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Septembri ; nec non differre in tempora cænæ
Alterius, conchen æstivi cum parte lacerti
Signatam, vel dimidio putrique siluro,
Filaque sectivi numerata includere porri :
Invitatus ad hæc aliquis de ponte negaret.
Sed quo divitias hæc per tormenta coactas?

Cum furor haud dubius, cum sit manifesta phrenesis,
Ut locuples moriaris, egenti vivere fato ?
Interea pleno cum turget sacculus ore,
Et minus hanc optat, qui non habet. Ergo paratur


130. Also to defer, &c.] Who accustoms himself to keep for a second meal. 131. The bean.] Conchis.--See sat. iii. 293, note.

- Sealed up.] Put into some vessel, the cover or mouth of which was sealed up close with the master's seal, to prevent the ser. vants getting at it. Or perhaps into some cupboard, the door of which had the master's seal upon it.

131.-2. Part of a summer fish.] Lacerti æstivi.—What fish the lacertus was, I do not any where tind with certainty. Ainsworth calls it a kind of cheap fish usually salted. This, mentioned here, is called a sumrner fish ; I suppose, because caught in the summer time ; and for this reason, no doubt, not very likely to keep long sweet.

132. With half a stinking shad.] See sat. iv. 33; and Ainsv. Silurus. Lit. and with an half and putrid silurus.

133. To shut up.] Includere---i. e. to include in the same sealed vessel.-The infinitive includere, like the servare, l. 129, and the non differre, l. 130, is governed by the solitus, l. 129.

---- Number'd threads, &c.] Sectivi porri..In sat. iii. 293, 4. Juvenal calls it sectile porrum. See there. There were two differ. ent species of the leek; one sort was called sectum, sectile, and sectivum--the other capitatum; the former of which was reckoned the worst. See Plin. lib. xix. c. 6.

From the bottom of a leek there are fibres which hang downwards, when the leek is taken out of the ground, which the poet here calls fila, or threads, which they resemble. He here humourously repré. sents a person so sordidly avaricious, as to count the threads, or fibres, at the bottom of a leek, that if one of these should be missing he inight find it out.

The epithets, sectivum and sectile, are given to that sort of leek, from its being usual to cut or shred it into small pieces when mixed with victuals of any kind. See Ainsw. Sectivus.

134. Invited from a bridge.] See sat. iv. 116. The bridges · about Rome were the usual places where beggars took their stand, in order to beg of the passengers.

The poet, to finish his description of the miser's board of victuals;

September; also to defer, to the time of another supper, 130
The bean, sealed up with part of a summer
Fish, or with half a stinking shad,
And to shut up the number'd threads of a sective leek :
Any one invited from a bridge to these, would refuse..
But for what end are riches gather'd by these torments, 135
Since it is an undoubted madness, since it is a manifest phrensy,
That you may die rich, to live with a needy fate ?
In the mean time, when the bag swells with a full mouth,

And he wishes for it less, who has it not. Therefore is prepared 140

here tells us, that if this wretch were to invite a common beggar to such provisions as he kept for himself and family, the beggar would refuse to come.

135. But for what end, &c.] Some verb must be understood here, as habes, or possides, or the likes otherwise the accusative case is without a verb to govern it. We may then read the line

To what purpose do you possess riches, gathered together by these torments--i e. with so much punishinent and uneasiness to yourself See sat. x. I. 12, 13. 136. Undoubted madness, &c.] So Hor. Sat. jii. lib. ii. l. 82.

Danda est hellebori multo pars maxima avaris,
Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destinet:omnem,
Misers make whole Anticyra their own;
Its hellebore reserved for them alone,

FRANCIS. For Anticyra, see above, Juv. sat xiii. l. 97, note.

137. A needy fate, &c.] i. e. To share the fate of the poor; to live az if destined to poverty and want, for the sake of being rich when you die, a time when your riches can avail you nothing, be they ever so great.

138. When the bag swells, &c.] And all this, for which you are tormenting yourself at this rate, you find no satisfaction or content. ment in ; for when your bags are filled up to the very mouth, still you want more. The getting of money, and the love of money increase together : the more you have, the more you want.

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, &c.
See Hor. lib. ii. ode ii. and lib. iii. ode xvi. I. 17, 18.

Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam

Majorumque fames. 140. He wishes for it less, &c.] A poor man looks no farther than for a supply of his present wants ; he never thinks of any thing more.

Therefore.] Because thou art insatiable in thy desires.

Is prepared, &c.] Not content with one country-house, another is purchased, and gotten ready, prepared for thy reception, as one will not suffice.


Altera villa tibi, cum rus non sufficit unum,
Et proferre libet fines ; majorque videtur,
Et melior vicina seges : mercaris et hanc, et
Arbusta, et densâ montem qui canet olivâ :
Quorum si pretio dominus non vincitur ullo,
Nocte boves macri, lassoque famelica collo
Armenta ad virides hujus mittentur aristas ;
Nec prius inde domum, quam tota novalia sævos
In ventres abeant, ut credas falcibus actum.
Dicere vix possis, quam multi talia plorent,
Et quot venales injuria fecerit agros
Sed qui sermones ? quam fædæ buccina famæ ?
Quid nocet hoc? inquit : tunicam mihi malo lupini,
Quam si me toto laudet vicinia pago


142It likes you to extend, &c.] You think the present limits of your estate too confined, and therefore you want to enlarge them.

143. Neighbour's corn.] Arista is properly the beard of corn, and, by synec. the whole ear; and so the corn itself, as growing. You take into your head that your neighbour's corn looks better than yours, therefore you determine to purchase, and to possess yourself of his estate.

144. Groves of trees.] Arbustum signifies a copse or grove of trees, pleasant for its shade.

Which is white, &c.] The bloom of the olive is of a white, or light grey colour. Densä here means a vast quantity. See sat. i. 120, note.

145. With any price of which, &c.] If you cannot tempt the owner to part with them for any price which you offer for the pure chase, then you have recourse to stratagem to make him glad to get rid of them.

146. By night the lean oxen, &c.] In the night time, when you are not likely to be discovered, you turn your oxen, which are halfstarved, and your other herds of grazing beasts, which are kept sharp for the purpose, into your poor neighbour's corn.

1462-7. Tired necks.] That have been yoked, and at work all day, and therefore the more hungry.

147. To the green corn, &c.] In order to eat it up

148. Nor may they depart home, &c.] They are not suffered to stir homeward, till they have eaten up the whole crop, as clean as if it had been reaped.

The whole crop.] Tota novalia.--Novale est, saith Pliny, quod alternis annis seritur-" Land sown every other year,” and therefore produces the more plentiful crops. Here, by met. novalią signifies the crop: that grow on such land. See Virg. Geor. i. l. 71.

151. Injury, &c ] Many have had reason to complain of such treatment, and have been forced to sell their land to avoid being ruined,

Another villa for you, when one country seat is not sufficient ;
And it likes you to extend your bordets ; and greater appears
And better your neighbour's corn: you buy also this, and
Groves of trees, and the mountain which is white with the thick

olive :
With any price of which if the owner be not prevailed on, 145
By night the lean oxen, and the famished herds, with tired
Necks, will be sent to the green corn of this man.
Nor may they depart home from thence, before the whole crop
Is gone into their cruel bellies, so that you would believe it done by

sickles. You can hardly say, how many may lament such things, 150 And how many fields injury has made to be set to sale. 6 But what speeches ? how the trumpet of foul fame!"• What does this hurt?" says he : “ I had rather have the coat of a

lupine, « Than if the neighbourhood in the whole village should praise me

152. What speeches ?"] What does the world say of you, says the poet, for such proceedings ? . " Trumpet of foul fame" -] The poet is interrupted before he has finished, by the eager answer of the person to whom he is sup. posed to be speaking, and with whom he is ex postulating.

153. “ What does this hurt?"] Says the miser---What harm can what the world says do ? See Hor. sat. i. 1. 64–7.

Coat of á lupine.] Lupinus signifies a kind of pulse, of a bitter and harsh taste, covered with a coat, huśk, or shell. See Virg. G.i. l. 75, 6. Isidorus says, that the best definition of lupi. nus is, amo Tr5 doans, quod vultum gustantis amaritudine contristet. Ainsworth thinks that lupinus signifies what we call hops ; and this seems likely, as we may gather from the story in Athenæus, lib. ii. c. xiv, where he relates of Zeno the Stoic, that he was ill-tempered and harsh, till he had drunk a quantity of wine, and then he was pleasant and good-humoured. On Zeno's being asked the reason of this change of temper, he said, that “the same thing happened to s him as to lupines ; for lupines,” says he, “ before they are soaked in “ water are very bitter ; but when put into water, and made soft by “ steeping, and are well soaked, they are mild and pleasant.”-Hops grow with coats, or laminæ, one over another. But whatever be the exact meaning of lupini, the meaning of this hasty answer of the miser's is as follows: "Don't talk to me of what speeches are made “ about me, or what the trumpet of fame may spread abroad, to “ the disadvantage of my character. I would not give a pin's head “ for all they can say against me, if I do but get rich :--but I would “ not give the husk of a lupine for the praise of all the town, if my “ farm be small, and afford but a poor crop."

9. d. If I am rich, they can't hurt me by their abuse ; but if poora their praise will do me no good.



Exigui ruris paucissima farra secantem.
Scilicet et morbis et debilitate carebis,
Et luctum et curam effugies, et tempora vitæ
Longa tibi post hæc fato meliore dabuntur ;
Si tantum culti solus possederis agri,
Quantum sub Tatio populus Romanus arabat.
Mox etiam fractis ætate, ac Punica passis
Prælia, vel Pyrrhum immanem, gladiosque Molossos.
Tandem pro multis vix jugera bina dabantur
Vulneribus : merces ea sanguinis atque laboris
Nullis visa unquam meritis minor, aut ingratæ
Curta fides patriæ : saturabat glebula talis
Patrem ipsum, turbamque casæ, quâ fæta jacebat
Uxor, et infantes ludebant quatuor, unus
Vernula, tres domini : sed magnis fratribus horum


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155. The very scanty produce.] Paucissima farra.-Far denotes all manner of corn. Paucissima need not be taken literally in the superlative sense, but as intensive, and as meaning, a very small, an exceeding scanty crop of corn. See note on densissima lectica, sat. i. 1. 120, n. 2. The comparative and superlative degrees are often used by the Latin writers only in an intensive sense.

. 156. I warrant, &c. Here the poet is speaking ironically, as if he said to the miser -- To be sure, Sir, people like you, who are above the praise or dispraise of the world, are doubtle exempted too from the calamities which the rest of the world suffer, such as sickness and infirmities. See sat. x. I. 227. You are also out of the reach of affliction and sorrow. See sat, x. l. 242—4. Carebis you will be without-free from.

158. After these things, &c.] Add to all this, that you must live longer than others, and be attended with uncommon happiness meliore fato-with a more prosperous and more favourable des. tiny.

159. If you alone possess'd, &c.] Provided that you were so wealthy as to possess, and be the sole owner of as much arable land as the people of Rome cultivated, when the empire was in its infancy, under Romulus, and Tatius the Sabine ; who, for the sake of the ladies he brought with him, was received into the city, and consociated with Romulus in the government. However this might be considered as 'small, to be divided among all the people, yet, in the hands of one man, it would be a vast estate.

161. Afterwards.] In after timesmox--some while after.

- Broken with age.] Worn out with age and the fatigues of war. Gravis annis miles. Hor. sat. i. 5.

161-2. Had suffer'd the Punic wars.] Had undergone the toils and dangers of the three wars with the Carthaginians, which almost exhausted the Romans.

162. Cruel Pyrrhus.] The king of Epirus, who vexed the Ro.

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