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kind of culture were needed for the gaining of information and another kind were needed as a mental gymnastic. Everywhere throughout creation we find faculties developed through the performance of those functions which it is their office to perform, not through the performance of artificial exercises devised to fit them for these functions. The red Indian acquires the swiftness and agility which make him a successful hunter by the actual pursuit of animals; and by the miscellaneous activities of his life he gains a better balance of physical powers than gymnastics ever give. That skill in tracking enemies and prey which he has reached by long practice implies a subtlety of perception far exceeding anything produced by artificial training. And similarly throughout. From the Bushman, whose eye, which being habitually employed in identifying distant objects that are to be pursued or fled from, has acquired a quite telescopic range, to the accountant whose daily practice enables him to add up several columns of figures simultaneously, we find that the highest power of a faculty results from the discharge of those duties which the conditions of life require it to discharge. And we may be certain, a priori, that the same law holds throughout education. The education of most value for guidance must at the same time be the education of most value for discipline.

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We conclude, then, that for discipline as well as for guidance, science is of chiefest value. In all its effects, learning the meaning of things is better than learning the meaning of words. Whether for intellectual, moral, or religious training, the study of surrounding phenomena is immensely superior to the study of grammars and lexicons.

Thus to the question with which we set out, What knowledge is of most worth? the uniform reply is -science. This is the verdict on all the counts. For direct self-preservation,

or the maintenance of life and health, the all-important knowledge is - science. For that indirect self-preservation which we call gaining a livelihood, the knowledge of greatest value is - science. For the due discharge of parental functions, the proper guidance is to be found only in — science. For that interpretation of national life, past and present, without which the citizen can not rightly regulate his conduct, the indispensable key is -- science. Alike for the most perfect production and highest enjoyment of art in all its forms, the needful preparation is still

science. And for purposes of discipline - intellectual, moral, religious — the most efficient study is, once more science. The question which at first seemed so perplexed has become, in the course of our inquiry, comparatively simple. We have not to estimate the degrees of importance of different orders of human activity, and different studies as severally fitting us for them, since we find that the study of science, in its most comprehensive meaning, is the best preparation for all these orders of activity. We have not to decide between the claims of knowledge of great though conventional value, and knowledge of less though intrinsic value, seeing that the knowledge which we find to be of most value in all other respects is intrinsically most valuable: its worth is not dependent upon opinion, but is as fixed as is the relation of man to the surrounding world. Necessary and eternal as are its truths, all science concerns all mankind for all time. Equally at present and in the remotest future must it be of incalculable importance for the regulation of their conduct that men should understand the science of life, physical, mental, and social, and that they should understand all other science as a key to the science of life.

And yet the knowledge which is of such transcendent value is that which, in our age of boasted education, receives the least attention. While this which we call civili

PAINTER PED. Ess.- 27

zation could never have arisen had it not been for science, science forms scarcely an appreciable element in what men consider civilized training. Though to the progress of science we owe it that millions find support where once there was food only for thousands, yet of these millions but a few thousands pay any respect to that which has made their existence possible. Though this increasing knowledge of the properties and relations of things has not only enabled wandering tribes to grow into populous nations, but has given to the countless members of those populous nations comforts and pleasures which their few naked ancestors never even conceived, or could have believed, yet is this kind of knowledge only now receiving a grudging recognition in our highest educational institutions. To the slowly growing acquaintance with the uniform coexistences and sequences of phenomena — to the establishment of invariable laws — we owe our emancipation from the grossest superstitions. But for science we should be still worshipping fetishes, or, with hecatombs of victims, propitiating diabolical deities.

Paraphrasing an Eastern fable, we may say that in the family of knowledges, science is the household drudge, who, in obscurity, hides unrecognized perfections. To her has been committed all the work; by her skill, intelligence, and devotion have all the conveniences and gratifications been obtained; and while ceaselessly occupied ministering to the rest, she has been kept in the background, that her haughty sisters might flaunt their fripperies in the eyes of the world. The parallel holds yet further. For we are fast coming to the dénouement, when the positions will be changed; and while these haughty sisters sink into merited neglect, science, proclaimed as highest alike in worth and beauty, will reign supreme.

INDEX

choice of university students, 235;

supervision of youth, 238.
Associations, influence of evil, 140;

bad, to be avoided, 277.
Astronomy, defined and explained,

167.
Athletics, see Gymnastics.

BAPTISM, preparation for, 154.
Books, should be collected, 134;

different classes of, 184; injurious,
to be excluded from schools, 191;
good, to be provided, 192; exces-
sive devotion to, 220; sources of
wisdom and piety, 277.

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ACTIVITIES, the leading, of life, 408.
Alphabet, how to be taught, 110;

how to be learned, 144.
Alexander, taught by Aristotle, 109,

219.
Anger, to be avoided, 138.
Apostolical Constitution, described,
150; forbid

pagan books, 151;
parents should bring up children
religiously, 152; corporal punish-
inent, 152; catechumens, 153;

preparation for baptism, 154.
Aristotle, sketch of, 33; principal

books, 34; virtue dependent on na-
ture, habit, and reason, 35; char-
acter of rulers, 36; the soul di-
vided into two parts, 37; Spartan
education, 38; education for peace
rather than for war, 39; virtues of
state, 39; reason

and appetite,
41; early training, 41, 42; Plato
criticised, 42; prohibition of inde-
cency, 42, 43; education a civic
duty, 44;

should be public, 44;
diverse aims of, 45; what should
be taught, 45; branches of educa.
tion, 46; music, 46, 47; liberal
and utilitarian culture, 48; athlet-
ics should not be brutal, 49; not
excessive, 50; music in education,
50-54;

musical instruments, 56;
Plato's views criticised, 59;

three
principles of education, 60.
Arithmetic defined, 164; its relation

to the Scriptures, 165.
Ascham, Roger, sketch of, 228;

“ The Schole-master,” 228; meth-
od
with Latin, 229;

on method,
231; precocious children, 232;
brilliant men, 232; on mathematics,
233; persistent plodders, 234; bad

CATECHUMENS, instruction of, 153.
Censors, in Jesuit schools, 200.
Charlemagne, sketch of, 155; efforts

in behalf of education, 155;
pitulary of 787," 156; study of let.
ters in monasteries, 156;

who
should teach, 157.
Children, nature of, 28; early train-

ing of, 41; protected from evil
influences, 42, 43; quick to learn,
104; should be accustomed to

cor-
rect speech, 105; to be taught
early, 108, 109; to be cared for
by mothers, 127; easily molded,
127; fond of learning, 180; pre-
cocious, 232; ready to learn, 237;
not to be broken, 282; dispositions
to be studied, 282; to be reasoned
with, 283; seldom need whipping,
284; desirous of instruction, 299;
easily impressed, 300; characters to
be weighed, 306, 307; authority
over, to be assumed, 308; fear and
love to be called forth, 309; cor-
rection of, 310; appeal to reason,

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of,

313; trained in truthfulness, 314;
in good habits, 315; should have
recreation, 317; trained in virtue,
319; should be loved, 327; indul.
gence of, 327; not to be com-
manded, 328; how to be trained,
329; the only moral lesson suited
to, 330; should be respected, 331;
memory of, 332; not to be taught
many things, 334; taught to love
all

men, 337; trained in morals,
349; their confidence to be won,
360; eagerness to learn, 361; not

to be repelled, 377.
Christianity, relation to education,

319; the Christian teacher, 320.
Church, the, attitude of, to

pagan
literature, 151.
Cicero, sketch of, 83; ideal of ora-
tor, 84; orator

and poet, 86;
studies for the orator, 88; rhetori-
cal study, 89; nature of eloquence,
90; five parts of oratory, 91; ele.
ments of discourse, 92; writing as
aid to speaking,

93; utility of
declamation and translation, 95;

the orator's knowledge, 96.
Clergy, education of, 159.
Comenius, John Amos, sketch of,
255;

of Tongues Un-
locked,” 256; Orbis Pictus,” 257;
“ Great Didactic,” 257; end of
education, 258; woman to be edu-
cated, 258; classes of objects, 259;
purpose of schools, 259; office of
teachers, 260; nature observes
suitable time, 262; common errors,
265; examples before rules, 266;
premature instruction,

267;

too
many studies, 268; comprehension
before memorizing, 270;
eral before the particular, 272;
gradual progress, 273, 274; educa-
tion

should be continuous, 276;
on books, 277.
Compulsory education, 23.
Cornelia, learning of, 106.
Culture, nature of, 348.
Cyrus, character of, 62.

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EDUCATION, two branches

9;
gymnastics, II; of woman, 23, 24;
scope and periods of, 28; order of,
41; a civic duty, 44; should be
public, 44;

diverse aims of, 45;
utilitarian, 45;

liberal arts, 45;
branches of, 46; three principles
of, 60; in Persia, 62, 67; a diffi-
cult task, 98; certain moral vir-
tues, 99; utility, 100; moral aims
of, 101; should begin early, 107,
108; in public schools, I13;

in-
ferior ability helped by, 126; im-
portance of, 130; universal,

135;
memory in, 136; religious, 144;
manual, 148; catechetical, 153;
Charlemagne's efforts for, 155;
clerical, 159; the world concerned
in, 173; shame of neglecting, 174;
relation to civic welfare, 175; liber-
al studies in, 176; relation to civil
government, 178; necessity of, 179;
united with work, 181; aim of,
193; emulation in, 201; purpose of,
204; bookish learning, 208; uses
of travel in, 208; physical, 209;
right use of, 210; what the scholar
should know, 214; age for, 219;
nature of, 222; should be made
pleasant, 222;

excessive language
study in, 223; harsh methods, 231;
end of,

242; Spartan, criticised,
251; traveling in, 253; purpose
aimed at, 258; time for, 263; to
be continuous, 276; ideal of, 280;
virtue as the end of, 282; fourfold
aim of, 285; of girls, neglected,
294;

for woman, 301; source of
happiness, 305; object of, 306;
definition of, 306; fear and love
in, 309; to be made agreeable, 316;

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the gen-

DECORATION precedes dress, 400.

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