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Ut locupletem aquilam tibi sexagesimus annus
Afferat : aut longos castrorum ferre labores
Si piget, et trepido solvunt tibi cornua ventrem
Cum lituis audita, pares, quod vendere possiş

Pluris dimidio, nec te fastidia mercis
Ullius subeant ablegandæ Tiberim ultra :
Nec credas ponendum aliquid discriminis inter
Unguenta, et corium : LUCRI 'BONUSEST ODOR EX RB .
QUALIBET. Illa tuo sententia semper in ore

205 Versetur, Dîs atque ipso Jove digna, poëtæ : UNDE HABEAS QUÆRIT NEMO ; SED OPORTET HABERE, Hoc monstrant vetulæ pueris poscentibus assem ; Hoc discunt omnes ante Alpha et Beta puella. Talibus instantem monitis quemcunque parentem Sie possem affari : dic, ô vanissime, quis te

197. That a rich eagle," &c.] The Roman ensign was the figure of an eagle, which was carried at the head of every regimente The care of this standard was committed to the eldest captain of the regiment, and was a very rich post.

The father is here exhorting his son to go into the army; in order to which, first, he is to petition for the vine-rod, or centurion's post ; then he exhorts him to go into service, and distinguish him. self against the enemy, that, at sixty years old, he may be the eldest captain, and enrich himself by having the care of the standard, which was very lucrative. Hence Juvenal calls it locupletem aquilam,

198. “ Or if to bear,&c.] If you dislike going into a military life.

199. “The horrs," &c.] If the cornets and trumpets throw you into a panic at the sound of them, so that you are ready to be foul yourself when you hear martial music. ..

200. 66 You may purchase," &c.] You may go into trade, and buy goods which you may sell for half as much more as they cost you.

201. «Nor let the dislike," &c.] Don't be nice about what you deal in, though ever so filthy, though such as must be manufactured on the other side of the Tiber.

202. “ Sent away beyond the Tiber.”] Tanning, and other noi, some trades, were carried on on the other side of the river, to pre. serve the city sweet and healthy.

203. " Do not believe," &c.] Do not take it into your head that one thing, which you may get money by, is better than another, So as you do but enrich yourself, let it be the same thing to you, whether you deal in perfumed ointments, or stinking hides.

204. “ The smell of gain,c.] He alludes to the answer made by Vespasian to his son Titus, who was against raising money by a tax on urine.-Titus remonstrated with him on the meanness of such an imposition : but he, presenting to his son the first money that accrued to him from it, asked him whether the smell offended him. Ant. Univ. History, vol. xv. p. 26.

“ That a rich eagle to thee the sixtieth year i « May bring : or if to bear the long labours of camps It grieves you, and the horns heard with the trumpets loosen e Your belly, you may purchase, what you may sell , 200 " For the half of more, nor let the dislike of any merchandise, " Which is to be sent away beyond the Tiber, possess you. “ Do not believe there is any difference to be put between . « Ointments and an hide. THE SMELL OF GAIN IS SWEET « FROM ANY THING WHATSOEVER. Let that sentence of the poet 205 « Be always in your mouth, worthy the gods, and of Jove himself: “ NOBODY ASKS FROM:WHENCE YOU HAVE, BUT IT BEHOVE'S YOU

6 TO HAVE." This, the old women shew to the boys asking three farthings :: This, all the girls learn before their Alpha and Beta. Whatsoever parent is instant with such admonitions,

210 I might thus speak to : “Say, (O most vain man,) who commands

205.6 Sentence of the poet,'* &c.] 1. e. Of the poet Ennius, quoted l. 207.

206." Be always in your mouth.”] Be always at youditongue's end, as we say,

"Worthy the gods," &c.] Juvenal very naturally represents this old covetous fellow, as highly extolling a maxim so exactly suited to his sordid principles,

192 See Moliere's Avare, act iii. sc. v. where the miser is so pleased with a' saying which suits his principles, as to want it written in letters of gold... 207. Nobody asks, * &c.]

T' have money is a necesary task,

From whence'tis got the world will never ask. F. DR YDEN, Jun. And therefore only take care to be rich, nobody will inquire how you came so. The poet, in the next two lines, humourously observes the early implanting this doctrine in the minds of children.

208. This, the old women, &c.] This maxim, old women, when their children ask them for a trifle to buy playthings, or some trash to eat, always take care to instil into their minds; they take this opportunity to preach up the value of money, and the necessity of having it, no matter how ;' nobody will trouble their head about that. ..

The Roman As was about three farthings of our money.

209. This, all the girls, &c.] In short, children of the other sex too are taught this before their- A B C. No marvel then, that avarice is so general and so ruling a principle.

210. Is instant.] Takes pains to impress such maxims upon his children.

211. Thus speak to.] Thus address myself to.


Festinare jubet ? meliorem præsto magistro
Discipulum: securus abi : vincêris, ut Ajax
Præteriit Telamonem, ut Pelea vicit Achilles. '
Parcendum est teneris ; nondum implevere medullas
Nativæ mala nequitiæ : cum pectere barbam
Cæperit, et longi mucro nem admittere cultri,
Falsus erit testis, vendet perjuria summâ
Exiguâ, Cereris tangens aramque pedemque.
Elatam jam crede nurum, si limina vestra
Mortiferâ cum dote subit : quibus illa premetur
Per somnum digitis ? nam quæ terrâque marique
Acquirenda putes, brevior via conferet illi :
Nullus enim magni sceleris labor. Hæc ego nunquam
Mandavi, dices olim, nec talia suasi :
Mentis causa malæ tamen est, et origo penes te :



212. “To hasten."7 Who bid thee be in such a hurry to teach your son such principles ? why begin with him so young, and take so much pains ?

"I warrant.] So præsto signifies here. See Ainsw. Præsto, No. 8.

"The scholar better,&c.] A greater proficient than yourself in avarice, and in every other vice, in which you may instruct him.

213. “ Depart secure."] Make yourself quite secure and easy upon this subject.

- As Ajax," &c.] Your son will outdo you in avarice, as much as Ajax surpassed his father Telamon, or as Achilles surpassed his father Peleus, in valour and warlike achievements.

215. “You must spare," &c.] You must make allowance for the tenderness of youth, and not hurry your son on too fast; have patience with him, he'll be bad enough by-and-by.

"Their marrows,&c.] The evil dispositions and propen. sities with which they were born (mala nativæ nequitiæ) have not had time to grow to maturity, and to occupy their whole minds, marrow fills the bones. The marrow, which is placed within the bones, like the bowels, which are placed within the body, is often figuratively, and by analogy, made use of to signify the inward mind.

Tully says, Fam. xv. 16. Mihi hæres in medullis--I love you in my heart. And again, Philip. i. 15. in medullis populi Romani, ac visceribus hærebant they were very dear to the Roman people. | 217. To comb his beard."] 1. e. When he is grown up to ma. turity.

- "To admit the point,&c.] The edge of a razor--a peri. phrasis for being shaved. See sat. i. 25; and sat x. 226.

218. Sell perjuries," &c.] He will forswear himself for a very small price.

219. « Touching both the altar," 86.] It was the custom among

“ Thee to hasten? I warrant the scholar better than . “ The master : depart secure : you will be outdone, as Ajax “ Surpassed Telamon, as Achilles outdid Peleus, “ You must spare the tender ones : as yet their marrows the evils 215 “ Of native wickedness have not filled: when he has begun " To comb his beard, and to admit the point of a long knife, " He will be a false witness, he will sell perjuries for a small “ Şum, touching both the altar and foot of Ceres." “ Already believe your daughter-in-law carried forth, if your thresh"olds

220 « She enters with a deadly portion. By what fingers will she be pressed In her sleep ?-for, what things you may suppose to be acquired “ By sea and land, a shorter way will confer upon him : “ For of great wickedness there is no labour. These things I never “ Commanded, may you some time say, nor persuaded such things, 225 • But the cause of a bad mind, nevertheless, and its origin, is in you :

the Romans, on occasion of solemn oaths, to go to a temple, and, when they swore, to lay their hand upon the altar of the god. Here, to make his oath the more solemn, the miser's son is represented, not only as laying his hand upon the altar of Ceres, but also on the foot of her image. See sat. iii. 1. 144, and note. .

· 219.“ Of Ceres.”] The altar of Ceres was reckoned the most sa. cred, because, in the celebration of her worship, nothing was to be admitted that was not sacred and pure. 'Sat. vi. 1. 50.

220. “ Your daughter-in-law.''] Your son's wife-pronounce her dead, if she comes within your doors with a large fortune, for your son, her husband, will murder her, in order to get the sole possession of it.

. " Carried forth.] i. e. To be huried, or, as the manner then was, to be burned on the funeral pile. See Ter. Andria, act i. sc. i. l. 90. See sat. vi. 1. 566.

221. “ With a deadly portion.''] Mortifera cum dotemi. e. which is sure to occasion her death, by the hands of her covetous husband.

By what fingers,&c.] How eager will his fingers be to strangle her in her sleep!

222. For, what things,&c.] What you may suppose others to get by traversing land and sea, in order to trade and acquire riches, your son will find a shorter way to come at, by murdering his wife.

224. " There is no labour.”] There is very little trouble in such a business as this, it is soon done.

224-5: I never commanded,' &c.] The time may come, when, seeing your son what I have been describing, you will be for exculpating yourself, and you may say "I never gave him any such or“ ders--this was owing to no advice of mine."

226. “ But the cause," &c.] The poet answers--No, you might not specifically order him to do such or such an action, but



Nam quisquis magni censùs præcepit amorem,
Et lævo monitu pueros producit avaros :
Et qui per fraudes patrimonia conduplicare
Dat libertatem, totas effundit habenas
Curriculo ; quem si revoces, subsistere nescitg.
Et te contempto rapitur, metisque relictis.
Nemo satis credit tantum delinquere, quantum
Permittas : adeo indulgent sibi latius ipsi.-
Cum dicis juveni, stultum, qui donet amico,
Qui paupertatem levet, attollatque propinqui ;
- Et spoliare doces, et circumscribere, et omni
Crimine divitias acquirere, quarum amor in te est,
Quantus erat patriæ Deciorum in pectore, quantum
Dilexit Thebas, si Græcia vera, Menceceus,
In quarum sulcis legiones dentibus anguis



the principle from which he acts such horrid scenes of barbarity and villainy, is owing to the example which you have set him, and originates from the counsel which you have given him to'enrich himself by all means, no matter how ; therefore all this is penes telies at your door.

227.. " Whoever has taught," &c.] Whoever has given a son such precepts as you have given yours, in order to instil into him an un.. bounded love of wealth.

228. “ Foolish admonition,"&c.7 So Lævus seems to be used Æn. ii. 54; and eclog.-i. 16. Si mens non læva fuisset.. See Ainsw. Lävus, No. 2. But perhaps it may mean unlucky, unfortunate, like sinistro..See this Satire, l. 1, and note.

Or lævo' may be here understood, as we sometimes understand the word sinister, when we mean to say, that a man's designs are indirect, dishonest, unfair.

" Produces covetour boys."] Brings up his children with covetous principles.

230. “ Gives liberty,"&c.] i. e. So far from checking such dispositions, gives them full liberty to exercise themselves, pleased to see the thriftiness of a son, who is defrauding all mankind, that he may double his own property.

Loosens all the reins,"! &c.] Gives full and ample loose to every kind of evil. A metaphor, taken from a charioteer, who by loosening the reins, by which he holds and guides the horses, too freely, they run away with the chariot, and when he wants to stop them he cannot.

231. Which if you would recall,&C.] It is in vain to think of stopping or recalling such a one, who knows no restraint.

232. “ You contemned."] Having forfeited the authority of a fan ther, all you can say, to stop his career, is held in the utmost contempt.

The bounds being left.] As the charioteer is run away with by his horses (see note above, I. 230.) beyond the bounds of

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