Tarquinius Priscus laid the foundation of the temple of Jupiter in the Capitol, which was carried on by Tarquinius Superbus.

The most remarkable incident connected with the

history of the Capitoline arx is its being nearly taken by surprise by the Gauls who were besieging the hill, The assailants, who had scaled the rock during the night, were on the point of bursting into the citadel when the wakeful geese which were tended in the temple of Juno gave the alarm; the defenders sprang

n to arms, and hurled the Gauls from the top of the rocks. Manlius, a patrician, was the first to hear and the foremost to repel them, and on him was conferred the title of Capitolinus, as the saviour of this sacred fortress.

We now turn to the history of the famous temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which crowned one of the summits of this hill. The temple was placed on a broad and elevated platform, 800 feet square. It was the most splendid in Rome. It was first begun by Tarquinius Priscus, in consequence of a vow in the Sabine War, who only lived to finish the foundations, or rather to make preparations for them by levelling the summit of the hill; for we learn from Livy that Tarquinius Superbus, who resumed and carried on the work, spent a large sum upon the foundations alone. When the foundations were first laid, it was necessary to exaugurate the temples of other deities which stood upon the site destined for it; on which occasion, Terminus and Juventas, who had altars there, alone refused to move; and it became necessary to inclose their shrines within the temple—a happy omen for the future greatness of the city. Beneath the substructure of this temple were inshrined the prophetic volumes which were offered to Tarquinius Superbus by the Sibyl of Cumæ. The temple was dedicated by Horatius Pulvillus on the Ides of September, B.C. 509, and his name was inscribed upon it. A nail was driven annually, on the Ides of September, into the right-hand wall of the temple, a custom probably arising before the use of writing became general, for the purpose of marking

, the lapse of time. The original temple was evidently built in the Etruscan style. The front of the temple, which faced the south, had a hexastyle portico, consisting of three rows of columns, while on the flanks it had only two rows; the back seems to have been closed with a plain wall. It was rectangular, with three cells sacred to three deities, whose three equal cells were included within the walls, having common sides : that of Jupiter in the middle; on one side that of Juno, and on the other that of Minerva--all under the same roof.* The front had consequently great breadth. The statues of the deities in the cellæ were of baked clay. That of Jupiter was made by Turanius of Fregellæ, and was in a sitting posture; the face was painted with vermilion. The roof of the interior was made of timber, and gilt after the destruction of Carthage, A.U.C. 612. On the top of the temple was a car drawn by four horses, and the god Summanus in it, all made of baked clay. This god was an Etruscan divinity, and represented the nocturnal Jupiter. The breadth of the spaces between the

* According to Ampère, the object of Tarquinius Priscus was to unite in one temple the three representative deities of the three tribes with which Rome was connected : the Latin Jupiter, the Etruscan Minerva, and the Sabine Juno.

columns was thirty feet, and consequently must have required a wooden architrave. Shields and other military trophies were affixed to the columns. Asdrubal's shield, which was of silver, and weighed 138 pounds, was suspended over the door. The aspect of the temple, as Mr. Burn remarks, must have been heavy and low; the breadth being excessive, and the spaces between the columns out of proportion to the size of the whole.

The original temple was burnt down U.C. 670, in the wars of Marius and Sylla, having stood for 425 years. It was rebuilt by Sylla on the same foundations, and with pillars from the temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens ; these columns being Corinthian, the temple must have been rebuilt in a different style from the original. Sylla died before the dedication, and that ceremony was performed by Q. Catulus, whose name was inscribed upon it. This temple was evidently built of marble. The bronze tiles on its roof were gilt; the proportion of the pediment and roof was praised by Cicero, which leads to the inference that it was not restored in the original Tuscan style. The statue of Jupiter having been struck by lightning and much injured, the Haruspices ordered that a larger statue of Jupiter should be made, with its face towards the east and the Forum. This statue was completed in the consulship of Cicero. On a coin of Vitellius is a seated figure of Jupiter, in an ædiculum; around is the inscription IO MAX CAPITOLINVS. It doubtless represents the statue as it was in that age. It was ten feet high, and according to Pliny was the work of Mentor. The temple was again burnt in the reign of Vitellius, A.D. 70. From the description of Tacitus, it appears the Vitellian troops first suddenly rushed up the ascent from the Forum and attacked the arx ; but the Flavians going out on a portico on the side of the ascent, overwhelmed the Vitellians with stones and tiles, while Sabinus heaped up against the entrance gate statues which had been torn down from their pedestals. The Vitellians being repulsed on this side, they then changed their attack to the other side of the hill, at the entrance near the hundred steps and the asylum. There the assailants set fire to the houses which during the lengthened period of peace had been built on the spot. The fire thence spreading to the porticoes adjoining the temple, the roof, which was of timber, was set fire to; the whole temple was soon in a blaze, and was utterly consumed.

It was rebuilt on a loftier scale, but not of greater extent, by Vespasian, who laboured with his own hands to make a commencement of the work. On a coin of Vespasian it is represented as a hexastyle temple, on three steps, with Corinthian columns, a tympanum enriched with sculpture, two chariots with figures in them on the roof, and eagles at the angles of the pediments.

It was burnt again under Titus, and was restored by Domitian with greater magnificence; the former Athenian columns being destroyed, he brought others of Pentelic marble from Athens; but according to Plutarch, by smoothing and polishing them too much, he made them too slender and injured their proportion. The gilding of the temple cost over two millions, which made Martial jocularly say, that if Domitian

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