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MOST REVEREND THE ARCHBISHOPS,
THE RIGHT REVEREND THE BISHOPS,
THE REVEREND THE CLERGY,
The United Churches of Gngland and Ireland,
THE RIGHT AND THE NECESSITY OF THEIR CONTINUED SEPARATION
FROM THE CHURCH OF ROME,
THERE is nothing, says an able writer, in the history of the whole world, more extraordinary than the various events connected with the name and the territory of Rome. The first studies of our youth acquaint us with the valiant deeds and self-devotion of Roman heroes and patriots, the magic influence of Roman eloquence, the splendid victories of Roman armies, the profound policy of Roman senates, and the almost boundless dominion of Roman Emperors: and such is their impression that every thing patient in endurance, mighty in operation, brilliant in success, and wise in counsel, becomes, in our feelings, identified with that which is Roman. Yet all these things are far outdone by the modern history of the Eternal City; whose ancient records contain nothing equal to the policy, the stratagems, the achievements, and the unconquerable perseverance by which the Popes have been gradually elevated to ecclesiastical sovereignty, and temporal dominion; so that the champions of the Church have sur
passed the heroes of the Republic; the subtilty of the Conclave has exceeded, in depth and refinement, that of the Senate; the thunder of the Vatican has rolled more terrible than that of the Capitol; and the tyranny and oppression of the Pontiffs have been more despotic and intense than that of the proudest of the Cæsars.
Ancient Rome was avowedly a military power; victory, her ambition; and the subjugation of all other nations, her acknowledged object: her career was one of brilliant war, rapid conquest, and successful negotiation; by these she sought and she obtained ari empire more extensive and more enduring, than the proudest monarch had ever ruled before. Although the mind may find it difficult to accompany a career of victory so rapid, and an extent of conquest so vast, it is not difficult to assign the cause of the Roman triumphs. A politic and ambitious government, a free and an enlightened, people, brave and well disciplined armies, skilful and experienced generals, could not fail to vanquish and subdue less favoured nations. All this was perfectly natural.
Had the profession of Christianity retained its native simplicity and purity, there would have been nothing wonderful in its triumph and holy influence over the hearts and passions of mankind. Had the spirit, as well as the mantle, of the Apostles fallen on their successors, the victory of truth over error could be matter of no surprise: or, had the Roman Pontiffs avowed the principles and practices of earthly