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to deposit them respectively in the places from which she took them.”

II. Of the housekeeper we made choice after considering which of the female servants appeared to have most self-restraint in eating, and wine, and sleep, and converse with the male sex; and, in addition to this, which seemed to have the best memory, and which appeared to have forethought, that she might not incur punishment from us for neglect, and to consider how, by gratifying us, she might gain some mark of approbation in return. 12. We formed her to entertain feelings of affection toward us, giving her a share in our pleasure when we had an occasion of rejoicing, and consulting her, if anything troublesome occurred, with reference to it. We also led her to become desirous of increasing our property, by stimulating her to take accounts of it, and making her in some degree partaker of our prosperity. 14. We also excited in her a love of honesty, by paying more respect to the well-principled than to the unprincipled, and showing her that they lived in greater plenty and in better style. We then installed her in her appointment. 14. But in addition to all this, Socrates,” said he, “I told my wife that there would be no profit in all these arrangements, unless she herself took care that the appointed order for everything should be preserved. I also instructed her that in the best-regulated political communities it is not thought sufficient by the citizens merely to make good laws, but that they also appoint guardians of the laws, who, overlooking the state, commend him who acts in conformity with the laws, and, if any one transgresses the laws, punish him. 15. I accordingly desired my wife," continued he, “to consider herself the guardian of the laws established in the house, and to inspect the household furniture, whenever she thought proper, as the commander of a garrison

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inspects his sentinels; to signify her approbation if everything was in good condition, as the senate signifies its approval of the horses and horse-soldiers; to praise and honor the deserving like a queen, according to her means, and to rebuke and disgrace any one that required such treatment. 16. But I moreover admonished her,” added he, “ that she would have no reason to be displeased, if I imposed on her more trouble with regard to our property than I laid on the servants; remarking to her, that servants have only so far a concern with their master's property as to carry it, or keep it in order, or take care of it; but that no servant has any power of using it unless his master puts it into his hands, while it belongs all to the master himself, so that he may use any portion of it for whatever purpose he pleases. 17. To him therefore that receives the greatest benefit from its preservation, and suffers the greatest loss by its destruction, I showed her that the greatest interest in its safety must belong.”

18. "Well then, Ischomachus," said I,“ how did your wife, on hearing these instructions, show herself disposed to comply with your wishes?” “She assured me, Socrates," replied he, “that I did not judge rightly of her, if I thought that I was imposing on her what was disagreeable, in telling her that she must take care of the property; for she remarked," said he, "that it would have been more disagreeable to her if I had charged her to neglect her property, than if she were required to take care of the household goods. 19. For it seems to be a provision of nature,” concluded he,“ that as it is easier for a well-disposed woman to take care of her children than to neglect them, so it is more pleasing (as he thought, he said), for a right-minded woman to attend to her property, which, as being her own, affords her gratification, than to be neglectful of it."



Marcus Tullius Cicero, the distinguished orator, statesman, and philosopher, was perhaps the best representative of the Græco-Roman culture of his day. To natural gifts of a high order he added the best culture of Rome and Athens. The numerous works that have descended to us afford ample opportunity to judge of his character and his ability. In oratory he fairly rivaled Demosthenes; and in his various philosophical treatises, written with a polished copiousness previously unknown in Rome, he has reflected the best thought of Roman and Grecian antiquity. Though lacking in force and independence of character, he was a man of keen penetration and strict integrity.

Cicero was born at Arpinum 106 B. C. of an equestrian family. At an early age he was taken to Rome by his father, a man of large influence and culture, that he might enjoy the superior educational advantages of the metropolis. He there studied under the orator Crassus and the poet Archias, the latter of whom he afterwards defended in a beautiful oration. In addition to the laws of his country and the literature of Greece and Rome, he made a careful study of the leading systems of philosophy, and thus exemplified the principles which he inculcated later, that the orator should be acquainted with the whole circle of knowledge.

At the age of twenty-six Cicero entered upon his legal career, and at once distinguished himself by his moving

eloquence. Ostensibly to regain his health but really to escape the jealousy of the dictator Sulla, he withdrew to Athens, where he further devoted himself to the cultivation of his oratorical powers. Through further travel, especially in the Roman province of Asia, he stored his capacious and acquisitive mind with new treasures of learning. On returning to Rome he successfully filled several political offices, and was finally elected, by an overwhelming vote, to the consulship. While filling this office he frustrated the treasonable designs of Catiline, and was proclaimed father of his country.”

But not long afterwards he became the victim of partisan violence, and in 58 B. C. suffered banishment from Rome. He resided for more than a year at Thessalonica. He was then recalled to Rome, where he was received with great enthusiasm. In the civil war between Cæsar and Pompey, he espoused the cause of the latter; and after Pompey's defeat and death in 48 B. C., he lived in retirement. It was during this period of enforced leisure that he wrote his principal works. He was slain 43 B. C. by the soldiers of Antony, whom he had opposed in a series of orations to which he gave the name of Philippics.

Cicero touches upon education in his oration in defense of Archias, in his dialogue on “ Brutus,” and in his

Orator.” It is from the last named work that the following selection is taken. It is interesting as presenting the great Roman's views of what an orator's education should be. We should not forget that to Cicero's mind the orator was the highest type of the cultured and capable gentleman. He therefore presents, in this brief extract, his conception of the highest aim of a generous and complete education.


XV. “If, therefore, any one desires to define and comprehend the whole and peculiar power of an orator, that man, in my opinion, will be an orator, worthy of so great a name, who, whatever subject comes before him, and requires rhetorical elucidation, can speak on it judiciously, in set form, elegantly, and from memory, and with a certain dignity of action. But if the phrase which I have used, on whatever subject,' is thought by any one too comprehensive, let him retrench and curtail as much of it as he pleases; but this I will maintain, that though the orator be ignorant of what belongs to other arts and pursuits, and understands only what concerns the discussions and practice of the Forum, yet if he has to speak on those arts, he will, when he has learned what pertains to any of them from persons who understand them, discourse upon them much better than the very persons of whom those arts form the peculiar province. Thus, if our friend Sulpicius have to speak on military affairs, he will inquire about them of my kinsman Caius Marius, and when he has received information, will speak upon them in such a manner, that he shall seem to Marius to understand them better than himself. Or

Or if he has to speak on the civil law, he will consult with you, and will excel you, though eminently wise and learned in it, in speaking on those very points which he shall have learned from yourself. Or if any subject presents itself, requiring him to speak on the nature and vices of men, on desire, on moderation, on continence, on grief, on death, perhaps, if he thinks proper (though the orator ought to have a knowledge of these things), he will consult with Sextus Pompeius, a man learned in phi

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