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Have drawn sense sent down from the celestial top, .
Which prone things, and things looking on the earth, want.
The common builder of the world at the beginning indulged to them
Only souls ; to us a mind also, that a mutual affection
Might command us to seek, and to afford help;

: 150
To draw the dispersed into a people, to migrate from the old
Forest, and to leave woods inhabited by our ancestors :
To build houses, to join to our habitations
Another roof, that safe slumbers, by a neighbouring (arms 155
Threshold, a contributed confidence might give : to protect with
A fallen citizen, or one staggering with a great wound:
To give signs with a common trumpet, to be defended with the same
Towers, and to be secured by one key of the gates.

that by which we live ; the animus, or intellectual mind, is that by which we are wise above the brutes. See sat. vi. l. 530, vote.

149. A mutual affection.] The end for which this intellectual mind is given us, so far as it relates to the purposes of society, is, to incline us to bestow, as well as to require, mutual good offices towards eaclı other; and therefore it disposes us to mutual affection.

151. The dispersed, &c.] To collect men, who are naturally dispersed, and bring them together into society.

To migrate, &c.] To depart from the woods and forests, the ancient abodes of the earliest ages, where men lived in common with the beasts, and to coalesce and unite in civil society. See sat. vi. 1. 2-7.

153. To build houses.] For habitation, instead of living in dens and caves, like beasts.

To join, &c.] To join our houses to one another, for the greater safety and convenience of the whole, against robbers, wild beasts, &c. 155. Threshold.] Limine stands here, per syn. for the holise itself.

- A contributed confidence.] That by thus joining houses (the original of cities and towns) each might receive and impart a conti. dential notion of safety, in the night time particularly, when men sleep, and, of course, are more exposed to dangers.

- To protect with arms, &c.] To protect in war, from the hands of the enemy, a fellow.citizen who had fallen, or was reeling with loss of blood from wounds. . .

157. To give signs, &c.] When on an expedition in time of war, to obey one common signał, given by the trumpet for battle

158. Towers.] Turris signifies a tower, or any thing like it ; 60 any fortified place. ...

Secured by one key, c.] To be enclosed within the same walls, and locked up in security by the same key of the gates.

The poet, by what he has said, has shewn the great advantages of men above brutes, in having a rational mind, which can direct them

Sed jam serpentum major concordia : oparcit norm: I ., Cognatis maculis similis fera : quando leoni "," pieds 160 Fortior eripuit vitam leo ? quo nemore unquam, ir "' w) 9111 Expiravit aper majoris dentibus apri? Kur visione viso Indica tigris agit rabidâ cum tigride pacem all overzni: 14 Perpetuam : sævis inter se convenit ursis. a r o

w e Ast homini ferrum lethale incude nefandâ : :.. gbr ;, 163 Produxisse parum est; cum rastra et sarcula tantuin niin ede' Assueti coquere, et marris ac vomere lassisisi. .!**! Nescierint primi gladios excudere fabri. '. .. R Aspicimus populos, quorum non sufficit irae 5. . Occidisse aliquem ; sed pectora, brachia, vultum van t 170 - Crediderint genus esse cibi. Quid diceret ergo, risti in

Vel quo non fugeret, si nunc hæc monstra videret

to form societies, so that, by mutual help and assistance, they can secure and protect each other. All this is agreeable to the dictates of their common nature, and thus it ought to be; but such is the corruption and depravity of mankind, that, as the poet proceeds to shew, there is little of this to be found ; on the contrary, beasts are not so cruel to their own species aş men are.

159. Concord of serpents, &c.] These venomous creatures do not hurt their own species, they agree better than men now do with each


160. Spares his kindred spots.] The leopard recognizes the leopard, and avoids hurting him, whom he sees, by his spots, to be related to the same species with himself.

165. But, &c.] The poet having, in several instances, shewn the harmony and agreement which subsist among the most fierce, and sa vage beasts, now proceeds to apply this to his main argument in this place, which is to prove, that the concord between these creatures is greater than is to be found among the human race towards each other; and indeed, that man towards man is now so savage, as to fabricate weapons, for their mutual destruction, and this without any' remorse or concern.

166. To have produced, &c.] Lit. to have lengthened out deadly iron, &c. i. e, by drawing it out, with hammering it on the anvil, into the length of a sword, a deadly weapon, and most fatal: the poet therefore calls the anvil on which it is made impious, as being i instrumental to the forming of thiş mischievous weapon ,

Is litile.] Is to be looked upon as a trifle, in comparison of: what mankind are now capable of, See I. 161-71. .

Whercas,] Cum--although, albeit. Üri. me Being accustomed, &c.] The first smiths set up their trade only to forge instruments of husbandry, and made nothing else." Co quere signifies, here, to heat in the fire. AINSW., "pr.: ai

167. Tired with mattocks, &c.] They wearied them sclves daily in making hoes or mattocks, ar ploughshares, far tillage:

dred spots ..? in what forest even

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But now the concord ofitserpents is greater as similar ? wager! **
Beast spares his kindred spots. When from a lionyiao ms 160
Did a stronger lion take away life? in what forest ever,
Did a boar expire by the teeth of a larger boar?» bo!, 9,:! ring
The Indian tyger observesra perpetual peace with a fierce . . Idem
Tyger , there is agréément with savage bears among themselves. ****
But for man the deadly sword from the inpious anvil W* 165
To have produced is little ; whereas, being accustomed only to heat
Rakes and spades, and tired with mattocks and the ploughshare,
The first smiths knew not how to beat out swords.
We see people, to whose anger it does not suffice
To have killed any one, but the breasts, the arms, the face, 170
They believed to be a kind of food. What therefore would he have

said, Or whither would he not have fled, if now Pythagoras could have


168. Knew not how, &c.] So far from hammering iron into swords, they did not even know how to set about it.

169. We see people, &c.] Meaning the savage Tentyrites before mentioned, who ate human flesh, and looked upon it as a species of ordinary food.

172. Pythagoras.] The famous philosopher, who left his country Samos, then under the tyrant Polycrates, and travelled over India, through Ægypt, in search of knowledge. He forbad the eating of animals on account of the transmigration of souls ; he would not allow himself to eat all sorts of vegetables, but abstained from beans, which he is supposed to have learnt from the Ægyptian priests, when he was in that country, who abstained from beans, and thought it unlawful to sow or to look upon them. HERODOT, Euterpe.

What, says the poet, would Pythagoras have said, if he had seen these Ægyptians, these Tentyrites, tearing and devouring human flesh ? to what part of the earth would not he have flown, to have avoided such a sight? who, so far from holding it lawful to eat hu. man flesh, would not eat the flesh of any animal any more than he would have eaten the flesh of a man, nor would he indulge his ap: petite with every kind of vegetable.

The reason of this strange piece of superstition, of abstinence from beans, is not known; many causes have been assigned for it, which are full as absurd as the thing itself. The reader may find many of these collected in Holyday, note 14, on this Satire. See also Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. i. p. 53.

According to the story of his life, written by Iamblicus, we may suppose that neither Pythagoras, nor any of his followers, would ever reveal the cause of abstinence from beans. It seems that Dio. nysius the tyrant, the younger, desiring to know the secret, caused two Pythagoreans to be brought before him, a man and his wife,

Pythagoras ? cunctis animalibus abstinuit qui : i.;
Tanquam homine, et ventri indulsit non omne legumen. ..

who being asked, “why the Pythagoreans would not eat. beans ?""

" I will sooner die (said the man) than reveal it." -This, though threatened with tortures, he persisted in, and was, with indignation, seat away. The wife was then called upon, and being asked the

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These monstrous things ? who abstain's from all animals, as from
A man, and did not indulge every kind of pulse to his belly.

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same question, and threatened also with tortures, she, rather than reveal it, bit out her tongue, and spit it in the tyrant's face. Of Pythagoras, see Ovid, Met. lib. xv. l. 60, et seq.


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