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· The British constitution was at hand to serve as a pattern for the Constituting Assembly : but it aspired to the honors of invention and originality. It wanted to cause the Numas, the Solons, and the Lycurguses to be forgotten, and to stifle in the blaze of its glory all past, present, and future lawgivers : but how many evils have resulted from this irrational ambition ! Better would it have been to employ a mere clerk to read aloud from the rostrum the British constitution ; and to open discussions on those points only which seemed to require modification in its application to France. Alas! on what hangs the destiny of empires; the mind is lost in the mighty contemplation! Vanity, in the moral universe, moves with her little threads the hugest Colossus; while Reason, with her stoutest cables, cannot confine them to their proper station.' (P. 298.)

From the tenth volume we shall also copy a paragraph or two; and first a singular complaint of the non-attendance of rich persons at the primary assenblies, where, by universal suffrage, the intermediate body of choosers received from the voters the right of appointing the representative. This method of delegating the right of election seems well adapted for large counties, where the expence of removing individual freeholders would be very considerable; and where each hundred, or wapentake, might conveniently select in proportion to its populousness a certain number of nominees to proceed to the shire-hall: but in large towns, where all the voters are present, direct representation is surely more convenient and more satisfactory

· The right of a nation to be represented, - this right so justly celebrated, - how is it to be exercised in France ? Only by the election of electors who are to name the deputies to the legislative body. Now, if the greater part of Frenchmen do not attend the annual primary assemblies, what becomes of our representative rights? It may be pleaded that, in supposing so great a national indifference, the fault would rest with the people, and not with the constitution. This decision, however, would be rash; for inquiries should first be made, whether this sluggishness has grown out of the genius of the nation, of the extent of the jurisdictions, or of the absolute extinction of rank, or of hereditary honor even, and of all those appendages to property which are elsewhere suffered to announce it, and to give a sort of relief to its patriotism as well as a title to the esteem of government.

• On this point I shall have more to say in the chapter on limited monarchies : the present section chiefly considers the new social order of France in its republican bearings, and under the ensign of absolute equality, which was that of the committee of constitution. I will now therefore only observe that, even on this principle, an anxiety should have been shewn to secure the reguJar and constant attendance of the citizens at the primary assemblies, which form the elementary basis of the derivative supreme representation. There might be some inconvenience in inflicting a general penalty on the indifferent, but none, 'I think, in imposing a fine on such proprietors as absent themselves without adequate cause from the primary assemblies. It is a principle quite compatible with a republican government, that, the greater is a man's property, the greater is his interest in the pacific support of the established order of things, and the greater his obligation to concur in expressing this interest. The plan which I advocate would have served to give relief to the character of proprietor in a form which, by its penal turn, could have excited no jealousy; and it is probable that, by thus determining the assiduity of property to frequent the primary assemblies, all other indifferences would have yielded to the desire of imitating the rich.' (P. 200.)

a general

To this long dissertation on the French Revolution succeed some Philosophic Reflections on Equality, of which the object is to soften the prejudices of philosophers against those gradations of rank, which experience shews to have every where grown up in communities of stability and duration. Tolerance for those natural inequalities which age; talent, industry, fortune, and occupation, must for ever reproduce, may justly be exacted: but to found or confirm by legislation those privileges, which in some countries have given an artificial preponderance to birth, or to prcession, or to opulence, may well deserve considerable hesitation.

These volumes will find more readers on the Continent than in this country, because they agitate questions which are rather important to new than to established forms of organization: but they will every where contribute to preserve for M. Necker the character of a well-intentioned and wellinstructed politician, unequal perhaps to the difficulties of stormy times, yet not unworthy of the confidence either of his sovereign or of his nation. His moderation may be exemplary: but his very disconnection with all the French sects of opinion left him without those sympathies and co-operations, which might best have enabled him to assume a higher spirit of command.

Art. XV. Système de l'Administration Britannique, &c. ; i.e. The

System of the British Administration in 1822, considered under the Heads of Finance, Industry, Commerce, and Navigation, according to a Ministerial Exposition. By CHARLES DUPIN, Member of the Institute, &c. 8vo. Paris. 1823. Imported

by Treuttel and Co. Price 4s. 6d. JUS Ust before the commencement of a new session of parlia

ment, it has occasionally been deemed expedient by our ministers to send forth some pamphlets expatiating on the wisdom of all their past measures in language of becoming eulogy, and shadowing out any future project which may be

in petto ; and these “'flash" productions on the “State of the Nation,” fabricated with all the “pomp, parade, and circumstance” of official accuracy, are calculated to make a wondrous impression abroad, however unceremoniously they may be treated at home. Indeed, foreigners may well listen with envy and with ecstasy to flowery descriptions of our unal: loyed prosperity in finance, commerce, and manufactures; of our taxation being so light as to be unfelt; and of our wealth being so heavy that, like the King under his coronation-robes, we might perhaps feel encumbered with the burthen of it, but for some train-bearers belonging to the national establishment, who kindly relieve us from any excess of its pressure. There are no “ Near Observers" in foreign countries to detect any mis-statements which may happen to be enveloped under such a formidable and imposing mass of figures; or to expose the 66 modest assurance” with which merit is claimed for the remission of taxes which could no longer be continued, and for retrenchments in the public expenditure which have been extorted rather than conceded.

It is from one of these demi-official pamphlets that the statements in the pages before us are taken: but the author, to do him justice, does now and then venture to doubt the superlative wisdom of some of those measures for which our ministerial writers laud their employers. The reduction of the interest of the five per cent. stock has his perfect approbation; and a nominal sinking fund of five millions per annum, towards reducing the national debt, is too magnificent a sacrifice on the part of the present generation to allow any question of its actual existence to that extent, even when the revenue does not exceed the expenditure of the nation by more than half of that amount. Respecting the three millions of taxes which were imposed in the year 1819, M. Dupin says, ' It is observed that they were so ingeniously distributed, that the people of England did not even perceive their existence.' Nothing but his original could have furnished him with such a consoling observation. He adds, somewhat sarcastically, * This only proves that, if in the mass of taxes there should be three other millions, the existence of which the people of England do perceive (which may possibly be tire case), it will be very easy to remove the latter, and retain the former as a substitute.'' On the subject also of those very three millions, which were imposed in order that the national income might be larger than its expenditure, he observes provokingly, that the excess might as well have been obtained by a reduction of our expenditure as by an addition to our assessments. This was very possible, no doubt; because, three years after that time, such a reduction was actually made, without any change of circumstances abroad or at home.

We have, however, now done all that is necessary, in announcing this semi-translation of a pamphlet that has fulfilled its purpose, accomplished its ephemeral destiny, and is gone to is the tomb of all the Capulets.”

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ART. XVI. Souvenirs de la Belgique, &c.; i. e. Recollections of

Belgium, One Hundred Days of Misfortune, &c. By Mite.
M. X. LE NORMAND. 8vo. pp. 416. Paris. 1822. Imported
by Treuttel and Co. Price 10s.
W
E learn that Mademoiselle LE NORMAND was once at-

tached as a sort of companion to Josephine, the first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte, and published a memoir concerning her late mistress, in which some living persons of consequence were mentioned in a manner that was to them unwelcome. * She also wrote “ Souvenirs Prophétiques, " La Sibylle aux Congrés d'Aix-la-Chapelle et de Carlobad," and some works which treat of fortune-telling; for this lady is a phrenologist, professing a great variety of occult arts and sciences, and has been consulted about futurity by people of high rank and fashion. Brussels has been a principal scene of her machinations; and some suspicions seem to have been entertained that she was secretly employed by the French government, to facilitate meetings and communications between persons disposed to re-annex the Netherlands to France. These apprehensions probably led to her detention in prison: but, as nothing criminative appeared against her, except that she had told fortunes, interpreted dreams, laid claim to a familiar spirit, and practised other such witchcraft, she was released after about a hundred days of confinement; it being no longer the fashion to punish a superstitious credulity. Of this lady's history and imprisonment, the volume before us gives a detailed, declamatory, and pompous account, naming many agents of police, and many conspicuous persons. We do not conceive, however, that any part of the book can be interesting to persons resident in this country; although we readily believe that it may attain a certain popularity amid the scenes of her adventures, and among the persons of her acquaintance. Trials for sorcery, it seems, are still practicable in Flanders as well as in Somersetshire.-Notes without number illustrate the obscurities of the text.

* The title is “ Mémoires Historiques et Secrets de L'Impératrice Joséphine, première Épouse de Napoléon.

To the REMARKABLE Passages in this Volume.
N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, see the

Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volume.

А

Backwoodsman, a poem, speci-
ABISBAL, Count, memoir men of, 28.
of, 424.

Bagdad, account of, and of its
Adam, Dr., his geological no- inhabitants, &c., 137. Great
tices, 54.

heat at, 138.
Adultery, moral discussion of Baird, Mr., on rocks at New-
that crime, 416.

foundland, 59.
Ægyptians, observations on the Bala, or Musa Paradisiaca,

hieroglyphic writing of, 529. account of, 365.
On their Phonetic picture- Bald, Mr., on the fossil elephant
writing, 533.

of Scotland, 55.
Aero-naviglio, a machine for Banias, in Syria, account of,
travelling in the air, 514.

341.
Ages, a poem, extracts from, Barcelona, account of the fever
30.

there in 1821, 503.
Agriculture of England, on the Bark of the chestnut tree said
state of, and compared with to exceed the oak for tanning,
France; 127438.

and to make fine ink, 518...
Alge, on two new plants of, 64. Barle-Edge Abbey, sonnet.on,
Ali Pasha, particulars of his life 163.
and character, 282.

Bats, on new genera of, 228.
America, poetic description of Bear, Malayan, description of,
31.

232.
Anderson, Mr., on rocks in the Belus, Temple of, account of

Orkneys, 61. On the great its supposed ruins, 142.

Glen of Scotland, 62. Berber, visit to the capital of
Anecdotes of the war in Spain in 375. The country, 377.)
1808, 475.

Bertholletia Excelsa,which ricida
Angels, loves of, poetically cele- Brazil chestnuts, account or,
brated, 84.

272. 276.
Antelope, See Cabrit.

Berthollet, M., anecdote of, and
Aqueduct, at Rio Janeiro, de- of Napoleon, 314.
scribed, 257.

Birds, observations on preserve
Arnott, Mr., See Greville.

ing them stuffed, 210. From
Asphaltes, lake of, described, Java and Sumatra, description
247.

of, 229. 360.
Ataruipe, cavern of, described, Birs-Nimrood supposed to be
276.

the tower of Babel, 142.
Atlas, See Le Sage.

Blind person taught to convey
Avondale, verses on, 325.

her thoughts by printing, 517.

Bonaparte, Napoleon, See Na.
B

! polcon...
Babylon, visit to, 141. Dimen-

Louis, account of
sions of, 146.

his reign in Holland, and
App. Rev. VOL.G.

NI anecdotes

n

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