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on this Tivoline question, decisively in agreement with every previous judgment and notion of my own. The learned Signori Abbati Cabral, e del Réa, in their Ricerche delle Ville, &c. della Città e del Territorio di Tivoli. Roma. 1779. Cap. iii. par. 1. § 5. and in their Nuove Ricerche, pag. 94. maintain the existence there of a Villa of Horace, but consisting only in un tenue rural soggiorno in un Casino entro un Orto.
A modest rural abode, a Cottage within a garden, there, is precisely, after his house at Rome and his Villa in the Sabine country, the one place needful to complete the Poet's list of accommodations; equally needful, let me add, to render his writings, especially the Odes, intelligible and consistent to an inquisitive reader.
My own mind unquestionably was first set a thinking on the subject of his Tivoline residence by that noble emendation of Nicholas Hardinge; which comes down to us recommended by Markland, approved by Bentley, and applauded by Parr.
Eripe te moræ ;
Ur semper-udum Tibur et Æsulæ
Telegoni juga parricidæ. 3 C. xxix. 5-8.
That emendation itself I first saw in Markland's Explicationes veterum aliquot auctorum (p. 258-267) subjoined to his edition of the Supplices Mulieres: but having since read the suggested change in a Letter from Nicholas Hardinge to a friend of his then making the tour of Italy, I prefer to record it here in the very words of that Vir capitalis ingenii, as he is justly styled by Markland in the passage referred to.
"Ne semper udum, &c., I suspect to be a false reading in all the Editions and MSS."
a Vid. Domenico de Sanctis. u. s. p. 33. and in Risposta all' Appendice dei Signori Abb. Cabral, e del Ré, p. 3.
"For as Horace invites Mæcenas from Rome to his Tibur, it seems inconceivable that he should press him to make haste, lest he should be always taking a view of Tibur. How much properer would it have been to recommend his departure from Rome that he might enjoy the scenes of Tibur! I therefore change NE to UT. N. H."
To a great variety of disquisitions, more or less intelligent and entertaining on this text and on the topics naturally connected with it, the references below given a will direct the reader; if any of the books happen to be within his reach. But here it may be as well to add, however, that the combin ation of semper with udum, so essential to the establishment of the new reading, is happily defended not only in general by his own expression, (1. E. xvIII, 98,) Nec te semper-inops agitet vexetque cupido; but by the specific authority of Ovid where he describes his natalia rura.-Fasti Iv, 686.
Parva sed assiduis uvida semper aquis.
Having thus secured the compliment due to an Etonian and King's man for starting the question so vitally important to the Lyric bard of Tivoli, I shall not however proceed on credit taken for his emendation being true: I shall rather appeal for corroboration of its truth to the internal evidence which the 1st, 2d, and 3d books of Odes, the 1st book of Epistles, and the 4th book of Odes in that order, all contribute to yield, not only of Horace's often visiting Tivoli, but of his residing in that quiet town very much and often during a great part of his latter days.
-me gelidum nemus,
Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori
1 C. 1. 30-32.
* Nichols's Illustrations of the Literary History of the xvi11th century, Vol. 1. p. 654. pp. 720-736.-Poems, Latin, Greek and English by N. Hardinge, pp. 222-236.-Classical Journal. No. XXXII. pp. 383--387. J. T.— Gentleman's Magazine, April, 1818. pp. 291, 2. J. T.
Me nec tam patiens Lacedæmon,
Tibur Argeo positum colono
Militiæque. 2 C. vi. 5—8.
Vester, Camœnæ, vester in arduos
Præneste, seu Tibur supinum,
Seu liquida placuere Baiæ. 3 C. IV. 21-24.
Romæ Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Romam.
(just as at an earlier period of life, he accused himself of oscillating betwixt his Rus and Rome.
Roma rus optas, absentem rusticus urbem
ego apis Matinæ
Carmina fingo. 4 C. 11. 27-32.
VIII. Sed quæ Tibur aquæ fertile præfluunt,
Et spissa nemorum comæ,
Fingent Æolio carmine nobilem. 4 C. 111. 10–12.
Surely, an accumulation of proofs like these, leaves no ground for any reasonable doubt. The woods and the waters, the cool groves of Tivoli, fashioned and inspired the soul of the Poet; while the amenity of its scenes with the retired quietness of the town, attached his heart to the place. He had a hortus there and a domus within it (4 C. XI. 2. 6.),
and his mundæ cœnæ, parvo sub lare (3 C. xxix. 14—16.), were calculated to smooth the brow of the statesman Mæcenas. And to his ramblings, when first a resident at Tivoli, with such delight amid that romantic scenery
(— per lucos, amœnæ
Quos et aquæ subeunt et auræ. 3 C. iv. 7, 8.
we are clearly indebted for Horace's assuming a poetical character entirely new, in the translation to the Romanæ fidicen lyra (4 C. 111. 23.) from the writer of Satires and Epodes only. In one word, then, on his own express authority, on that spot, and at that time, his lyric writings had their actual commencement.
Two out of the eight passages, here adduced, on which I rely for the establishment of Horace as a sojourner at Tivoli, may in that view justify a more particular notice.
His invitation (No. 111.) to Septimius has been well illustrated by the late Mr. George Hardinge. (Nichols. Literary History. u. s. p. 732.)
"Horace begins by telling him that he knows his friend would accompany him to the remotest and wildest part of the world:
Septimi, Gades aditure mecum, et
Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra, et
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura semper
"Of course he should be equally desirous to accompany his friend but he means to decline it, and he is to give the reason for it, which is, that he wishes for no Tarentum, unless DRIVEN from TIBUR. The Ode in any other sense would be unintelligible, and the wish for Tibur absurd, especially with a reference to his old age, which had not then arrived," &c. &c.
That Alcaic Stanza (No. Iv.) forms quite a locus classicus in the personal history of Horace.
Vester Camœnæ, vester in arduos
For such were his FOUR peculiar places out of Rome, of usual residence or occasional resort. The first was his Sabine villa and estate in the vale of Licenza; after Chaupy and Domenico de Sanctis, described and verified (as it should have been sooner told) by Mr. Bradstreet, in the "Sabine Farm," 1810. The second spot refreshed him by its coolness in the dog days, sometimes in one summer, it bequeathed to our instruction that delightful Epistle (1 E. 11.),
Trojani belli scriptorem, maxime Lolli, &c.
To the fourth, his resort on the Campanian shore, he betook himself, often perhaps, for its fine mild air in winter.
Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris,
The third scene, long and early admired, from being frequently visited, became at last one of his two favourite and regular places of residence out of Rome. For there is not the shadow of evidence, to rank on the same level with Tivoli as an habitation, either Præneste, the mere estive delicie of our Poet, or Baie resorted to for its warm climate and its baths; least of all the distant Tarentum, deeply beloved, much talked of, but very seldom visited.
Tarentum, indeed, if he were to change from Tivoli, we have just seen he would prefer to all places for his residence. And yet, of any actual visit to that spot, though so well known, with its peculiar charm; ver ubi longum tepidasque præbet | Jupiter brumas. 2 C. vi. 17, 18. he has bequeathed no memorandum whatever. None of his writings exhibit the slightest indications of having been written there; nor any where on the coast in winter does he