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of the arena. The substructures of the amphitheatres of Puzzuoli and Capua are analogous in their arrangement to those of the Colosseum, and consequently for analogous purposes for the raising of spectacular machines, and for making a great number of wild animals appear all at once on the arena. The amphitheatres of Puzzuoli and Capua are generally attributed to the time of Hadrian or Trajan, and the substructures are supposed to have been copied from those of the Colosseum.
These substructures were evidently required for the preparation of the exhibitions which were to appear on the arena. The central ambulacrum was doubtless used for the purpose of raising the decorations by the means of machines (pegmata), which formed part of the entertainment exhibited. A timber framework, blackened by age, has been discovered at the bottom of the central ambulacrum. It is supposed to be the remains of one of these pegmata for raising the spectacular arrangements to the level of the arena. Sockets have been also discovered in the floor of the lower arena, doubtless for the insertion of the pivot of a capstan for winding up the pegmata to the upper floor. Martial, Herodian, and Calpurnius tell us that mythological scenes were represented, and that the arena was suddenly changed into a forest. On one occasion Mount Ida, with trees and shrubs and fountains bearing Paris, and the three goddesses, Juno, Pallas, and Venus, arose on the arena. On another, the central ambulacrum appeared as a gulf, whence wild animals bounded forth. During the repre
sentation of gladiatorial combats, the ambulacra and square openings were boarded over. The greater part of the present substructures of the arena are undoubtedly of a period of decline, as those which preceded them had been destroyed in the fifth century by earthquakes, and were restored by the Prefects of Rome, Lampadius and Basileus, in the reign of Theodosius II., as an inscription informs us. Off the first and original arena are cells intended as receptacles for wild beasts; there were also canals for filling the arena with water when it was turned into a naumachia, and subterranean drains (cuniculi) for carrying off the water when the sea-fight was over. Two vaults have been also discovered, one on each side of the cryptoporticus which leads to the Lateran, which were evidently docks for keeping the galleystwo in each—which were used for fighting in the naumachia. There are side doors, with steps to each dock, for the soldiers to enter the galleys. There must be two similar vaults or docks at the other side of the arena, and consequently eight war galleys could be introduced in the naumachia. Several cryptoportici have been discovered. One opens out from under the eastern end leading towards the Lateran; two others on the north and south side, the one on the north leading to the Esquiline, that on the south leading to the Cælian. Another has been discovered under the south-east part of the amphitheatre. It has been termed the passage of Commodus; it turns to the east after it has passed the range of the building.
IN the Pantheon we admire a temple which is strikingly interesting, not only for the majesty and beauty of its portico and lofty columns, and the awe-inspiring effect of the vaulted dome of the interior, but also from its being the only one of the Pagan temples which preserves anything of its original appearance. It is undoubtedly, Mr. Fergusson writes, one of the finest temples of the ancient world.
The Pantheon was erected by Agrippa, 27 years B.C., in memory of Augustus's victory over Antony, and was dedicated to all the gods. It was during the breathless suspense of the protracted sojourn of Agrippa at Tarraco that the walls of the glorious Pantheon were rising in the field of Mars. While the consulars and nobles vied with each other in repairing or erecting the shrines of particular divinities, Agrippa undertook to raise a single magnificent temple to the tutelary deities of the Julian house.
It would, however, seem from Dion Cassius that the origin of the term Pantheon was not quite ascertained. He says : 'It is perhaps called so because in the statues of Mars and Venus it received the images of several deities. But as it appears to me, it has a name from the convex form of its roof giving a representation of the heavens.'
It suffered from fire with the rest of the buildings in this part of the Campus Martius, in the time of Titus; and was repaired by Domitian. It was also injured by lightning in the twelfth year of Trajan, and was repaired by Hadrian, who used it frequently as a court of justice. In the time of Septimius Severus and Caracalla, about 203 A.D., it was more completely restored, for, as the inscription on the architrave informs us, it was destroyed by age.
The portico, or pronaos, is octastyle, 110 feet long, by 44 feet deep; the pediment is supported by sixteen columns of the Corinthian order, eight in front, and eight in parallel lines behind ; each of which is of one piece of oriental granite, 464 feet high without the bases or capitals, which are of white marble. The columns are about 18 English feet in circumference. The opening between the two middle columns is larger than the opening between the others. The pediment was originally ornamented with a bronze bas-relief, representing Jupiter hurling thunderbolts upon the giants. The roof of the portico was supported by bronze girders. The entablature, which is 10 feet high, is plain; on its frieze is the inscription
M. AGRIPPA LF COS TERTIUM FECIT,
which, as may be seen by holes for nails, originally contained metallic letters. On the architrave, in smaller letters, is another inscription, commemorating the restoration of the building by Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
In the interior of the portico, on each side of the entrance-door, are two large niches, on which were placed, as Dion Cassius informs us, the statues of Augustus and Agrippa. Pilasters support the back of the portico. The doorway is richly carved in marble, and the bronze gates, moving on massive hinges fixed on two projecting pilasters, are of considerable antiquity, though perhaps not the original ones. It has been remarked they do not fit the aperture, and that, in order to remedy this defect, some other ancient ornaments have been annexed. Over the door is a bronze grating in its original place. Five steps originally led up to the portico. Below the present pavement in front of the Pantheon was a large open area, paved with travertine.
Three cornices run round the exterior of the rotunda, and divide it into three rings, the lowest of which was faced with marble, and the upper two with stucco. The latter two now present a series of discharging arches to relieve the weight and prevent a settlement.
Though this temple was much admired by ancient writers, it has been subjected to rather adverse criticism in modern times. 'Externally,' writes Mr. Fergusson, 'its effect is very much destroyed by its two parts, the circular and the rectangular, being so dissimilar in style, and so incongruously joined together. The portico especially, in itself the finest which Rome exhibits, is very much injured by being prefixed to a