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A voice he denies it, what steadiness there is of feigned countenance.
By the rays of the sun, and the Tarpeian thunderbolts he swears ;
And the javelin of Mars, and the darts of the Cyrrhæan prophet ;
By the shafts, and the quiver of the virgin-huntress,

And by thy trident, O Neptune, father of Ægeus :
He adds also the Herculean bows, and the spear of Minerva,
Whatever the armories of heaven have of weapons ;
And truly if he be a father, I would eat, says he, a doleful
Part of the head of my boiled son, and wet with Pharian vinegar. 85

There are who place all things in the chances of Fortune,
And believe the world to be moved by no governor,
Nature turning about the changes both of the light and year,
And therefore intrepid they touch any altars whatsoever.

the brother of Atreus, who, having committed adultery with the wife of Atreus, Atreus in revenge killed and dressed the child born of her, and served him up to his brother at his own table.

The defrauder is represented as perjuring himself by many oaths ; and now he wishes, that the fate of Thyestes may be his, that he may have his son dressed and served up to table for him to eat, if he be guilty of the fraud which is laid to his charge.

85. Part of the head.] Sinciput signifies the forepart, or, perhaps one half of the head, when divided downwards. See Ainsw. Quasi semicaput-or, a scindendo, from whence sinciput.

Pharian vinegar.] Pharos was an island of Ægypt, from whence came the best vinegar, of which were made sauces, and seasonings for victuals of various kinds. The poet does not add this without an ironical Aing at the luxury of his day.

86. There are, &c.] i.e. There are some so atheistically inclined, as to attribute all events to mere chance. · 87. The world to be moved, &c.] Epicurus and his followers acknowledged that there were gods, but that they took no care of hu. man affairs, nor interfered in the management of the world. So Hor. sat. v. lib. i, l. 101-3.

Deos didici securum agere ævum, i
Nec, si quid miri faciat natura, Deos id

Tristes ex alto cæli demittere tecto. 88. Nature, &c.] A blind principle, which they call nature, bringing about the revolutions of days and years—(lucis et anni) acting merely mechanically, and without design.

89. Intrepid they touch, &c.] When a man would put another to his solemn oath, he brought him to a temple, and there made him swear, laying his hand upon the altar. But what constraint could this have on the consciences of those who did not believe in the interference of the gods-what altars could they be afraid to touch, and to swear by in the most solemn manner, if they thought that perjury was not noticed ?

Est alius, metuens ne crimen pæna sequatur :
Hic putat esse Deos, et pejerat, atque ita secum :
Decernat quodcunque volet de corpore nostro
Isis, et irato feriat mea lumina sistro,
Dummodo vel cæcus teneam, quos abnego, nummosi
Et phthisis, et vomicæ putres, et dimidium crus
Sunt tanti ? pauper locupletem optare podagram:
Ne dubitet Ladas, si non eget Anticyra, nec
Archigene : quid enim velocis gloria plantæ
Præstat, et esuriens Pisææ ramus olivæ?
Si curant igitur cunctos punire nocentes,


90. Another, &c.] The poet, having before mentioned atheists, • who thought the world governed by mere chance, or;, though they might allow that there were gods, yet that these did not concern themselves in the ordering of human affairs, now comes to another sort, who did really allow, not only the existence, but also the providence of the gods, and their attention to what passed among more tals, and yet such persons having a salvo, to console themselves un. der the commission of crimes, which he well describes in the following lines.

91. Thus with himself. ] 1. e.. Thus argues with himself, allowing and fearing that he will be punished.

92. “ Let Isis," &C.7 Isis was originally an Ægyptian goddess ; but the Romans having adopted her among their deities, they built her a temple at Rome, where they worshipped her. She was supposed to be much concerned in inficting diseases and maladies on mankind, and particularly on the perjured. 93. Strike my eyes.) Strike me blind.

- Angry sistrum.] The sistrum was a musical instrument; it is variously described, but generally thought to be a sort of timbrel, of an oyal, or a triangular form, with loose rings on the edges, which, being struck with a small iron rod, yielded a shrill sound. The Ægyptians used it in battle instead of a trumpet. It was also used by the priests of Isis at her sacrifices, and the goddess herself was described as holding one in her right hand.

Her angry sistrum per hypalagen--for the angry goddess with her sistrum.

94. Keep the money, &c.] Juvenal here describes one, who, hay ing money intrusted to him, refuses to deliver it up when called upon, and who is daring enough, not only to deny his ever having received it, but to defy all punishment, and its consequences, so that he may but succeed in his perjury and fraud, and still keep the money in his possession. . 95. A phthisig.] (From Gr. Ofrais, a Dios, to corrupt.) Ascona sumption of the lungs.

- Putrid sores.] Vomicæ imposthumes of a very malignant kind.

Another is fearing lest punishment may follow a crime: 90 He thinks there are gods, and forswears, and thus with himself “ Let Isis decree whatever she will concerning this body « Of mine, and strike my eyes with her angry sistrum, « So that, even blind, I may keep the money which I deny. « Are a phthisic, or putrid sores, or half a leg « Of such consequence ? let not poor Ladas doubt to wish for “ The rich gout, if he does want Anticyra, nor . * Archigenes ; for what does the glory of a swift foot 'c6 Avail him, and the hungry branch of the Pisæan olive ?" 6 THO' THE ANGER OF THE GODS BE GREAT, YET CERTAINLY. IT IS Slow. :

100 If they take care therefore to punish all the guilty,


95. Half a leg.] The other half being amputated, on account of incurable sores, which threatened mortification.

96. Of such consequence.] Tanti-of so much consequences. B. as to counterbalance the joy of possessing a large sum of money.

Ladas.] The name of a famous runner, who won the prize at the Olympic games.

97. The rich gout.] So called, because it usvally-attacks the rich and luxurious.

~If he does not want Anticyrå. Ji. e. If he be not mad. Anticyra, an island of the Archipelago, was famous for producing great quantities of the best hellebore, which the ancients.esteemed good to purge the head in cases of madness. Whence naviga Anticyram, was as much as to say--you are mad. See Hor. lib. i. sat. j. I. 166.

98. Archigenes.] Some famous physician, remarkable, perhaps, for curing madness. . See sat. vi. 235.

---- The glory of a swift foot, &c.] What good does the applause got by his swiftness do him it will not fill his belly.

99. Hungry branch of the Pisæan olive.] Pisa was a district of Elis, in Peloponnesus, in which was Olympia, where the Olympian games were celebrated : the victors in which were crowned with chaplets made of olive-branches, hence called Pisæan. · The hungry branch-ii e. that will afford no food to the gainers of it. See note on l. 93, ad fin.

The speaker here means, that to be sick and rich, is better than to be healthy and poor; that the famous Ladas, unless he were mad, would sooner choose to be laid up with the gout and be rich, than to enjoy all the glory of the Olympic games and be poor.

100. Tho' the anger, &c.] Another flatters himself, that, though punishment may be heavily inflicted some time or other, yet the evil day may be a great way off. See Eccl. viii. 11.

101. If they take care, &c.] g. d. If they do observe the actions of men, and attend to what they do, so as to take order for the pu. nishment of guilt, wherever they find it, yet it may be a great while before it comes to my turn to be punished.


Quando ad me venient ? sed et exorabile numen
Fortasse experiar: solet his ignoscere. Multi
Committunt eadem diverso crimina fato.
Ille crucem pretium sceleris tulit, hic diadema.
Sic animum diræ trepidum formidine culpæ
Confirmant. Tunc te sacra ad delubra vocantem
Præcedit, trahere imo ultro, ac vexare paratus.
Nam cum magna malæ superest audacia causa,
Creditur a multis fiducia: mimum agit ille,
Urbani qualem fugitivus scurra Catulli.
Tu miser exclamas, ut Stentora vincere possís,
Vel potius quantum Gradivus Homericus : audis,
Jupiter, hæc? nec labra moves, cum mittere vocem
Debueras, vel marmoreus, vel aheneus ? aut cur
In carbone tuo chartâ pia thura solutâ

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103. Exorable, &C.T It may be I shall escape all punishment ; for perhaps I may obtain forgiveness, and find the Deity easy to be entreated.

He useth, &c.] i. e. Crimes of this sort, which are not com. mitted out of contempt of the Deity, but merely to get a little money, he usually forgives.

104. Different fate.] Another subterfuge of a guilty conscience, is, that though, in some instances, wrong doers are punished griev

ously, yet in others they succeed so happily as to obtain rewards : • 80 that the event of wickedness is very different to different people.

105. Borne the cross, &c.] The same species of wickedness that has brought one man to the gallows, has exalted another to a throne.

106—7. Thus they confirm.] By all these specious, and deceitful reasonings, they cheat themselves into the commission of crimes, and endeavour to silence the remonstrances and terrors of a guilty con. science,

108. He precedes, &c.] Thus confident, the wretch whom you summon to the temple, in order to swear to his innocence, leads the way before you, as if in the utmost haste to purge himself by oath. .. Ready to draw, &c.] He is ready to drag you along by force, and to harass and teaze you to get on faster, in order to bring him to his oath.

109. When great impudence, &c.] When a man is impudent enough, however guilty, to set a good face upon the matter, this is mistaken by many for a sign of honest confidence, arising from inno. cence.

110. He acts the farce, &c.] Alluding to a play written by one Lutatius Catullus, called the Phasma, or Vision, (see sat. viii. 185,6.) in which there was a character of a buffoon, who ran away from his master, after having cheated him, and then vexed, and even pro

6* When will they come to me ?-But, perhaps too, the deity 66 Exorable I may experience : he useth to forgive these things. " Many commit the same crimes with a different fate. «One has borne the cross as a reward of wickedness, another a di. “adem."

105 Thus the mind trembling with the fear of dire guilt They confirm : then you, calling him to the sacred shrines, He precedes, even ready of his own accord to draw you, and to

teaze you. For when great impudence remains to a bad cause, It is believed confidence by many : he acts a farce,

110 Such as the fugitive buffoon of the witty Catullus. You miserable exclaim, so as that you might overcome Stentor, . Or rather as much as the Homerican Gradivus : “ Do you hear, . “O Jupiter, these things ? nor move your lips when you ought " To send forth your voice, whether you are of marble or of brass ? .: “or why,

115 « On thy coal, put we the pious frankincense from the loos’d

voked him, that he might be brought to swear himself off, cheerfully proposing thus to be perjured. This play is lost by time, so that notking certain can be said concerning this allusion ; but what is here said (after Holyday) seems probable.

111. Witty Catullus.] Some expound urbani, here, as the cogno men of this Catullus.

112. You miserable exclaim- You, half mad with vexation at finding yourself thus treated, and in amazement at the impudence of such a perjury, break forth aloud.

- Stentor. A Grecian mentioned by Homer, Il. é. 1. 785, 6. to have a voice as loud as fifty people together.

113. Homerican Gradivus. See note, sat. ii. 1. 128. Homer says, (Jl. é. 860—2.) that when Mars was wounded by Diomede, he roared so loud that he frightened the Grecians and Trojans, and made a noise as loud as 10,000 men together.

In some such manner as this, wouldst thou, my friend Calvinus, exclaim, and call out to Jupiter.

114. Nor move your lips.] Canst thou be a silent hearer, o Jupiter, of such perjuries as these? wilt thou not so much as utter a word against such doings, when one should think thou oughtest tą threaten vengeance, wert thou even made of marble or brass, like thine images which are among us?

115. Or why:] Where is the use to what purpose is it?

116. Put we, &c. See sat. xii. I. 89, note. · 116–17. From the loos'd paper.] Some think that the offerers used to bring their incense wrapped up in paper, and, coming to the altar, they undid or opened the paper, and poured the incense out of it upon the fire.

But others, by charta soluta (abl. absol.) understand a reference

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