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Catholic Quarterly


Bonum est homini ut eum Veritas vincat volentem, quia malum est homini ut eum Veritas vin-
cat invitum. Nam ipsa vincat necesse est, sive negantem sive confitentem.
S. Aug. Epist. ccxxxviii. Ad Pascent.

From January To October, 1897.



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Cardinal Lavigerie. By Wilfrid €L Robinson,

The sympathy and enthusiasm of St. Wilfrid reproduced in Cardinal Lavigerie;
Many common characteristics between these two great figures; Lavigerie's worldly
parents: The humble instruments through which he derived his early religious
belief; His gratitude in after-life: At St. Sulpice; Foundation of the (Euvre des
Eeoles d'Orimt; The great massacres of Lebanon; Lavigerie's first contact with
Eastern infidelity; Finds his vocation; His dream ; The Bishopric of Algiers and
Marshal MacMahon; Foundation of the work for the conversion of Africa:
Begins his rule with an example of severity; Marshal MacMahon opposes his
plans for evangelization: The Emperor also; Lavigerie stands firm, and wins:
His patriotism ; Raised to the cardinalate; Letter to the Count de Chambord;
Pope Leo and the duty of French Catholics; The Cardinal announces the new
policy; A critical moment; The auti-slavery crusade begins in Africa; His per-
sonal characteristics; His death.

The Chippewas And Ottawas: Father Baraga's Books In Their Lan-
Guage. By Riekard R. Elliott,

Territory of the Iroquois Confederacy: A common dialect spoken; Beginning of
American control; Important treaties with the confederates; Cessions of territory
to the United States; Father Baraga's Chippewa converts; Hereditary disinclina-
tion to work; Benedictine Fathers among the Chippewas; Large efforts of the
Protestant Episcopalians, but poor results ; The Canadian Chippewas ; The Oblate
Fathers in the Northwest Territory; Pontiac's Ottawas; Activity of the Quakers;
Father Baraga and the Michigan Ottawas; Early philological work: Begins pub-
lication of works in the Ottawa language; And later on in that of the Chippe-
was; Great value of his printed works to Catholic missionaries.

A Glance At The Reign Of St. Louis. By Rev. Reuben Parsons, D.D., . .
Results of the battle of Bouvines; Inception of modern French national outlines;
An ideal Christian kingship; High purposes of St. Louis' reign; Repression of the
lawlessness of the great feudal lords ; Selected as arbitrator between the English
king and his barons; The turbulent German Emperors and their preposterous
pretensions ; Missionary' enterprises in the East; Personal dispensation of justice'at
home ; Tranquilizing effects of his rtgime; Flawless character of the monarch in
every possible relation; "The divine right of kings" as exemplified by his in-
terpretation ; The Church and the question of mundane authority ; Dicta of St.
Paul, St. Thomas, Suarez, Bellarniine, Beaumanoir, and Marsilio ; Charlemagne
and the "Chanson de Roland"; Consideration of the kingly as opposed to the
popular claim of right; Beginnings of the feudal system; Misrepresentations of
Ren an concerning the assertion of Galilean ism ; St. Louis falsely quoted : Forgery
of" the Pragmatic Sanction ;" Cordial feelings of Gregory IX. toward the King and
singular privileges with regard to the excommunicated : Firm front of St. Louis
toward the extraordinary pretensions of Frederick II.to the Papacy ; Misrepresen-
tations of Matthew Paris; Acknowledgment of the Popes as supreme arbHers in
international disputes; Penitential inauguration of the Seventh Crusade; St.
Louis as a prisoner; His virtue and justice overawe the .Saracen emirs; His ideas
regarding the proffered sovereignty; The Eighth Crusade; St. Ixmis, smitten by
an epidemic, composes his last testament; Sublime faith of the Middle Ages ; His
ideal that of a kingly missionary to all lands; Michelet's suggestions or skepti-
cism refuted.

Aspects Of Pessimism. By Rev. James Kendal, S.J.,

Pessimism defined; Hellenic and Roman ideas; Leibnitz and his school; Shakes-
peare's philosophical lessons ; Effectsof the Renaissance; Schopenhauer's gloomy

Predications; Hartmann's " Philosophy of the Unconscious anticipated him;
he idea of moral evolution ; William Watson's poetry ; The theory of an indiffer-
ent God; Poetry and " culture " as substitutes lor religion ; The aims of life the
measure of its value ; The miseries of life make difficult the idea of a beneficent
Creator; High office of the Church in reconciling fact and belief; Unhappy po-
sition of Agnostics; Successful villany and unmerited misfortune difficult exam-
ples to reconcile with the common Fatherhood of God; Too much disregard of
material things in the higher pursuit of the spiritual charged against Catholics;
Baselessness of the general inferences drawn from specific examples ; The Crusades
as the origin of Italian prosperity; The Church inculcates the true relation of
mundane and spiritual things; Egotism and self-effacement exemplified ; Father
Hecker"s view ; Attitude of the Church toward scientific discover)'; Growing dul-
ness of the general moral sense in regard to sin; The emancipation of the Chris-
tian republics by Pope Alexander III.; Reforms of Gregory Vll.; Immense possi-
bilities still before the Church; We cannot truly be measured by material or
even intellectual standards.

Popular misconceptions on union or separation of Church and State; Evil exam-

ple of Luther'6 revolt; Shocking propositions of the Secularists; Religious ten-

dency of the United States' Government; This tendency pervades the whole

national system; Repugnance to a State Church ; Misconceptions of Catholics on

the absorption of spiritual power by the State ; Protestant objections founded on

purely commercial reasons; The true Catholic doctrine on the respective func-

tions of Church and State; The Encyclical "Longinqua Oceanl"; Pagan char-

acteristics of modern civilization; The province of the Church in politics; Car-

dinal Tarquini's views: The reasoning of St. Thomas Aquinas; The outlook for a

perfect union of Church and State.

Hypothetics. By Rev. Ernest R. Hull, S.J., 124

Hypothesis, not necessity, the parent of discovery; Samuel Taylor Coleridge a

great thinker but a poor worker; The more practical hypothetics of Watt* and

Schliemann: The higher criticism staggered by recent oriental discoveries; Mr.

Puller and the " Clementine Recognitions "; His edifying humility and his worth-

less base of argument; Logical method of testing the value of a hypothesis; Des-

cartes' substitute for scholastic philosophy ; Kant's system of " Pure Reason " ends

in Pantheism ; His literary merit and his solemnly humorous anti-climax.

Protestants Add The Principle Of Authority In Religion. By F. W.

drey, 141

Hereditary faith, its advantages and its drawbacks ; Effects of the Bull on Anglican

orders on the Nonconformists; Sincerity of the Dissenters' hatred of " Popery";

Influence of parental example in determining continuance in or departure from a

given form of belief; The principle of authority weakened by the hereditary sys-

tem, when the question is inwardly debated ; Protestant tradition at base identical

with that of Catholics; The" moral certainty" of Protestants identical with the

'' infallibility'' of Catholics.

The Clergy And The Social Problem. By Rev. George Tyrrell, S.J., . . 151

Modem views of the " priest in politics"; Supineness on public questions incom-

patible with the priestly function ; Urgent reasons for activity, especially in social

questions; Compassion for human suffering a true note of spiritual grace : To the

priest this obligation is doubly compulsive; The laboring classes and the poor es-

pecially the care of the Church; The social problem really an ethical problem;

Laveleye's crroueous theory of the reason of the Church s activity in German

social questions; The part of heresies in the evolution of the Church; Her action

in social questions not based on selfishness, but true charity and zeal for souls.

The Protest Of Common Sense Against Some Common Nonsense. By

Vincent D. Rossman, 160

Catholic laymen, from insufficient training, often unable to defend their doctrine
and belief on fundamental articles; Points too profound even for the learned to
define : Donoso Cortes on the dual character of the truths of religion ; The theories
of modern English agnostics opposed to common sense; Herbert Spencer's abor-
tive reasoning ; Materialistic Monism;'

; Philological absurdities outdone by agnos-
tic arguments; Professor Henry Drummond's amazing adaptability and shallow-
ness; Simple answers for Catholic defenders of the truth; Christ's provisions for
the transmission of truth and grace.

The Meaning Of Scriptural Numbers. By iJet>. Joseph H. RocJctceil, S.J., 178

Pythagoras the reputed originator of symbolism in numbers; His theories derided

by St. John Chrysostom ; The Neo-Platonists exercise an influence over the early

Fathers; The fatalistic system of Pbilo the Jew ; St Augustine bel ieves in a sym-

bolic meaning in certain numbers; His explanation or the "days " of creation;

An: obscure reference of St. Ambrose; Attempt to decipher !tbe riddle; Proba-

bility of an early language of numbers; The theory of their relation to great facts

not to be lightly set aside.

Scientific Chronicle. By Rev. T. J. A. Freeman, SJ., 197

Artificial silk ; Some new points about X-rays ; Prevention of injuries.

Authenticity Of The Book Of Acts. By Rev. A. J. Maas, S.Jn 225

Opinions of M. Renan on the authorship of the Acts; Disagrees with Professor

Hamack's conclusions; Dr. Bliss attributes the authorship to St. Luke, and Pro-

fessor Ramsay controverts the deduction; Examination of the conflicting argu-

ments of these eminent Greek philologists; The Tubingen theories of " purpose"

writing: Reasons against the admission of this view; Evidently a faithful epit-

ome of the conflicts and troubles which arose in the endeavor to make the new

doctrines acceptable to both Jew and Gentile ; Archaeological discovery confirms

the technical background of the history of the Acts: Evidence of the authorship

from the diction ofthe work ; the first person plural, as used in the Acts, and why

it is introduced; Final reasons for regarding St. Luke as the real author of the


Lacordaire And Lamennais. By Rev. Reuben Parsons, D.D., 256

Spurious liberalism at the beginning ofthe century; Deadly effects ofthe secular

university; Eloquence of Lacordaire ; Legal prophecies ; Forsakes the bar and turns

to the Church; Associated with Lamennais in his political and social struggles t

The famous essay on " Indifference"; The condemnation of the Avenir; Parting

of Lacordaire and Lamennais; Vast crowds of men listen to Lacordaire at Notre

Dame; He is admitted to the French Academy: His death; Lamennais' pride

and obstinacy ; Celebrates his last Mass; His melancholy years of self-ostracism

from the Church; His tragic death ; His power as an author; His overweening

pride; Pantheistic traces in his philosophy.

The New Political Issue In Ireland. By John J. (/Shea, 280

Substantial grounds for Ireland's Dissatisfaction under the Union; Deceptive

basis for proportionate taxation taken by Mr. Pitt; Mr. Grattan's objection; How

the fusion of the English and Irish Exchequers was brought about; Prosperity of

Ireland under Grattan's Parliament: Its present-day decay; Overmanning the

public service in the English interest, and charging Ireland with the cost; Tax-

ation per head in Ireland double that of England; Immense quantities of land

gone out of cultivation ; Rapid decline in population and wealth; False charge

of excessive drinking brought against the Irish; Disproved by Parliamentary re-

turns; Callousness or English statesmen when convicted of public wrong-doing:

Mr. Pitt's avowed object frustrated, and his fiscal stipulations disregarded; The

cause for justice to Ireland irresistible.

The Trappists In Algeria. By T. L. L. Teding, 299

Invitation from the Resident-General of Madagascar to the Abbe of the Trappists;
Aiguebelle and the career of Abbe Martrin; Dom Francis Regis makes a journey
to Algiers; The site of a camp chosen for a new monastery ; A military Mass in
the desert; Fearful trials of t he new settlement; Conversion of the French painter,
Horace Vernet: Wonderful success of the Trappists in agriculture; Sanguine
views of their influence in the new Madagascar settlement.

The Situation In Rome. By W. J. D. Oroke, 330

Hopeless deadlock between the Papacy and the Italian Government; Vitality of

the Roman question; The modernizing of the city; Jerry-building amidst the ruins

of the Cffisars ; The moral phenomena of the changing order; The Italian revolu-

tion a reproduction of the French ; Both bourgeotxie movements; Subsidence of

anti-clericalism, and a solid sentiment favorable to peace between the .Quirinal

and the Vatican: Papal forces held in reserve ; The present deadlock injurious to

the material concerns of Italy; Disastrous effects of the Dreibund upon Italian

affairs; the possibilities of a settlement with the Papacy; Reserved attitude of the

Sovereign Pontiff; The germs of a solution inseparable from the continuance of

the present situation.

How The Turk Came To Constantinople. By Bryan J. Clinch, .... 365

The late paradoxical position in Cretan waters and the Pirseus ; How the Christian

powers regard Turk and Greek; Beginnings of the Turkish race ; Struggle between

the Iranian and the Turanian for the mastery of the Asiatic continent; Barbarism

wins in the end; Respective social systems of East and West; Survival of the

patriarchal mode amon» the orientals; Nomadic warrior shepherds; Edward

O'Donovan's experience in Merv; Singular ethics of the Turcomans; Their sym-

pathy for animals; Spread of Mahometanlsm among them ; Became the succes-

sors of the Saracens on the overthrow of the Bagdad Caliphate; Establishment of

the Seljukian Turks in Asia Minor; Gradual encroachments on the Greek Empire;

Rise or the house of Osman ; Its armies recruited by Christian boys seized as trib-

ute ; Schism and dissension between East and West favor the Turkish advance;

The great victories of Amurath in Europe; Conquest of Servia. Roumelia, and

Bosnia; Moslems support the Greek schismatics from motives of policy; Bajazet

eonquers Bulgaria and creates the title of Sultan; Boasts he will overrun Italy

and feed his horse on the altar of St. Peter's; Is routed by Tamerlane in Asia, and

dies in captivity; John Hunyades appears on the scene and drives the Turks

beyond the Balkans; Neglects to follow up his victory; Hungarians defeated in

next campaign; Rise of Mahomet II.; His savage character; Constantinople

Sradually surrounded by his armies; Last stand of the Greeks and heroic death of
le Emperor Constantine; Fall of the city.

Christian Faith And Modern Science. By Very Rev. John B. Hogan,

SS., D.D., 382

Science sought to be set up as a new idol; No real conflict between true Science
and true Religion; God the source of both; Draper, Huxley, and White; Illegiti-
mate extensions of theology ; The limits of papal infallibility; Galileo's case no
criterion; The Church and usury; Absurd pretensions of Science, and errone-
ous limitation of the term ; The solicitude of early believers for the integrity of
their faith quite natural: Science too impetuous, and needs restraint; Protestant
opposition more unyielding than Catholic, because of their dependence on the
Bible alone; Rarity of the Church's interference in theologico-scientific ques-
tions; M. Brunetiere on the failure of Science to establish its pretensions; A rev-
erential attitude demanded both from scientists and religious defenders ; the fa-
mous dictum of Gamaliel.

France's Aid To America In The War Of Independence. By Richard

H. Clarke, LL.D., 399

Source and origin of the idea of" independence "; Colonists only maintaining the
rights conferred by the British Constitution; The English Government the viola-
tors and aggressors; Americans driven by illegality into revolution; Loyalty of
the Colonists only a little while before strikingly manifested; Hatred of England
intense in France; Early thoughts of an alliance with the American Colonies;
Acute previsions of the French Ministry ; Genuine sympathy for American liberty
in France; Bold ideas of the Duke de Cbjoiaeul; His prophetic declarations; Brit-
ish Ministry ignore Franklin's monitions; England denounces the "treason" of
the American Colonists and at the same time sends money to Corsica to promote a
rising against France ; Withering answer of the Empress Catherine to the English
request for Russian mercenaries; England scours the continent for hirelings ; Hes-
sians and Brunswickers promised " license to plunder and indulge their passions ";
Marie Antoinette warmly espouses the American cause; Unselfish character of
French and Spanish sympathy; Decisive interview of Beaumarchals with Lee;
Lafayette's enthusiasm is fired when he hears of Concord and Lexington; Meet-

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