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Who says to a physician ;-being order'd to rest--after

90 A third night hath seen his veins to run composed, From a greater house, in a flagon moderately thirsting, He has asked for himself, about to bathe, mild Surrentine. “ Ho! good man, you are pale.” “ It is nothing." “ But have an

"eye to it, «'Whatever it is : your yellow skin silently rises.”— “ But you are pale-worse than I-don't be a tutor to me, “ I have long since buried him, do you remain ?"_"Go on - I'll

be silent." He, turged with dainties, and with a white belly is bathed, His throat slowly exhaling sulphureous stenches : But a trembling comes on whilst at his wine, and the warm triental 100

95. Silently rises.”] Tacite insensibly, by little and little, though you may not perceive it-quasi sensim, rises, swells.

96. “ You are pale," &c.] Says the spark, in a huff, to the phy, sician, you are paler than I am-pray look to yourself.

" Don't be a tutor.] “Don't give yourself airs, as if you 6 were my guardian, and had authority over me.'

97. I have long since,&c.] “ It is a great while since I buried "my tutor,”

"Do you remain ?"] “Do you presume to take his • place ?"

Goon-I'll be silent.] “ O pray,” replies the physician, “ go on your own way--I shall say no more.”

98. Turgid with dainties.] Having his stomach and bowels full of meat and drink. .

a A white belly.] When the liver or spleen is distempered, as in the dropsy, and the chyle is not turned into blood, it circulates in the veins and small vessels of the skin, and gives the whole body a wbite or pallid appearance. Thus Hor. liß. ii. ode ii.

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops,
Nec sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi
Fugerit venis, et aquosus albo
Corpore languor.

Is bathed.] i. e. He persists in going into the bath in this manner, notwithstanding the warning which had been given him..

99. His throat slowly exhaling, &c.] The fumes of the meat and drink ascend out of the stomach into the throat, from whence they leisurely discharge themselves in filthy steams. Mephitis signifies a stink, particularly a damp, or strong sulphureous smell arising from corrupted water. See Æn. vii. l. 84. Mephitis was a name of Juno, because she was supposed to preside over stinking exhalations,

100. A trembling comes on, &c.] The riotous and gluttonous used to bathe after supper, and in the going in, and in the bath itself, they drank large draughts of hot wine, to produce sweat. Hence Juv. şat. viii, l. 168. thermarum calices. As also after bathing they sometimes drank very hard. See my note on Juv. ubi supr.

Excutit e manibus : dentes crepuere retecti;
Uncta cadunt laxis tunc pulmentaria labris :
Hinc tuba, candelæ. Tandemque beatulus alto
Compositus lecto, crassisque lutatus amomis,
In portam rigidos calces extendit. At illum
Hesterni capite induto subiere Quirites. ..

Tange, miser, venas ; et pone in pectore dextram :
Nil calet hic. Summosque pedes attinge, manusque :
Non frigent visa est si forte pecunia, sive
Candida vicini subrisit molle puella ;
Cor tibi rite salit ? Positum est algente catino

105

100. Triental.] A little vessel, which was a third part of a larger, and held about a gill; thiz he has in his hand full of warm wine, but it is shook out of his hand by the trembling with which he is seized.

101. His uncovered teeth, &c.] His face being convulsed, the lips are drawn asunder, and discover his teeth, which grind or gnash this is frequent in convulsion-fits. .

102. Greasy soups, &c.] Pulmentarium-chopped meat, with pottage or broth-Ainsw. which undigested meat, vomited up, re. sembles. He was seized with a violent vomiting, and brought up all the dainties which he had filled his stomach with before he went into the bath.

From his loose lips.] Hippocrat. in Prognostic. says, that when the lips appear loose and hanging down, it is a deadly sign.

103. Hence the trumpet.] Of this intemperance he dies. The funerals of the rich were attended with trumpets and lights--the poor had only tibiæ, small pipes which played on the occasion.

This happy fellow.] Beatulus--dim. from beatus, happy. Iron.

103--4. On an high bed.] Laid on an high bier.- Compositus here seems to express what we mean by laying out a corpse.

104. Daubed over, &c.] After washing the corpse with water, they anointed it with perfumed ointment, of 'which the amomum, an aromatic shrub, which grew in Armenia, furnished the chief ingredi. ent. The amomum was used in embalming. Hence momy or mummy. See Ainsw.

105. His rigid heels, &c.] The Romans always carried the dead heels foremost, noting thereby their last and final departure from their house. Rigid-i. e. stiff with death.

106. Hesternal Romans.] See Juv, sat. ii. 60, note.-When a person of consequence died, all the slaves which he had made free in his life-time attended the funeral; some bore the corpse (subiere put themselves under the bier,) others walked in procession. These, being freedmen, were reckoned among the Roman citizens ; but they were looked on in a mean light, and were contemptuously called hesterni, Romans of yesterday-;. e. citizens whose digrity was of very short standing. Thus the first gentleman or nobleman of his

S SATIRES

SATIRES

He shakes out of his hands: his uncoverd teeth crashed,
Then the greasy soups fall from his loose lips :

[an high
Hence the trumpet, the candles : and, at last, this happy fellow on
Bed laid, and daubed over with thick ointments,
Extends his rigid heels towards the door : but him : 105
The hesternal Romans, with cover'd head, sustained.

« Touch, wretch, my veins, and put your right hand on my breast : “Nothing is hot here: and touch the extremes of my feet and

“hands : « They are not cold.''--" If haply money be seen or “ The fair girl of your neighbour smile gently,

110 “ Does your heart leap aright !--there is placed in a cold dish

family was called novus homo. So we, in contradistinction to fa.' milies which are old, and have been long dignified, say, of some faa mily lately ennobled, that it is a family of yesterday.

106. Cover'd head.] Wearing the pileus, or cap, which was the signal of liberty. Servum ad pileum vocare, signified to give a slave his liberty, which they did, among the Romans, by first shaving his head, and then putting a cap upon it. Ainsw.

107. Touch, wretch, my veins.] It is very evident, from the four last lines, that the case, which the philosopher has put, is to be taken in an allegorical sense; and that, by 'the conduct of the wretched libertine, who rejected his physician's advice, and proceeded im bis absurd courses, till he fixed a disorder upon him which brought him to the grave, he meant to represent the conduct of those who despised the philosophers, those physicians of the mind, and set åt nought the precepts which they taught, till, by a continuance in, their vices, their case became desperate, and ended in their destruction.

However, the opponent is supposed to understand what the philosopher said, in his story of the libertine, in a mere literal and gross sense, and is therefore represented as saying "What's all this to the o purpuse ? What is this to me? I am not sickI don't want a “ physician-try, feel my pulse.”

On my breast.] To feel the regular puleation of my heart. 108. “ Nothing is hot here.”] There's no sign of any feverishi heat.

"Touch the extremes," &c.] You'll find there the natural heat ; no coldness as in the feet and hands of a dying man.

109. If haply money be seen."'] Here the philosopher explains himself, and seems to say, “I grant that your bodily health is good, but how is your mind? does not this labour under the diseases of covetousness, feshly lust, intemperance, fear, and anger? As a proof of this, let me ask you, if a large sum of money comes in view, or your neighbour's handsome daughter should smile upon you does your heart move calmly as it ought, do you feel no desire of possessa ing either?

:11. There is placed,&c.] What ghink you of a vile dish of

Durum olus ; et populi cribro decussa farina : ;
Tentemus fauces. Tenero latet ulcus in ore ;
Putre, quod haud deceat plebeiâ radere betâ.

Alges, cum excussit membris timor albus aristas :
Nunc, face suppositâ, fervescit sanguis, et irà
Scintillant oculi : dicisque, facisque, quod ipse
Non sani esse hominis, non sanus juret Orestes

115

hard, half-boiled cabbage, or coleworts, and coarse bread, such as the common people eat. Farina is lit. meal or flour; here, by meton. the bread itself which is made of it.-Shaken through the sieve of the people-i. e. of the poorer sort, who used coarse sieves, which

let more of the bran and husks through, and therefore their bread , was coarser than that of the gentry.

113. Try your jaws.] Whether they can devour such coarse fare, or whether you would not find yourself as unable to chew, or swallow it, as if you had a sore and putrid ulcer lurking in your mouth, too tender for such coarse food, and which it would not be at all fitting to injure, by scratching or rubbing against it with vul. gar food.

114. Beet.7 Beta--some sort of hard, coarse, and unsavoury herb. Ainsw. Put here by meton. for any kind of ordinary harsh food.

If you found this to be the case, you may be certain that you have a luxurious appetite.

115. When while fear, &c.] You said that you had no cold in the extremes of your feet and hands--but how is it with you when you shudder with fear?- The Stoics were great advocates for apathy, or freedom from all passions, fear among the rest. White fear, so called from the paleness of countenance that attends it.

115. Rous'd the bristles.] Arista signifies an ear of corn, or the beard of corn. Sometimes, by catachresis, an hair or bristle, which is often said to stand an end when people are in a fright.

116 Now with a torch, &c.] He now charges him with the disease of violent anger, the blood set on fire, as if a burning torch were applied, and eyes sparkling and flashing fire as it were.--In this si. tuation, says he, you say and do things, that even Orestes himself, mad as he was, would swear were the words and actions of a person out of his senses. So that, though you may think you are well, because you find no feverish heat in your body, yet you are troubled with a fever of the mind every time you are angry. Therefore in this, as well as with regard to the diseases of covetousness, lust, luxury, and fear, which are all within you, you as much stand in need of a physician for your mind, as the poor wretch whom I have been speaking of, stood in need of a physician for his body; nor did he act more oppositely to the dictates of sound reason by despising his physician, and rejecting his remedies for his bodily complaints, than you do, by despising the philosophers, and rejecting their precepts, which are the only remedies for the disorders of the mind.

• An hard cabbage, and four shaken thro' the sieve of the people : • Let us try your jaws : a putrid ulcer lies hid in your tender mouth, “ Which it would be hardly becoming to scratch with a plebeian beet. “ You are cold, when white fear has rous'd the bristles on your limbs :

115 « Now, with a torch put under, your blood grows hot, and with anger “ Your eyes sparkle, and you do and say, what, Orestes himself “ Not in his sound mind, would swear was not the part of a man in

his right senses.”

Thus the philosopher is supposed to conclude his discourse with his opponent, leaving an useful lesson on the minds of his idle and lazy pupils ; who neglected their studies to indulge in sloth and luxury, not considering the fatal distempers of their minds, which, if neglecte ed, must end in their destruction.

117. Orestes.] Was the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. He slew his own mother, and Ægysthus, her adulterer, who had murdered his father. He killed Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, in the temple of Apollo, for marrying Hermione, who had been promised to him by her father Menelaus. Apollo sent furies to haunt him for the profanation of his temple, and forced him to expiate his crimes at the altar of Diana Taurica. See Juv, sat. xv. l. 116-19.

See Hor. sat. iii. lib. ii. 1. 133, et seq. in which satire Horace, with a degree of humour and raillery peculiar to himself, exposes the doctrine of the Stoic philosophers, which was, that all mankind were niadmen and fools, except those of their own sect--this he, with infinite humour and address, turns upon themselves, and naturally concludes, upon their own premises, that they were greater fools than the rest of the world.

The Stoics were a proud, harsh, severe, and sour sect, in many particulars not very different from the Cynics. The reader may find an instructive account of their principles, doctrines, and practices, as well as an edifying use made of them, in that masterly performance of Dr. Leland, intitled--- The Advantage and Necessity of the 6 Christian Revelation,” vol. ii. p. 140--223.

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