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kind of culture were needed for the gaining of information and another kind were needed as a mental gymnastic. Everywhere throughout creation we find faculties developed through the performance of those functions which it is their office to perform, not through the performance of artificial exercises devised to fit them for these functions. The red Indian acquires the swiftness and agility which make him a successful hunter by the actual pursuit of animals; and by the miscellaneous activities of his life he gains a better balance of physical powers than gymnastics ever give. That skill in tracking enemies and prey which he has reached by long practice implies a subtlety of perception far exceeding anything produced by artificial training. And similarly throughout. From the Bushman, whose eye, which being habitually employed in identifying distant objects that are to be pursued or fled from, has acquired a quite telescopic range, to the accountant whose daily practice enables him to add up several columns of figures simultaneously, we find that the highest power of a faculty results from the discharge of those duties which the conditions of life require it to discharge. And we may be certain, a priori, that the same law holds throughout education. The education of most value for guidance must at the same time be the education of most value for discipline.
We conclude, then, that for discipline as well as for guidance, science is of chiefest value. In all its effects, learning the meaning of things is better than learning the meaning of words. Whether for intellectual, moral, or religious training, the study of surrounding phenomena is immensely superior to the study of grammars and lexicons.
Thus to the question with which we set out, What knowledge is of most worth? the uniform reply is -science. This is the verdict on all the counts. For direct self-preservation,
or the maintenance of life and health, the all-important knowledge is - science. For that indirect self-preservation which we call gaining a livelihood, the knowledge of greatest value is - science. For the due discharge of parental functions, the proper guidance is to be found only in — science. For that interpretation of national life, past and present, without which the citizen can not rightly regulate his conduct, the indispensable key is -- science. Alike for the most perfect production and highest enjoyment of art in all its forms, the needful preparation is still
science. And for purposes of discipline - intellectual, moral, religious — the most efficient study is, once more science. The question which at first seemed so perplexed has become, in the course of our inquiry, comparatively simple. We have not to estimate the degrees of importance of different orders of human activity, and different studies as severally fitting us for them, since we find that the study of science, in its most comprehensive meaning, is the best preparation for all these orders of activity. We have not to decide between the claims of knowledge of great though conventional value, and knowledge of less though intrinsic value, seeing that the knowledge which we find to be of most value in all other respects is intrinsically most valuable: its worth is not dependent upon opinion, but is as fixed as is the relation of man to the surrounding world. Necessary and eternal as are its truths, all science concerns all mankind for all time. Equally at present and in the remotest future must it be of incalculable importance for the regulation of their conduct that men should understand the science of life, physical, mental, and social, and that they should understand all other science as a key to the science of life.
And yet the knowledge which is of such transcendent value is that which, in our age of boasted education, receives the least attention. While this which we call civili
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zation could never have arisen had it not been for science, science forms scarcely an appreciable element in what men consider civilized training. Though to the progress of science we owe it that millions find support where once there was food only for thousands, yet of these millions but a few thousands pay any respect to that which has made their existence possible. Though this increasing knowledge of the properties and relations of things has not only enabled wandering tribes to grow into populous nations, but has given to the countless members of those populous nations comforts and pleasures which their few naked ancestors never even conceived, or could have believed, yet is this kind of knowledge only now receiving a grudging recognition in our highest educational institutions. To the slowly growing acquaintance with the uniform coexistences and sequences of phenomena — to the establishment of invariable laws — we owe our emancipation from the grossest superstitions. But for science we should be still worshipping fetishes, or, with hecatombs of victims, propitiating diabolical deities.
Paraphrasing an Eastern fable, we may say that in the family of knowledges, science is the household drudge, who, in obscurity, hides unrecognized perfections. To her has been committed all the work; by her skill, intelligence, and devotion have all the conveniences and gratifications been obtained; and while ceaselessly occupied ministering to the rest, she has been kept in the background, that her haughty sisters might flaunt their fripperies in the eyes of the world. The parallel holds yet further. For we are fast coming to the dénouement, when the positions will be changed; and while these haughty sisters sink into merited neglect, science, proclaimed as highest alike in worth and beauty, will reign supreme.
choice of university students, 235;
supervision of youth, 238.
bad, to be avoided, 277.
BAPTISM, preparation for, 154.
different classes of, 184; injurious,
ACTIVITIES, the leading, of life, 408.
how to be learned, 144.
pagan books, 151;
preparation for baptism, 154.
books, 34; virtue dependent on na-
should be public, 44;
musical instruments, 56;
to the Scriptures, 165.
“ The Schole-master,” 228; meth-
CATECHUMENS, instruction of, 153.
in behalf of education, 155;
ing of, 41; protected from evil
313; trained in truthfulness, 314;
men, 337; trained in morals,
to be repelled, 377.
319; the Christian teacher, 320.
and poet, 86;
93; utility of
the orator's knowledge, 96.
of Tongues Un-
should be continuous, 276;
EDUCATION, two branches
diverse aims of, 45;
liberal arts, 45;
242; Spartan, criticised,
for woman, 301; source of
DECORATION precedes dress, 400.