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such a fire is wanting, everything grows cold. Not without reason does the proverb say, “ Strike while the iron is hot.” For if it be allowed to cool it is useless to hammer it, but it must once more be placed in the fire, and thus much time and iron are wasted. Since every time that it is heated, it loses some of its mass.
56. Rectification. It follows therefore:
(i.) That he who is sent to school must be kept there until he becomes well informed, virtuous, and pious.
(ii.) That the school must be situated in a quiet spot, far from noise and distractions.
(iii.) "That whatever has to be done, in accordance with the scheme of study, must be done without any shirking.
(iv.) That no boys, under any pretext whatever, should be allowed to stay away or to play truant.
57. Nature carefully avoids obstacles and things likely to cause hurt.— For example, when a bird is hatching eggs it does not allow a cold wind, much less rain or hail to reach them. It also drives away snakes, birds of prey, etc.
58. Imitation.—In the same way the builder, so far as is possible, keeps dry his wood, bricks, and lime, and does not allow what he has built to be destroyed or to fall down.
59. So, too, the painter protects a newly-painted picture from wind, from violent heat, and from dust, and allows no hand but his own to touch it.
60. The gardener also protects a young plant by a railing or by hurdles, that hares or goats may not gnaw it or root it up.
61. Deviation. It is therefore folly to introduce a student to controversial points when he is just beginning a subject; that is to say, to allow a mind that is mastering
something new to assume an attitude of doubt. What is this but to tear up a plant that is just beginning to strike root? (Rightly does Hugo say: "He who starts by investigating doubtful points will never enter into the temple of wisdom.”) But this is exactly what takes place if the young are not protected from incorrect, intricate, and badly written books as well as from evil companions.
62. Rectification.-Care should therefore be taken
(i.) That the scholars receive no books but those suitable for their classes.
(ii.) That these books be of such a kind that they can rightly be termed sources of wisdom, virtue, and piety.
(iii.) That neither in the school nor in its vicinity the scholars be allowed to mix with bad companions.
63. If all these recommendations are observed, it is scarcely possible that schools should fail to attain their object.
XVIII. JOHN LOCKE.
John Locke, distinguished as a philosopher and educator, was born at Wrington in Somersetshire, August 29, 1632. His father served as captain in the Parliamentary army during the Civil War. After receiving a preparatory training at Westminster School, he proceeded to Oxford, where he took his bachelor's degree in 1655. He was endowed with a penetrating and practical mind, and, like Milton at Cambridge, he early found fault with the university on account of its extreme conservative tendencies. In after-life he expressed regret that so much of his time had been wasted in what he regarded as profitless studies.
After taking his degree Locke studied medicine, in which he made noteworthy attainments. In 1664 he went to Berlin as secretary to the English envoy Sir William Swan. Returning to Oxford at the end of a year, he made the acquaintance of the Earl of Shaftesbury, by whom he was introduced into the society of the most eminent political leaders of the day. He superintended the education of the Earl of Shaftesbury's son; and it was while acting as tutor in this distinguished family, that he developed the comprehensive and independent views embodied in his great educational treatise presently to be noticed.
Haying become involved in the political troubles of his generous patron, who had been charged with treason, Locke deemed it prudent to go to Holland in voluntary exile. This was in 1682. In 1688 he returned to England in the
fleet that conveyed the Princess of Orange. The year following he published his great philosophical work, “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,” which was designed to establish the capabilities and the limitations of the human mind. It had a wide circulation not only in England, but also in France and Germany; and everywhere it exerted an immense influence upon philosophic thought.
In 1693, after he had achieved a European reputation as a philosopher, he published a treatise entitled, “Some Thoughts Concerning Education.” It is not very careful in style nor methodical in its arrangement; but it is espedicially noteworthy as the first attempt in England to discuss education in a comprehensive and practical way. Though primarily designed to direct the education of a gentleman, or nobleman, the work, in large measure, is applicable to general education. It has influenced: educational thought in no small degree, Rollin and Rousseau, in particular, borrowing from it in large measure.
" Locke is a thorough Englishman,” says Karl Schmidt, "and the principle underlying his education is the principle according to which the English people have developed. Hence his theory of education has in the history of pedagogy the same value that the English nation has in the history of the world. He stood in strong opposition to the scholastic education current in his time, a living protest against the prevailing pedantry; in the universal development of pedagogy he gives impulse to the movement which grounds education upon sound psychological principles, and lays stress upon breeding and the formation of character."
Locke's treatise covers more than two hundred octavo pages. The following extracts, in every case the language of the original, are designed to exhibit his views on all essential points, and will be read with interest.
SELECTIONS FROM JOHN LOCKE.
SOME THOUGHTS CONCERNING EDUCATION.
I. A sound mind in a sound body is a short but full description of a happy state in this world; he that has these two has little more to wish for; and he that wants either of them will be but little the better for anything else. Men's happiness or misery is most part of their own making. He whose mind directs not wisely will never take the right way; and he whose body is crazy and feeble will never be able to advance in it. I confess there are some men's constitutions of body and mind so vigorous, and well framed by nature that they need not much assistance from others; but, by the strength of their natural genius, they are, from their cradles, carried towards what is excellent; and, by the privilege of their happy constitutions, are able to do wonders. But examples of this kind are but few; and I think I may say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are good or evil, useful or not, by their education. It is that which makes the great difference in mankind.
I imagine the minds of children as easily turned this or that way as water itself; and though this be the principal part, and our main care should be about the inside, yet the clay cottage is not to be neglected. How necessary health is to our business and happiness, and how requisite a strong constitution, able to endure hardships and fatigue, is to one that will make any figure in the world, is too obvious to need any proof. What concerns the body and health reduces itself to these few and easily observable rules. Plenty of open air, exercise, and sleep; plain diet, no wine or strong drink, and very little or no physic; not too warm and strait clothing; especially the head and feet