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holy Fathers; when they are agreed about the literal or allegorical sense of a passage, especially when they expressly say so and purposely treat of passages of Scripture or articles of faith, let him not depart from that sense; but where they are not agreed, let him choose from their different expositions what the Church for years and with great unanimity has preferred.
35. When he comes upon a text, over which we are in controversy with heretics, or which is quoted on both sides in theological discussions, let him expound it simply, yet thoroughly and vigorously, especially against heretics, and point out what weight is in the passage for deciding the question at issue; all the rest let him lay aside, in order that he, mindful of his vocation, may be simply an expounder of the Holy Scriptures.
36. Let him [the professor of theology] regard it as his function so to unite thorough subtlety of investigation with the true faith and with piety, that it may be subordinate and serviceable to them.
37. In scholastic theology our members shall follow the doctrine of St. Thomas, consider him as their true teacher, and take great pains that our students develop the utmost fondness for him. Yet it must not be thought that they are so bound to St. Thomas, that they may not deviate from him in any point; for even those who especially profess to be followers of St. Thomas, sometimes deviate from him; and it would not be right to bind our people to St. Thomas more strictly than the Thomists themselves.
38. In teaching, confirmation of faith and growth in piety must above all be considered. Therefore in questions, which St. Thomas has not expressly handled, no one shall teach anything that does not well harmonize with the views of the Church and the generally received traditions, and that in any way disturbs the foundation of genuine piety.
39. If it is known that certain views of any author would seriously offend the Catholics in a province or academy, let them not be taught and defended there. For where neither the doctrine of faith nor the purity of morals is in danger, a wise charity demands that our people accommodate themselves to those with whom they dwell.
Let him [the professor of Church history] treat the history of the Church with the view and with such skill, that he may render the study of theology more easy for his students, and more deeply impress upon their minds the dogmas of faith and the canons.
41. Let him clearly demonstrate that the rights of the Church and of its head rest upon antiquity, and let him show that the statements of innovators about the late origin of such rights are pure inventions.
42. Let him draw his exposition of history from unadulterated sources, and when it can be easily done, let him use the words of the authors themselves; let him show how the innovators have often corrupted the original statements.
43. Questions of doctrine and ecclesiastical law he must not treat himself, but hand them over to the proper professors; but at the same time he must consider it his duty to go over them historically and to establish them by facts themselves.
44. Inasmuch as philosophy prepares the mind for theology and other departments of study, contributes to their perfect comprehension and practical application, and promotes in itself the culture of the understanding and consequently the perfection of the will, let the teacher present it with due clearness, and honestly seek in all things the honor and glory of God, so that he may prepare his students for other sciences, but especially for theology, equip them with the weapons of truth against the errors of the inno
vators, and encourage them above all to a recognition of their Creator.
45. In all important questions he must not deviate from the teaching everywhere accepted in the academies. Let him defend the orthodox faith with his might, and seek thoroughly to refute the philosophical systems and arguments directed against it. Finally let him not forget in the choice of different opinions that theology must light the way.
46. Those philosophers who have been unfriendly to the Christian religion he must not read without great discrimination or discuss them in the school ; let him beware lest his pupils conceive an affection for them. If he quotes anything good from them, let him do so without praise, and show, if possible, that they have borrowed it elsewhere.
47. On the contrary let him always speak reverently of St. Thomas; let him follow him gladly, as often as possible, and deviate from him only unwillingly and respectfully, when he finds less pleasure in him.
48. Monthly disputations shall be held, at which the defendant shall briefly and philosophically establish one or two theses, and besides a professor invited to advocate the affirmative, the students of the higher class shall debate with those of the lower class, and then the students of the same class shall debate with one another.
49. From the beginning of logic on, the students shall be so instructed that in their disputations they may be ashamed of nothing more than of a departure from syllogistic form. The teacher shall insist on nothing more than on an observance of the laws of disputation and the proper alternation between attack and defense. Therefore, let the defendant first repeat the whole argumentation without any reply to the separate propositions; then let him repeat again the propositions, and add to each onė “ I grant it,” or “I deny the major or minor premise or the conclusion.”. Let
him also sometimes draw distinctions, but not urge upon any one against his will the explanation or reasons which one is accustomed to introduce.
50. Finally he [the professor of physics] shall not forget that he is to pursue the secular sciences in a religious manner, in order that "the invisible things of God may be made known through those things which are made ” (Rom. 1:20]; therefore let him seek, as occasion presents itself, to confirm the truths of faith also through physical science, yet without going aside to theological, metaphysical, or Scriptural exposition.
51.. There shall be three examiners (in the lower gymnasium studies] : one of them must ordinarily be the Prefect; the other two must be learned in the humanities, and be appointed by the rector together with the Prefect. A majority of the three shall decide. But where the number of students is large, two or more such triumvirates may be appointed.
52. The order of the examination is as follows: first each student, when he is called on, shall read a part of his composition; then let him correct his mistakes and explain them, with a citation of the rule which he has failed to observe. Afterwards the grammar students shall immediately translate into Latin an exercise assigned them in the vernacular; all shall be interrogated about the rules and subjects of their class. Finally, when it is necessary, a brief interpretation of any passage from those books, which have been read in class, may be required of them.
53. When three students have been examined, and while the recollection of the examiners is still clear, the vote shall be taken, in which the composition, the notes of the teacher, and the oral examination shall all be considered.
54. The list of promoted students shall be announced publicly either in the separate classes or in the assembly
room. When any students have greatly distinguished themselves, they shall first receive honorable mention; with the rest the order of the alphabet or of studies must be observed.
55. Let him [the Prefect] have great care that the students give public proof of their progress and of the good standing of our schools with due solemnity; to this end let him timely admonish the teachers and personally examine those students who are to appear publicly before they are allowed to do so.
56. In every class, according to the custom of the place, let him appoint a student as public censor, or if this name is displeasing, an upper decurion or prætor; who, that he may be in honor among his fellow-students, must be distinguished through some privilege, and have the right, with the approval of the teacher, of petitioning in behalf of his fellow-students for the remission of lighter punishments. Let him observe whether any of his fellow-pupils before the signal for school wanders around in the yard or enters another school, or leaves his own school or place. He must also inform the Prefect every day, who has been absent from school, whether any one not a student has entered the classroom, and finally whether in the presence or absence of the teacher any fault has been committed in the school.
57. On account of those who are lacking in diligence and good morals, and for whom kind words and admonitions are not alone sufficient, a corrector must be appointed who does not belong to the Society. Where such a person can not be had, another way should be devised (either through one of the students themselves or otherwise), by which the guilty may receive proper chastisement.
58. When neither words nor the office of the corrector is sufficient, when no improvement in the student is to be hoped for, and moral contamination for others is to be