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• For whoever has taught the love of a great income,
* And, by foolish admonition, produces covetous boys,
4 And he who to double patrimonies by frauds,
6 Gives liberty, loosens all the reins to the chariot,

230 Which if you would recall, it knows not to stop, * And, you contemned, and the bounds being left, it is hurried on. 6. Nobody thinks it enough to offend so much, as you may 6. Permit, so much do they indulge themselves more widely. " When you say to a youth, he is a fool who may give to a friend, 66. Who may lighten, and raise up the poverty of a relation ; 236 6. You both teach him to rob, and to cheat, and by every crime * To acquire riches, the love of which is in thee, 6. As much as of their country was in the breast of the Decii, as much **6 As Menççeus loved Thebes, if Greece be true,

240 * In the furrows of which, legions from the teeth of a snake

ied on, rapithin any ho neck

the race; 80 your son, who has had the reins thrown upon the neck of his vices, can neither be stopped, nor kept within any bounds whatsoever in his wickedness, but is hurried on, rapitur, by his pas. sions, without any power of control.

233. “ Nobody thinks it enough." &c.] Nobody will ever draw a line, so as to stop just at a given point, and only sin as far as he is permitted, and no farther.

234. “ So much do they indulge."] So prone are they to indulge their propensity to evil, in a more extensive manner. ,

235. * When you say,&c.] When you tell your son, that gis. ing money to help a distressed friend, or relation, is a folly.

236. “ Who may lighten," &c.] Alleviate his distress, and raise up his state of poverty into a state of plenty and comfort.

237. “ You both teach him to rob.] By thus seeking to destroy the principles of humanity and charity within him, you teach him, indirectly at least to rob, to plunder other people.

* To cheat.] Circumscribere-to over-reach and circumvent, that he may enrich himself. - By every crime," &c.] To scruple no villainy which can enrich him.

239. The Decir.''] The father, son, and grandson, who, for the love they bare their country, devoted themselves to death for its service. See sat. viii. 254, note,

240. .Menæceus.”] The son of Creon, king of Thebes, who, that he might preserve his country, when Thebes was besieged by the Argives, devoted himself to death; the eracle having declared, that Thebes would be safe, if the last of the race of Cadmus would willingly suffer death.

" If Greece be true.") If the Greciar. accounts speak truth, 241. “ In the furrows of which,&c.] He alludes to the story of Cadmue, who having slain a large serpent, took the teeth, and sowing them in the ground, there sprang up from each an armed


Cum clypeis nascuntur, et horrida bella capessunt
Continuo, tanquam et tubicen surrexerat una,
Ergo ignem, cujus scintillas ipse dedisti,
Flagrantem late, et rapientem cuncta videbis.
Nec tibi parcetur misero, trepidumque magistrum
In caveâ magno fremitu leo tollet alumnus.
Nota Mathematicis genesis tua : sed grave tardas
Expectare colos : morieris stamine nondum
Abrupto : jam nunc obstas, et vota moraris ;
Jam torquet juvenem longa et cervina senectus.
Ocyus Archigenem quære, atque eme quod Mithridates
Composuit, si vis aliam decerpere ficum,
Atque alias tractare rosaz: medicamen habendum est,
Sorbere ante cibum quod debeat aut pater aut rex.
Monstro voluptatem egregiam, cui nulla theatra,


man ; these presently fell to fighting, till all were slain except five, who escaped with their lives. See Ovid, Met. lib. iii. fab. i. See Ainsw. Cadmus.

243. “ Trumpeter too had risen.] To set them together by the cars. See above, l. 199, note. The Romans had cornets and trumpets to give the signal for battle.

244. The fire,&c.] The principles which you first communie cated to the mind of your son, you will see breaking out into action, ? violating all law and justice, and destroying all he has to do with ; like a fire that first is kindled from little sparks, then spreads far and wide, till it devours and consumes every thing in its way.

246. “ Nor will he spare," &c.] He will not even spare you that are his own wretched father, or scruple to take you off (i. e. murder you) to possess himself of your property

247. « The young lion," &c.] Alluding to the story of a tame lion, which, in the time of Domitian, tore his keeper, that had brought him up, to pieces. Læserat ingrato leo perfidus ore magistrum.

· MARTIAL, Spectac, epigr. 10. 248. “ Your nativity," &c.) But, say you, the astrologers, who cast nativities, and who by their art can tell how long people are to live, have settled your nativity, and calculated that your life will be long.

But it is grievous."] But, says Juvenal, it is a very irksome thing to your son.

279. • To expect slow distaffs."] To be waiting while the fates are slowly spinning out your thread of long life. See sat. iii. 27, note ; and sat. x. 252, note.

" You'll die,&c.] You'll be taken off by a premature death, not by the course of nature, like those who live till their thread of life is cut by their destinies. See the references in the last note above,


“ With shields are born, and horrid wars undertake • Immediately, as if a trumpeter too had risen with “ Therefore the fire, the sparks of which yourself h “ You will see burning wide, and carrying off all th: “ Nor will he spare your miserable self, and the tren “ The young lion in his cage, with great roaring, w “ Your nativity is known to astrologers.”_" But it “ To expect slow distaffs : you'll die, your thread in « Broken off : you even now hinder, and delay his • Now a long and stag-like old age torments the yo “ Seek Archigenes quickly, and buy what Mithrida « Composed, if you are willing to pluck another fig « And to handle other roses : a medicine is to be ha " Which either a father, or a king, ought to sup up bi I shew an extraordinary pleasure, to which no theat

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250. “ You even now hinder," &c.] You alread son's way, and delay the accomplishment of his dail: death, that he may possess what you have.

251. Stag-like old age.”] The ancients had a n as well as ravens, were very long-lived.

Cic. Tuscul. iii. 69, says, that Theophrastus, th losopher, when he was dying, accused nature for g

ravens and stags, which was of no signification ; but * it was of great importance, a short life. See sat. x

- “Torments the youth.] Gives the young ma uneasiness and vexation, and will, most likely, put means to get rid of you ; therefore take the best can.

252. “ Archigenes.”] Some famous physician; and sat. xiii. 98.-to procure from him some anti son,

" Buy what Mithridates," &c.] See sat. vi. 253. “ If you are willing,&c.] If you wish t autumn-the time when figs are ripe. 254. Other roses."] And to gather the roses

A medicine is to be had,&c.] You must tidote against poison, as tyrants, who fear their su thers, who dread their children, always ought to sw eat, in order to secure them from being poisoned at tyrant, by some of his oppressed and discontented ther, by a son who wants to get his estate.

256. I shew, &c.] The poet is now about to es avarice, inasmuch as the gratification of it is att anxieties, and dangers, which, its votaries incur,, an are truly ridiculous. Now, says he, monstro volu

-I'll exhibit an highly laughable scene, beyond all tainments, &c.

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Nulla æquare queas Prætoris pulpita lauti,
Si spectes, quanto capitis discrimine constent
Incrementa domûs, æratâ multus in arcâ
Fiscus, et ad vigilem ponendi Castora nummi,
Ex quo Mars ultor galeam quoque perdidit, et res
Non potuit servare suas : ergo omnia Floræ
Et Cereris licet, et Cybeles aulæa relinquas,
Tanto majores humana negotia ludi.
An magis oblectant animum jactata petauro
Corpora, quique solent rectum descendere funem,


256. No theatres. Nothing upon the stage is half so ridiculous.

257. No stages of the sumptuous pretor.] It was the office of the pretor to preside, and have the direction at the public games. See sat. X. I. 36-41, notęs.

The pulpitum was the higher part of the stage, where poets recited their verses in public.

It also signifies a scaffold, or raised place, on which the actors exhibited plays.

The pretor is here called lautus--sumptuous, noble, splendid, from the fine garments which he wore on those occasions, as well as from the great expense which he put himself to, in treating the people with magnificent exhibitions of plays and other sports, Sat. vi. 378, note. . .

258, If you bekeld, &C] If you only observe what hazards and perils, even of their lives, those involve themselves in, who are in. creasing and hoarding up wealth—so far from security, danger and riches frequently accompany each other, and the means of increasing wealth may consist in the exposing life itself to danger.

259. Incredre of an house. The enlargement and increase of familyproperty.

- In a brazen chest.] See sat. xii. L. 74; and Hor. sat. i. lib. i. 1. 67. The Romans locked up their money in chests.

260. Placed at watchful Castor. ] i. c. At the temple of Castor. --They used to lay up their chests of treasure in the temples, as places of safety, being committed to the care of the gods, who were supposed to watch over them. Sat. x. 25, note, ad fin.

261. Since Mars, &c.] The wealthy used to send their chests of money to the temple of Mars; but some thieves having broken into it, and stolen the treasures, even stripping the helmet from the head of Mars's image, they now sent their treasures to the temple of Cas. tor, where there was a constant guard ; hence the poet says, vigilem Castora.

The avenger. ] When Augustus returned from his Asian ex, pedition, which he accounted the most glorious of his whole reign, he caused a temple to be built in the capitol to Mars the Avenger. See Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 507, 8, and note f. - 261--2. His own affairs, &c.] The poet takes an opportunity



No stages of the sumptuous pretor, you can equal,
If you behold, in how great danger of life may consist
The increase of an house, much treasure in a brazen
Chest, and money to be placed at watchful Castor,
Since Mars, the avenger, also lost his helmet, and his own
Affairs he could not keep. Therefore you may leave
Al the scenes of Flora, and of Ceres, and of Cybele,
By so much are human businesses greater sports.
Do bodies thrown from a machine more delight
The mind, and those who are used to descend a strait rope, in


here, as usual, to laugh at the gods of his country. See sat. xiii. 39_52. .263. The scenes.} Aulæa were hangings, curtains, and other or. naments of the theatres ; here, by synec. put for the theatres them.. selves.

You may leave, says the poet, the public theatres ; you will not want the sports and plays which are exhibited at the feasts of Flora, Ceres, or Cybele, to divert you.

264. By so much, &C.] You may be better entertained, and meet with more diversion, in observing the ridiculous businesses of mankind.

265. Bodies thrown from a machine, &c.] The petaurum (from FETAUHOy, pertica, a perch, a long staff or pole) was a machine or engine, made of wood, hung up in an high place, out of which the petauristä (the persons who exhibited such feats) were thrown into the air, and from thence flew to the ground. Ainsw.

Others say, that the petaurus was a wooden circle, or hoop, through which the petauristæ threw themselves, so as to light with their feet upon the ground.

Holyday gives a plate of the 'petaurum, which is taken from Hieron. Mercurialis, whom he calls an excellent Italian antiquary, and represents the petaurus like a swing, in which a person sits, and is drawn up by people who pull ropes, which go over a pole at top, placed horizontally, and thus raise the petaurista into the air, where probably he swung backwards and forwards, exhibiting feats of activity, and then threw himself to the ground upon his feet. See more on this subject, Delph. edit. in notis.

Whatever the petaurus might be, as to its form, it appears, from this passage of Juvenal, to have afforded an amusement to the spectators, something like our tumbling, vaulting, and the like.

266. To descend a strait rope, &c.] First climbing up, and then sliding down. Or if we take rectum here in the sense of tensum, stretched, we may suppose this a periphrasis for rope-dancing.

After all, taking the two lines together, I should doubt whether. the poet does not mean rope dancing in both, and whether the petaurum, according to the definition given by Ainsworth, signifies, here, any thing else than the long pole which is used by rope.

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