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given you with a beiculong space of life,

“ Cutting the very scanty produce of a little farm.;"
I warrant you will want both disease and weakness,
And you will escape mourning and care ; and a long space of life,
After these things, will be given you with a better fate ;
If you alone possess'd as much cultivated ground,
As, under Tatius, the Roman people ploughed.

160 Afterwards even to those broken with age, and who had suffer'd the

Wars, or cruel Pyrrhus, and the Molossian swords,
At length hardly two acres were given for many
Wounds. That reward of blood, and of toil,
Than no deserts ever seem'd less, or the faith small

Of an ungrateful country. Such a little glebe satisfied
The father himself, and the rabble of his cottage, where big lay
The wife, and four infants were playing, one a little
Bond-slave, three masters : but for the great brothers of these

mans with perpetual wars, but, at last, was defeated and driven out of Italy.

162. Molossian swords.] The Molossi were a people of Epirus, who fought against the Romans in Pyrrhus's army. See sat. xii. 1. 108, note. 163. At lengtk.] i. e. After so many toils and dangers.

Hardly two acres.] Jugerum--an acre, so called from jugum boum, being as much land as a yoke of oxen could plough in a day. Scarcely so much as two acres were given as a reward for many wounds in battle.

165. Than no deserts, &c.] And this portion of two acres, given to a soldier, as a reward for the blood which he had shed, and the coils he had undergone in the service of his country, was never found fault with as too little for his deserts, or as an instance of a breach of faith in his country towards him, by rewarding him less than he had reason to expect. Curtus means little, short, curtailed, imperfect, broken. Curta fides may be applied to express a man's coming short of his promise.

166. Little glebe.] Such a small piecy of arable land.

166—7. Satisfied the father.] The poor soldier, who was the father of a numerous family.

167. Rabble of his cottage.] Consisting of his wife and many children, some small, others grown up.

- Big.] i. e. Big, or great, with child.

169. Bond-slave-three masters.] One of the four children that were playing together, was a little bond-slave born of a she slave. The three others were children of the wife, and therefore masters over the little slave, but all playing together, happy and content.

Great brothers.] The elder children now big enough to go out to labour.

VOL. 11.

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A scrobe vel sulco redeuntibus, altera cæna:
Amplior, et grandes fumabant pultibus ollæ.
Nunc modus hic agri nostro non sufficit horto..
Inde fere scelerum causae, nec plura venena
Miseuit, aut ferro grassatur sæpius ullum
Humanæ mentis vitium, quam sæva cupido
Indomiti censûs ; nam dives qui fieri vult, .
Ec cito vult fieri : sed quæ reverentia legum?
Quis metus, aut pudor est unquam properantis avari?"
Vivite contenti casulis et collibus istis,
O pueri,.Marsus dicebat et Hernicus olim,
Vestipusque senex ; panem quæramus aratro,
Qui satis est mensis : laudant hoc numina ruris,
Quorum ope et auxilio, gratæ post munus aristä,
Contingunt homini veteris fastidia quercûs.


170. Ditch-or furrow, &c.] Coming home from their day's work, at digging and ploughing

171. More ample.] Their being grown up, and returning hungry from their labour, required a more copious meal, than the little ones who staid at home.

Great pots.] Pots proportionably farge to the provision which was to be made.

- Smoked with pottage.] Boiling over the fire. Puls wax a' kind of pottage made of meal, water, honey, or cheese and eggs sodden together. Ainsw.

172. Measure of ground.] viz. Two acres, which, in ancient days, was thought a sufficient reward for an old, valiant defender of his country, after all his dangers, toils, and wounds, and which provided for, and made him and all his family happy, is not, as times go, thought big enough for a pleasure-garden. 173. Thence, &c.] From covetousness. Comp. 1. 175.

Causes of villainies, &c.].i. e. From this vile principle arise, as from their source, all manner of cruel and bad. actions. See 1 Tim. vi, 10. former part.

- More poisons, &c.] Contrived more inethods of destroying people in order to come at their property, either by paison or the sword. See James iv. 1, 2,

175. A cruel desire. Which thinks no act of cruelty too great, so that its end may be accomplished. So VIRG. Æn, iii. l. 56, 7.

. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis.

Āuri sacra fames ? 176. Unbounded.] Lit. untamed-i..e. that cannot be kept or restrained within any bounds. A metaphor taken from animals that are wild and untamed, which are ungovernable, and not to be restrained. .--He who would be rich:] So the apoštle, 1 Tim. vi. 9. i βελομενοι πλατειν..

From the ditch or furrow returning, another supper.

770 More ample, and great pots smoked with pottage. Now this measure of ground is not sufficient for our garden.

Thence are commonly the causes of villainies, 'nor more poisons
Has any vice of the human mind mixed, or oftener
Attacked with the sword, than a cruel desire

175 Of an unbounded income;; for he who would be rich, Would be so quickly too. But what reverence of the laws ? What fear, or shame, is there ever of a hastening miser? --* Live contented with those little cottages and hills, 60 youths,” said the Marsian and Hernician formerly, And the old Vestinian, « let us seek bread by the plough, 366 Which is enough for our tables : the deities of the country approve

** this, to By whose help and assistance, after the gift of acceptable corn, *** There happen to man loathings of the old oak.


177. Would be so quickly.) And therefore takes the shortest way sto carve for himself, through every obstacle.

Reverence of the laws.] The laws which are made to restrain all acts of murder, and violence, and fraud, are put totally out of the question, he treads them under his feet.

- 178. Hastening miser.) A covetous man'who hastens to be rich; has neither fear nor shame: the dreads not what the laws can do to him, nor what the world will say of him. See Prov. xxviii. 22.

179. “ Live contented,&c.] The poet here mentions what was the doctrine of ancient times, in the days of simplicity and frugality, by introducing the exhortation of some wise and thrifty father to his children.

180. O youths," &C.7 Such was the language formerly of the fai thers among the Marsi, the Hernici, and the Vestini, to their children, in order to teach them contentment, frngality, and industry. .

- Marsian.] The Marsi were a labarious people, about fifc teen miles distant from Rome.

Hernician. 7 The Hernici, a people of New Latium. . 181. Vestinian.] The Vestini were a people of Latium, bordering on the Sabines.

" Seek bread by the plough,&C.] Let us provide our own bread by our industry, as much as will suffice for our support.

182. “ Deities of the country.”] - The Romans had their rural gods, - as Ceres, Bacchus, Flora, &c. which they particularly worshipped,

as presiding over their lands, and as at first inventing the various parts of husbandry.

183. “ By whose help," 886.] He means particularly Bacchus, who first found out the use of wine, and Ceres, who found out corn and tillage.

184. " Loathing," &c.] Since the invention of agriculture, and the production of corn, men disdain living upon acorns, as at first they did. See sat. vi. l. 10; and VIRG. G. i. 1. 5--23, where may


Nil vetitum fecisse volet, quem non pudet olto
Per glaciem perone tegi ; qui summovet Euros
Pellibus inversis : peregrina, ignotaque nobis
Ad scelus atque nefas, quodcunque est, purpura ducit.
Hæc illi veteres præcepta minoribus : at nunc
Post finem autumni mediâ de nocte supinum
Clamosus juvenem pater excitat: accipe ceras,
Scribe, puer, vigila, causas age, perlege rubras
Majorum leges, aut vitem posce libello.
Sed caput intactum buxo, naresque pilosas
Annotet, et grandes miretur Lælius alas,
Dirue Maurorum attegias, castella Brigantûm,



be seen an invocation to Bacchus and Ceres, and the other rural dei. ties, as the inventors and patrons of agriculture.

185. « Any thing forbidden,&c.] Those who are bred up in po. verty and hardship, are unacquainted with the temptations to vice, to which those who are in high life are liable.

186. “ Thro' ice to be cover'd," &c.] Pero--a sort of high shoe, made of raw leather, worn by country people as a defence against snow and cold Ainsw.

187. “ Inverted skins.”] The skins of beasts with the wool or hair turned inwards next the body, to defend it from the cold winds, and to keep the wearer warm.

Thus shod and thus clothed were the hardy rustics of old time ; they lived in happy ignorance of vice and luxury, and of all offences to the laws.

" Purple," &c.] 9. d. The Tyrian purple, with which the garments of the rich and great are dyed, is a foreign piece of luxury, and unknown to us. The introduction of this, as well as other ar. ticles of foreign luxury, is the forerunner of all manner of vice and wickedness; for when once people cast off a simplicity of dress and manners, and run into luxury and expense, they go all lengths to sup. ply their vanity and extravagance, It cannot be said of any such nil. vetitum fecisse volet.

189. These precepts, &c.] Such were the lessons which those rustic veterans taught their children, and delivered to the younger part of the community, for the benefit of posterity,

But now. i. e. As matters are now, fathers teach their chil. dren very different lessons.

190. After the end of Autumn.] When the winter sets in, and the nights are long and cold.

- From the middle of the night.] As soon as midnight is turned. 190-1. The noisy father.] Bawling to wake his son, who is lying along on his back (supinum) in his bed fast asleep.

191. “ The waxen tablets,"] See note on I. 30.
192. “ Write,"] Pen something that you may get money by,
* "* Watch."] Set up all night at study.

- He will not do any thing forbidden, who is not ashamed 185 " Thro' ice to be cover'd with an high shoe ; who keeps off the east

o wind 6 With inverted skins. Purple, foreign, and unknown to us, • Leads to wickedness and villainy, whatsoever it may be.” These precepts those ancients gaye to their posterity : but now, After the end of Autumn, from the middle of the night, the noisy 190 Father rouses the şupine youth: “ Take the waxen tablets, “ Write, boy, watch, plead causes, read over the red 1 Laws of our forefathers, or ask for a yine by a petition, " But your head untouched with box, and your hairy nostrils, “ Lelius may take notice of, and admire your huge arms. 195 “ Destroy the tents of the Moors, the castles of the Brigantes,

· 192. Plead causes.”] Turp advocate-be called to the bar.

" Read over,&c.] Study the law. 1923. “The red laws.] So called, because the titles and be ginning of the chapters were written in red letters. Hence tẶe writ. ten law was called rubrica. See pers. sat. v. 1. 90.

193. “ Ask for a vine," &c.] For a centurion's post in the arny draw up a petition for this.

The centurion, or captain over an hundred men, carried, as an ensign of his office, a stick or batoon in his hand, made out of a vine. branch ; as our captains do spontoons, and our serjcants halberds. See sat. viii. 1. 247. note.--If a man 'were to advise another to pe. tition for an halberd, it would be equivalent to advising him to pe. tition to be made a serjeant. So here, the father advising his son to petition for a vine, i. e. vine-branch, is equivalent to his petitioning to be made a centurion. . · 164. Untouched with box."] Your rough and martial appearance, owing to your hair lying loose, and not being combed. The Romans miade their combs of box-wood.

con " Hairy nostrils.] Another mark of hardiness ; for effe. minate and delicate people plucked off all superfluous hairs. See sat. ii. 11, 12. where hairiness is mentioned as a mark of hardiness and courage. .

195. Lelius.] Some great general in the army may notice these things as bespeaking you fit for the army.

Huge arms."] Probably rough with hair. See above, n. 2. on l. 194.--Ala signifies the armpit, also the arm.--See Ainsw.

196, Destroy the tents of the Moors."] Go and do some great exploit---distinguish yourself in an expedition against 'the people of Mauritania. Attegiæ (from ad and tegere, to cover) signifies cot. tages, huts, cabins, tents, and the like, in which people shelter themselves from the weather. . Castles of the Brigantes."] Of the inhabitants of Britain. The people of Lancashire, Yorkshire and other northern parts of England, were called Brigantes; they had strong castles.

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