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finally says: "Beware of that rascal Sanadon: and be sure to quote what Klotzius says of him, and I say too."-Dr. Johnstone's Life and Works of Dr. Parr, Vol. 1. p. 412.
Let me not be understood, however, as wishing to shelter myself under authorities like these from the responsibility of delivering an opinion of my own. From me, the first person who has ventured to print the books of Horace in the order of their original publication, something more in the direct way of reply may naturally be expected; especially as against Sanadon, who proceeding de novo in utter defiance to all and every arrangement of the books as such, has dislocated and dismembered the whole body of the Poet.
The compilers of Horace's life, indeed, in allotting such a poem to such a year of it, had very freely violated all respect in any way due to the consideration of collective books successively published: but no editor before Sanadon had ever on system printed the works of Horace in any other than the common series, or disturbed the common arrangement at all.
The two volumes of Sanadon now before me contain 1400 pages, exclusive of the Indices to the Work. To peruse carefully such an extent of translated and critical matter, with a view to examine, detect and refute, would be an Herculean toil. If according to Bentley (Pref. to Phalar. p. cxi.) a man "may commit more mistakes in five weeks' time and in five sheets of paper, than can thoroughly be confuted in fifty sheets and a whole year;" the complete examination of Sanadon's pages might form the labour of a very long life.
A much shorter operation must serve the present purpose. To disable his judgment, in the phrase of Shakspeare, may of itself be sufficient. And to that end let the following specimens of particular but very gross errors be accepted, instead of a more general and extensive reply.
(1.) With Sanadon, the Epodes (of which he discards the name entirely) are considered as a fifth book of Odes;
and they are variously scattered through the mass and mixt multitude of the real Carmina. He thus makes up five books of Odes altogether; and, as with an Epilogos to the whole, concludes the fifth of them with the last ode of our third book,
Exegi monumentum ære perennius.
Now it is most true that the great Muretus in the year 1551 remarks thus on the book EPODON. "Cur Epodos liber hic vocetur, non equidem satis intelligo: ac vidi veterem librum, in quo hic quintus Odarum liber inscribebatur." In his Var. Lect. too, L. iii. C. xix, he entitles it expressly thus: "Horatii versus e quinto Odarum illustrati.” But at that day, the critical knowledge of Horace was yet in its infancy and Sanadon stands without excuse for not attending to the Grammatical signification of Epodi, when in all the editions by Cruquius from the year 1578 downwards, the old commentaries on Horace had been regularly published with the commentator's clear and explicit definition of (a) προῳδὸς, and of (5) ἐπωδός.
U. Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium,
That Archilochian metre which from its predominance (and that of others similar) gave in an early century its own appellation to the whole book of Epodes, is not at this day much better understood from Gaisford's Hephaestio, (1810,) pp. 129. 368. or from Hermann's Elementa Doctrinæ Metrica, (1816,) L. iii. c. xv. than it might have been known for any practical purpose in the year 1578.
Of all this, however, Sanadon has shown, if not a profound ignorance, yet a most offensive contempt. His comment on the very first Epode, Ibis Liburnis, &c., he thus introduces, "Cette Ode est proprement une lettre en vers liriques!" No wonder, that an Editor who found lyric Odes in what
Horace himself denominated (Ep. xiv. 7. cf. 1 E. xix.
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, Iambos,
should become enamoured of his own inventions and create a chaos accordingly.
It is true indeed, that among his lyric odes, Horace has not scrupled to insert some pieces in a metre not strictly lyric: as, 1 C. IV, VII, VIII, XXVIII; 2 C. xvIII; 3 C. XI; 4 C. VII. But then among the Epodes there is nothing lyrical whatsoever; of itself, surely, a decisive fact, that to the odes, a higher class of poetry, he did not devote his mind at all till a later period.
And here it may be observed, that the word carmen, though specifically applied to lyric odes, as 2 E. 11, 59. Carmine tu gaudes: hic delectatur Jambis.—yet is applicable, as in the line above quoted, even to Iambic verse, that in the Epodes; and that in the Epistle to Augustus, v. 85, media inter carmina, means that the drama was interrupted. Let no conclusion therefore be drawn from the use of that word, independently of circumstances in the context to determine its character.
(2.) In the whole personal history of Horace, if one spot be marked with brighter joy than another, it must be the auspicious day of his migration into the Sabine Valley: that day formed an era in the happiness, in the moral as well as literary character of his life.
Henceforth, of course, we find him much less resident at Rome; and when occasionally there, annoyed with matters of business, invisa negotia, 1 E. xiv. 17, and, aliena, 2 S. vi, 33, on the Esquiline, to a much greater degree than before; or at any rate he likes so to represent it.
All that new delight of his in the rus and villula among the Sabines, in the scenery which adorned his estate, and in the shrewd and virtuous people into whose society it threw him, Horace exquisitely describes in the vith Satire of the 2d book,
Hoc erat in votis, &c.
The more so from its contrast with the plagues and vexations of the great city; which he touches with such playful impatience, 2 S. VI. 20-23. Matutine pater.. Romæ sponsorem, &c., or still later in life, 2 E. 11. 65, 6.
me Romæne poëmata censes
Scribere posse, inter tot curas totque labores ?
The whole passage to v. 75, is full of characteristic matter, not only as to those annoyances peculiar to Horace, but as to the general distraction and bustle in the streets of the metropolis.
And yet the good natured, kind hearted man, when hẹ had only his house at Rome, with a small establishment, not very rich, but cheerful enough and content, delighted too with the humility of his condition, made a maximum of his comforts there; before he even dreamed apparently of any higher pleasures, better suited to his genius and taste, to be enjoyed in a different locality, and under very different cir
The Vith Satire of the 1st book. Non quia Mæcenas, &c., which describes his familiar day at Rome, is not less. exquisite in its way, not less fraught with characteristic and entertaining narration, than the VIth of the 2d book.
Will it be believed, except on ocular inspection, that Sanadon has committed the monstrous ὕστερον πρότερον of placing Hoc erat in votis BEFORE Non quia, Mæcenas, making the latter 1. 2. Sat. 8. and the former 1. 1. Sat. 7. in his Nouvelle distribution!
(3.) The six Odes I, II, III, IV, V, VI, of the third book of Horace, written in one common metre and wonderfully agreeing in a well sustained high didactic tone of moral, religious, patriotic sentiment, with that striking prelude to the whole, Odi profanum vulgus, &c., must impress on every
sensible mind a deep feeling of solemn grandeur, varied by amenity, and pathos, and fine imagination.
If therefore any juxta-position of Odes preserved in all MSS. and editions, might command reverence from an editor of Horace; Odes like these six could not possibly suffer violation by being torn asunder. Sanadon disjoins these six Alcaic Odes from one another entirely, and has not left even any two of them in any connection or contiguity whatsoever!
(4.) On minute examination it has been ascertained, (vid. Treatise on Metres, No. XIX.), that in the third line of the Alcaic Stanza,
2 Specimens of this structure, Hunc Lesbio | sacrare plectro. with 3 Regumque matres | barbarorum. Pronos relabi posse | rivos.
are contained in the first and second books of Odes; while in the third and fourth books, as they commonly stand, not one instance is now to be seen of a verse so constructed in any of those ways.
Surely no argument can be more striking, than this plain fact is, to demonstrate, that Horace after publishing the 1st and 2d books of Odes, was by some cause or suggestion led to consult his ear with acuter delicacy than before; so that he vigilantly ever after guarded the third line, the key-stone of the Alcaic stanza, against modes of structure, which his improved sense of harmony condemned. Briefly to place the matter in the strongest light, no other hypothesis will account for the phenomena.
In this nice predicament, what part does Sanadon play? The truth is, that such exactness of metrical observation was unknown in his time: and we must acquit him on the charge of neglecting distinctions, not then brought into notice. But for all that excuse, the main ground of conviction remains the same. Sanadon, in his Nouvelle distribution,