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sential condition of the moral development. It is no sooner replaced by anxiety and trouble than love, trust, and gratitude give way to selfishness, pride, and other evil passions.

When the mother succeeds in keeping the child contented, the benefit is felt by every member of the family. The home becomes a center of moral and religious life, and the child, whose trust in its parents nothing can shake, loves what they love, believes what they believe, and worships the same God and Savior.

But when this peace is wanting from the very cradle, the home, troubled in every part, is no longer a sanctuary of peace and happiness, and its good influence on the moral and religious development disappears.

The starting-point of thought is sense-perception, that is to say, the direct impression produced by the world on our internal and external senses.

Thus the power of thinking is formed and developed first of all by the impressions of the moral world upon our moral sense and by those of the physical world upon our bodily


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These impressions, acting on the understanding of the child, give him his first ideas, and at the same time awaken in him the desire to express them, first by signs, then by words.

To speak we must have not only ideas, but practiced and supple organs. And further, we can only speak clearly and exactly of those things from which we have received clear and exact impressions.

To teach a child to talk, then, we must first make him see, hear, and touch many things, and especially things which please him, so that he may readily give his attention to them; we must also make him observe them in order, observing each thoroughly before he proceeds to another At the same time he must have constant practice in putting his impres

sions into words. All this is what a good mother does for her child when it is beginning to speak.

Afterwards a foreign or dead language may be learned differently; partly because the organs of speech have already been trained, partly because most of the fundamental ideas are already there, and lastly, because the mother-tongue supplies the child with a point of comparison.

But before a child can compare things and exercise his judgment about them, his thought must also have practice in the two other chief elements of human knowledge, number and form.

The fundamental elements, then, that serve to develop the force of thought are language, number, and form, and it is the business of education to present these elements to the child's mind in the simplest possible manner, and in psychological and progressive order.

Art, practical knowledge, bodily skill, whatever in short enables a man to make what he has conceived in his mind, is what we call the industrial life. What are its fundamental elements? How may they be developed ?

Its fundamental elements are two: the power of the thought within, the practical skill of the senses and limbs without. To be completely useful, it must be the outcome of the harmonious development of heart, mind, and body. We have already spoken of the two first; it remains for us now to consider the fundamental elements of physical development.

Just as elementary exercises in number and form are necessary as training for the intellectual life, so elementary exercises in art and practical work are a necessary part of that physical training which is essential to success in the industrial life. Technical apprenticeship is but one particular form of this training.

And further, just as our moral and intellectual powers are

naturally inclined to be active, and attract us to whatever exercises them, so our industrial powers have a similar natural tendency, and attract us to whatever exercises and develops them.

The physical instinct which leads us to use our senses and limbs is generally connected with our animal nature, and needs no assistance from us. But this instinct must be subordinated to the moral and intellectual elements which constitute the superiority of human nature. To bring about this subordination is the essential work of education.

It consists in developing, according to the natural law, the child's various powers, moral, intellectual, and physical, with such subordination as is necessary to their perfect equilibrium.

This equilibrium alone can produce a peaceful, happy life, and one likely to profit the general welfare. Piety, faith, and love bring a man peace, and are indeed its conditions, for without these virtues the highest development of intellect, art or industry brings no rest, but leaves the man full of trouble, uneasiness, and discontent.



The most illustrious disciple of Pestalozzi was Frederick Froebel, who was born in Thuringia, April 21, 1782. Owing to the early death of his mother, his childhood training was sadly neglected. At the village school, which he entered in due time, he received religious impressions that never left him. At the age of ten years he went to live with an uncle, in whose home he found the kindness and sympathy that his earlier childhood had missed. He entered the town school of Stadt-Ilm, but the teacher, an old-time mechanical driller, failed to reach the inner nature of his gifted pupil.

At the age of fifteen Froebel became a forester's apprentice. Not receiving the instruction he had a right to expect, he was thrown upon his own resources, and by means of the books at hand he made considerable attainments in the forester's art. He was especially fond of botany. “My church religion," he wrote, “changed into a religious life in Nature, and in the last half-year I lived entirely in and with plants, which attracted me wonderfully, without however the meaning of the inner life of the plant-world yet dawning on me."

In 1799 he entered the University of Jena, where he attended lectures on mathematics, botany, natural history, physics, chemistry, and architecture. Several years were spent in various employments without yielding him either much profit or peace of mind. In 1805 we find him in Frankfort with an architect. Then the turning point in his PAINTER PED. Ess.- 24


life came.

He was offered a position as teacher; and the ecstasy he felt, as he stood for the first time in the presence of the school, convinced him that he had found his place. To use his own expression, “ The fish was in the water."

In 1808 he went to Yverdun, and spent two years with Pestalozzi. He took with him three pupils, of whom he had charge as tutor. Thus he became thoroughly acquainted with Pestalozzi's system, which in its essential features he cordially adopted, but which he also supplemented and improved. Afterward feeling the necessity of increasing his store of knowledge, he studied at the universities of Göttingen and Berlin. In 1813 he joined the Prussian army, and took an active part in the campaign against Napoleon. After the close of the war he established a school at Keilhau in 1817, in which he followed “the principle of cultivating the self-activity of the pupil by connecting manual labor with every study.” After a temporary success, the enterprise, on political and religious grounds, was opposed by the Prussian government, and in 1831 Froebel was forced to abandon it.

It was during his work at Keilhau that Froebel published his great work, from which the following extracts are taken. The full title of the work is as follows: “ The Education of Man, the Art of Education, Instruction and Training, Aimed at in the German Educational Institute at Keilhau, set forth by its Principal, F. W. A. Froebel.” It is a work of profound thought, requiring and repaying repeated perusal. “His great word,” to adopt the judgment of Dr. W. T. Harris, "is inner connection. There must be an inner connection between the pupil's mind and the objects which he studies, and this shall determine what to study. There must be an inner connection in those objects among themselves which determines their succession and the order in which they are to be taken up in the course of instruction. Finally,

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