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winter, when it is at its minimum, and afterward gradually increasing till four o'clock P. M.; or, in spring, till six or seven o'clock in the evening : -- it again decreases during the night, and reaches its maximum about three o'clock in the morning When the moon passes the equator, the intensity is considerably weaker than in the two following days; it like wise diminishes during the appearance of the aurora borealis, being weaker in proportion as that phænomenon is extensive and vivid; and it is stronger in winter than in summer. The experiments of Dr. Gondret, and of the editors of the Journal de Physiologie, induce the pleasing expectation that the Voltaic pile may often be successfully employed in cases of asphyxia and suspended animation.
Under Meteorology, we find the recitals of various shocks of earthquakes. That which occurred on the 19th of February, 1822, and which was felt at Paris, Geneva, Chambéry, &c. appears to have been in the direction of the magnetic meridian. A meteorite is recorded to have fallen at Angers, on the 3d of June, and one at Baffe, in the department of the Vosges, on the 13th of September. The analysis of that which fell at Juvenas, in the department of the Ardèche, 15th June, 1821, yielded to M. Vauquelin the ordinary in gredients, except that it contained no nickel, and much less magnesia than usual ; but the quantity of alumine and lime exceeded the general proportion; and there was a trace of copper.
In the division allotted to the Medical department, we find M. Cloquet laboring to prove what few, we presume, are disposed to controvert; namely, that the rarity of the air, in very elevated stations, is prejudicial to the well-being of the human frame. Temporary uneasiness is, we believe, more or less experienced by those who ascend beyond 10,000 or 12,000 feet above the level of the sea ; independently of the fatigue which accompanies such an exertion. In the reasoning before us, no account seems to have been taken of another derangement of the animal system, which is apt to ensue from an uncommon attenuation of the atmosphere: - we allude to the rupture of some of the more delicate blood vessels, which are no longer sufficiently counterbanded by the density of the external air.
• Mr. Samuel Laffers, of Carteret's county, North Carolina, had been seized with a paralytic affection, which had fixed in the countenance and particularly in the eyes. As he was walking in his room, a flash of lightning laid him senseless on the floor : in twenty minutes his recollection returned ; but the remainder of the day and the night elapsed before he completely recovered the
use of his limbs. Next day, he found himself perfectly well, and intimated a desire to acquaint a friend with the particulars of what had befallen him. His letter, which was very long, was written without the help of glasses ; and from that time the paralysis has never recurred. Mr. Laffers is persuaded, however, that the same shock which recovered his sight has impaired the delicacy of his hearing.'
The interior friable substance, in which the seeds of Adansonia baobab are lodged, is employed by the natives of Africa in cases of dysentery, and has been successfully exhibited by Dr. Frank, in treating the same disorder. The cure of the most obstinate syphilitic symptoms, by fumigations, is announced as the discovery of a Swedish peasant; who has received a gratuity from his government, with the assurance of an additional remuneration if the patients, whom he has cured in the hospital of Stockholm, suffer no relapse that can be reasonably attributed to their former malady. – Dr. Rousseaụ prescribes the leaves of the holly against intermittent fevers, with the same confidence that he uses Jesuits' bark. M. Coindet now applies iodine by friction to those who are afflicted with goître, and with the same success as when he administered it internally. The pomade which he employs is composed of hydriodate of potass and hogs' lard. - Dr. Archer, an American physician, asserts that hooping-cough may be effectually cured by vaccination, in the second or third week of the complaint. — The new milk of mares is now recommended by the German physicians against the tape-worm, which it is said to kill, although the milk of the cow is supposed to be favorable to its growth.
Among the Arts of Industry, we find mention made of a calculating machine, by M. Thomas, of Colmar, which
pro• mises to expedite the practical processes of arithmetic in Counting-rooms, Banks, on the Exchange, &c. : but no specification is given of its construction. Numerous other real or supposed improvements and inventions, in the mechanical province of human industry, are shortly passed in review.
• A young lady, blind from birth, but distinguished by her wit, talents, and amiability, fancied that it would be possible for her to communicate her thoughts to her family and friends, by means of printing, if any able mechanist would invent for her a press and expedients which she might employ; the apprenticeship, and patience in the execution, would afterward become her own concern. She applied to the celebrated historian of the Bees, M. François Huber, of Geneva, whom she had the advantage of reckoning among her acquaintances; and who, from sharing the same misfortune, it is known that he is blind,) was led to take a deeper interest in the object of the request. His genius, and that of his
domestic, Claude Léchet, a man paturally gifted with great mechanical talents, being strongly excited, they set to work, and the press was invented, executed by Claude, and despatched, with an assortment of types, to the interesting blind person ; who, in consequence of a short training, has attained the complete enjoyment of this mode of communicating her thoughts.'
The Chemical Arts, which still obtain their due share of attention from the French, form a prominent subdivision of the present performance. M. Bréant professes to damask steel in a manner equal to that of the Orientals, and to form at the same time blades even more elastic, and by a more economical process; and M. Héricart de Thury, in a subsequent article, apprizes us that he has perfectly succeeded in executing specimens of all the most beautiful and elegant patterns. N. Braconnot, on analysing a very fine green color from Germany, ascertained that it may be prepared by a triple combination of the arsenious oxyde, the dentoxyde of hydrate of copper, and the acetic acid. - Signor Pepé, professor of chemistry at Naples, has invented a metallic varnish, to preserve iron, copper, tin, &c. from the effects of air, or water, which can be removed only by the file; and which, when polished, becomes as white and brilliant as silver. - Signor Baffi, another Italian chemist, has introduced into the Turkish dominions a method of manufacturing saltpetre with no other heat than that of the sun, which reduces the expence
preparing 100 lbs. of that commodity from ten crowns to one. In the sixth volume of the Annales de l'Industrie, it is stated that the bark of the chesnut-tree contains twice as much of the tanning principle as that of oak, and nearly twice as much coloring matter as logwood. Mixed with iron, the same bark forms an exquisitely black and permanent ink. The color obtained from it has more affinity than Sumach for wool, and is unalterable in air and light.
The following receipt to destroy the mouldiness of ink, and to prevent its recurrence, is said to be as effectual as it is simple: • Take on the point of a penknife a small quantity of dentoxyde of mercury (red precipitate), nearly of the thickness of a little pin ; work it up with a drop of ink on a bit of glass, and then put the paste into the ink-bottle. It is not necessary to stir the ink afterward, and the effect is very quick.'
We are presented, also, with the account of a curiously devised metallic pen : but, as the use of it seems to imply more trouble than convenience, we would still recommend in preference our good old friend, “ the grey.goose quill.”
The lists of French patents, and of prizes proposed and awarded for essays on literary and scientific subjects, for specimens of execution in the fine arts and manufactures, for successful trials in agriculture, &c., are not only numerous, but indicative of a spirit of investigation and enterprize in the business of life, which must exhilarate every enlightened and philanthropic mind. — We are unwilling, indeed, to dismiss this volume from our table without bestowing our meed of approbation on the original undertaking, or without contemplating the advantages which may redound from its more extended prosecution. An able and concentrated view of all the important facts and discoveries which the science and skill of civilized Europe may disclose, in each revolving year, would eminently contribute to diffuse the more essential parts of practical knowlege, to render the results of inquiry intelligible and accessible to the mass of the population, to instil some precious elements into the formation of public opinion, to regulate the occupations and mould the character of large portions of mankind, and to meliorate the condition of our species.
ART. VIII. Histoire Philosophique des Empereurs, &c. ; i.e. A
Philosophical History of the Emperors, from Cæsar down to Constantine; or, a Comparison of their Institutions, of the Events of their respective Ages, and of the State of Mankind under Paganism, with the Civilization of modern Times. By M. Toulotte, formerly Sub-Prefect. 3 Vols. 8vo. Paris.
1822. Imported by Treuttel and Co. Price 11. 2s. 6d. Posses BOSSESSING avowedly very liberal and even democratical
principles, this work is appropriately addressed to three of the chief Liberals in the French Chamber of Deputies; viz. General de Pommereul, former Counsellor of State, M. Benj. Constant, and M. Voyer d'Argenson ; all of them sufficiently distinguished as patriotic leaders of the party to which they belong. We cannot particularly notice the liberal terms in which the author speaks of these gentlemen : but we have reason to believe that they are every way well bestowed; and they may be deemed the more valuable, perhaps, as departing from M. TOULOTTE's usual style of stricture on modern times, characters, and institutions, when brought into parallel in many points with those of the Romans. We may make allowances for this tone of evident dissatisfaction with the present condition of affairs in Europe, especially in a Frenchman, with whom it is both reasonable and natural ; and indeed the author could scarcely have chosen a subject better calculated to indulge his philosophical and political inveotive, than LI+
the history of Rome under the emperors : an age nigredine peccatorum,” when contrasted with the more civilized political and moral delinquencies of recent periods. Both, it must be allowed, afford but too ample ground for animadversion ; and the author seems to have fixed on it as supplying the best materials for the moral and historical satirist. The latter character, however, assumes too bold and promihent a feature throughout the whole of this really clever and interesting work; and we cannot always consider the censure as quite fair, though the virtues either of antient or of modern imperial ages do not afford us many occasions of dissent from the charges preferred against them.
“ Together let us beat this ample field,
Try what the open, what the covert yield,” amid those splendid and heroic scenes which are furnished by the most strange eventful history" ever witnessed among the anomalies of the world.
We are sorry, then, that one of the first points on which we have to differ from the author is the nature of the religious opinions which he has unnecessarily and obtrusively here announced. To write under such a prejudice, and to avow it, is by no means consistent with that impartiality which is required by history: nor should an advocate for perfect toleration forget that the system ought also to be extended to Christianity, and that the same selfishness and bigotry may be discovered in opposing that has been shewn in propagating it.
M. TOULOTTE observes in his life of Adrian; · That prince conceived that he was bound to submit the nex religion to the magistrates, inasmuch as it daily encroached on the national forms of worship in all their branches, and interfered with all those private and public interests to which paganism was inseparably allied : a religion which, it was pretended, was essentially opposed to that agreeable philosophy which Athens had conferred on Rome as a consolation for her lost liberty :
a religion which, in its stern and jealous simplicity, went to destroy those sources of agreeable fiction that had so long been the choicest food for poetry ;--- and of which the cold and austere doctrines appalled the imagination, by depriving it of its richest treasures: threatening the sudden decay of those useful professions to which the gods were indebted for their temples, princes for their palaces, and the people for their public monuments and agreeable arts, which had taken from ideal beauty the just proportions, the fine forms, and the very soul, as it were, of those master-pieces, in which the divinities of Olympus seem still to breathe and live. (Vol.ii. p. 81.)
What degree of moderation, or what justice to the motives and actions of the early Christians, are we to expect from