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feared, it is better to remove him from the school than to keep him there, where he makes no progress himself and injures others. But that all may be done, as is fitting, to the glory and service of God, the decision of the matter must be left to the rector.

59. Christian doctrine must be learned by heart in all the classes; and in the three grammar classes, and if necessary, in the other classes, it must be repeated Fridays or Saturdays. According to the grade of each class more ample explanations shall be given and required.

60. On Friday or Saturday let him [the Professor of the lower classes] deliver for half an hour a pious exhortation or explanation of the catechism; but especially let him exhort to daily prayer to God, to a daily reciting of the rosary or office of the Blessed Virgin, to an examination of the conscience every evening, to a frequent and worthy reception of the sacraments of penance and the altar, to an avoidance of evil habits, to a detestation of vice, and finally to a practice of all the virtues becoming a Christian.

61. Especial care must be exercised that the students acquire the habit of speaking Latin. Therefore the teacher, at least from the upper grammar grade, must speak in Latin, and require also that the students speak Latin, especially in the explanation of rules, the correction of Latin exercises, in disputations, and in their daily intercourse. In the translation of authors he must himself have great regard for the purity and correct pronunciation of the mother tongue, and strictly require the same from the students,

62. The class-match (concertatio) is usually so arranged that either the teacher questions and the contestants (æmuli) correct the answers, or the contestants question one another. This exercise is to be highly esteemed and, as often as possible, engaged in, in order that a proper emulation (honesta æmulatio), which is a great incentive to study, may be cul

tivated. This contest may take place between two students only, or between several on each side, especially from the officers of the class. Let a private student attack another, and an officer another; sometimes also let a private attack an officer, and in case of victory let him take the officer's post of honor, or any other prize or mark of victory that the dignity of the school and the usage of the locality may demand.



The distinguished French essayist Montaigne was born in Perigord the last day of February, 1533. His father was a man of prominence, who filled, among other offices, that of mayor of Bordeaux for several years. His son speaks of him, in one of his essays, as “a man of austere probity," who had “ a particular regard for honor.”

The young Montaigne received a careful though somewhat unconventional education. He was awakened in the morning by the sound of agreeable music, and by means of a German tutor, who used only Latin in conversing with his pupil, he learned that language without the use of the rod. He attended the College of Guienne at Bordeaux, where at the remarkably early age of thirteen he completed the course of instruction. He afterwards studied law, and in 1554 received the appointment of councillor in the parliament of Bordeaux. He maintained intimate relations with the French court, and received from Henry II. the title of Gentleman in Ordinary to the King.

But a life of courtly service and martial activity did not suit the tastes of Montaigne, and accordingly, on reaching the age of thirty-eight, he resolved to dedicate the remainder of his life to study and contemplation. In connection with miscellaneous reading he acquired the habit of setting down the choice thoughts that occurred to him. At length these thoughts, revised and re-arranged, grew into the book of essays, which first appeared at Bordeaux in 1580.

During his absence in Italy Montaigne was elected mayor of Bordeaux, an office which he accepted from a sense of civic duty and which he filled with eminent ability. But along with his municipal duties he continued to prosecute his literary studies and to make from time to time important additions to his essays. New editions appeared at intervals until his death in 1592.

In his Essays, which have given him an honorable place in French literature, he has repeatedly touched upon education. He generally displays sound judgment and fine independence. He drew freely, as he confesses, from the ancients, particularly from Plutarch and Seneca. He entertained liberal views of education, and more than any one else led the reaction against the harsh discipline and narrow course of study prevalent in his day. The following selection is his essay, “Of the Education of Children," the essential parts of which are given entire. As will be seen, the essay is in the form of a letter addressed to Montaigne's friend, the Countess of Gurson, and it embodies the substance of all that he has elsewhere written.



To Madame Diane de Foix, Countess de Gurson:

For a boy of quality then, who pretends to letters not upon the account of profit (for so mean an object as that is unworthy of the grace and favor of the Muses, and moreover, in it a man directs his service to and depends upon others), nor so much for outward ornament, as for his own proper and peculiar use, and to furnish and enrich himself within, having rather a desire to come out an accomplished cavalier than a mere scholar or learned man; for such a one,

I say, I would, also, have his friends solicitous to find him out a tutor, who has rather a well-made than a well-filled head; seeking, indeed, both the one and the other, but rather of the two to prefer manners and judgment to mere learning, and that this man should exercise his charge after a new method.

'Tis the custom of pedagogues to be eternally thundering in their pupil's ears, as they were pouring into a funnel, while the business of the pupil is only to repeat what the others have said: now I would have a tutor to correct this error, and, that at the very first, he should, according to the capacity he has to deal with, put it to the test, permitting his pupil himself to taste things, and of himself to discern and choose them, sometimes opening the way to him, and sometimes leaving him to open it for himself; that is, I would not have him alone to invent and speak, but that he should also hear his pupil speak in turn. Socrates, and since him Arcesilaus, made first their scholars speak, and then they spoke to them. Obest plerumque iis, qui discere volunt, auctoritas eorum, qui docent." It is good to make him, like a young horse, trot before him that he may judge of his going and how much he is to abate of his own speed, to accommodate himself to the vigor and capacity of the other. For want of which due proportion we spoil all; which also to know how to adjust, and to keep within an exact and due measure, is one of the hardest things I know, and 'tis the effect of a high and well-tempered soul to know how to condescend to such puerile motions and to govern and direct them. I walk firmer and more secure up hill than down.

Such as, according to our common way of teaching, un

1 Diogenes Laertius, iv. 36. 2 “ The authority of those who teach, is very often an impediment to those whọ desire to learn.”-- CICERO, De Natura Deor., i. 5.

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