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and other writings, which might prove injurious to character and good manners, be kept from our schools, until they have been purged of impure passages and words; and should this expurgation not be possible, the books shall rather not be read, in order that their contents may not contaminate the purity of the soul.

13. Let still greater care be exercised in the case of native writers, where the reading of such authors is customary in the schools. These authors shall be carefully selected, and none shall ever be read or praised, in whom the young may not take an interest without danger to their faith and morals. Therefore, men well versed in the native literature shall be consulted, in order to determine what may be done in this matter without injury, and then see to it that what has been determined, be also conscientiously observed by the prefects and teachers of the schools.

14. Let him [the Rector] see to it that the use of the Latin language is diligently maintained among the students; from this requirement of speaking Latin only holidays and recreation hours are to be excepted, unless the Provincial finds it advisable in certain localities to retain the use of Latin also on such days. He may also insist that our students, who have not yet completed their course of study, write their letters to other brethren of the order in Latin. Besides this our philosophical and theological students, two or three times a year, at the opening of a session or the renewal of their vows, shall compose and publicly post some poetical production.

15. The subject-matter of tragedies and comedies, which however shall be only in Latin and seldom acted, shall be of a sacred and pious character; the interludes also shall be in Latin and of due decorum;

female roles and costumes are prohibited.

16. Prizes may be publicly distributed once a year, pro

vided they be of moderate cost, according to the number of students and the grade of the college. But if any one provides the necessary cost for this purpose, his name must be honorably mentioned at the distribution of prizes.

17. The lower schools shall have a weekly recess of a whole day or a half day, according to the custom of the locality.

18. At all disputations, at which the professors of theology or philosophy are present, the Prefect must preside; he must give the disputants the sign to begin, and divide the time in such a manner that each one may have his turn in the discussion. He must let no difficulty which comes into the discussion be bandied about so that it remains just as obscure afterwards as it was before; but when it has been sufficiently discussed on both sides, let him have it carefully explained by the first defendant. For he himself shall not answer objections, but rather direct the advocates and defendants; an office which he will fulfil with more dignity, if he helps, not through arguments (which however he may sometimes make) but through questions, to solve the difficulty.

19. Nothing shall be publicly delivered in the House or out of it, either by those who are promoted to degrees or by those who hold general or particular disputations or by the students of rhetoric, unless it has first been examined and approved.

20. Let him [the Prefect] exercise care that the students have neither a lack of useful books nor a superfluity of useless books. Therefore, he shall early remind the rector, that our students, and those residing out of the House, may not suffer a lack of the books which they need daily or for the coming year.

He shall not grant to the students of theology and philosophy all the books they may desire, but with the


knowledge of the rector and the advice of the teachers, suitable books: namely, to the theologues, besides the author read in the school, the Summa of St. Thomas [Aquinas] and a commentary thereto or another select author, further the Council of Trent together with a Bible, in the reading of which he shall be at home. Whether they shall have a holy Father or a writer of Church history, he may consider with the rector.

.To the students of philosophy, besides the text-book he may assign, if it seems good to him, another approved author. Besides, let him give to every theological and philosophical student a book from classic literature, and admonish them not to neglect the reading of the same at certain suitable hours.

22. The special aim of the teacher, in his lectures on suitable occasion and elsewhere, should be to inspire his pupils to the service and love of God and to the exercise of the virtues through which we may please him, and to lead them to recognize this as the sole end of their studies.

23. In those questions which are left free to personal judgment, let him defend his own opinion in such a manner as modestly and benevolently to consider the reputation of the other party and still more of his predecessor in case the latter taught differently. If the different authors can be brought into agreement, it is desirable that this should not be neglected. Finally, let him be modest in naming or confuting authors.

24. Even when no danger to faith and piety is involved, no one, in subjects of any importance, shall bring forward, without previous consultation with the authorities, new questions or any opinion which is not held by some reputable author, nor present any views contrary to the teachings of the doctors and against the general view of the existing schools. Rather shall they all follow carefully the ap



proved teachers, and cling to that which through long years has been especially accepted in Catholic academies.

25. Let him not bring forward useless, obsolete, absurd, or manifestly false opinions, nor continue too long in mentioning and refuting them. Let him seek to establish his conclusions not so much by the number as by the weight of his arguments. Let him not digress to foreign materials nor use his own too diffusely or in a wrong connection. Let him not heap up a mass of possible objections, but only bring forward briefly the weightiest of them, unless their refutation is easily manifest from the fundamental principles already laid down.

26. In quoting learned authorities he shall not go to excess; but if he adduces the testimony of distinguished authors to confirm his position, let him briefly and faithfully cite, if possible, the very words; this he must do especially in passages from the Sacred Scriptures, Councils, and the holy Fathers. But for the sake of his dignity hardly any author is to be cited that he has not read himself.

27. Let him often question his pupils about the lecture, and insist on repetition. But after the lecture let him remain in or near the school, that his hearers may be able to question him.

Also in the House, except on Saturdays, holidays, and festival days, an hour must be assigned our students for repetition and disputation in order that in this manner the mind may be exercised and the occurring difficulties cleared up. Therefore, one or two should be designated to repeat the lesson by heart in not more than a quarter of an hour; then one or two shall assail the conclusion, while just as many defend it; and if afterwards there is sufficient time, all sorts of doubts may be proposed. But in order that there may be time, the professor must insist strenuously upon the syllogistic form in disputation, and when nothing

new is any longer brought forward, he must at once cut off the discussion.

29. Toward the end of the school year reviews are to be so arranged that, if possible, all the lessons may be repeated before the beginning of vacation.

30. Finally let him [the professor] with the help of divine grace be diligent and assiduous in all things, and seek the progress of his students not only in their lessons but also in their other exercises; and let him not be more familiar with one student than with another; let him despise none, and let him care for the studies of the poor as of the rich; let him promote the progress of each student individually.

31. Let him [the professor of Holy Scripture] recognize it as his principal duty, piously, learnedly, and thoroughly to explain the books given of God, according to their genuine and liberal sense, which confirms the right faith in God and the principles of good morals. Among other ends which he is to pursue, let this stand as chief, that he is to defend the translation (Vulgate) approved by the Church.

32. As to other translations, whether later Latin or vernacular

let him undertake the refutation only of weighty and easily corrupting errors; on the other hand let him not pass over what is favorable to the Latin Vulgate and the mysteries of our faith, especially when it is found in the Septuagint, which is always to be spoken of reverently.

33. When the canons of the popes or councils, especially the general councils, indicate the literal sense of a passage of Scripture as the true one, let him also by all means defend it and adduce no other literal sense, except where special reasons exist. When they employ a text expressly as proof of an article of faith, let him teach likewise that this is the indubitable sense, whether literal or mystical.

34.. Let him reverently follow in the footsteps of the

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