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When shame adds goads to hatred. Choose what
You think to be advised, to him whom Cæsar's wife destines 330
To marry: this the best and most beautiful too
Of a patrician family is hurried, a wretch, to be destroy'd
By the eyes of Messalina : long she sits in her prepared
Bridal veil, and openly the Tyrian marriage-bed is strowed
In the gardens, and ten times an hundred will be given by ancient 335
Rite : the soothsayer, with the signers, will come.
Do you think these things secret, and committed to a few ?
She will not marry unless lawfully. Say—what like you!
Unless you will obey, you must perish before candle-light.
If you commit the crime, a little delay will be given, till the thing 340

335. Ten times an hundred.] She had her portion ready, according to ancient custom. On this instance it amounted to the vast sum of one thousand sestertia. See sat. i. 1. 406, note. This was supposed to be given to the husband, in consideration of the burdens of matri. mony.

336. Soothsayer-signers, &c.] The soothsayer, who always at. tended on such occasions. Valer. lib. ii. says; that, among the ancients, nothing of consequence was undertaken, either in private or public, without consulting the auspices hence a soothsayer attended on marriages. Auspes--quasi avispex-because they divined from the flight and other actions of birds.

The signatories were a sort of public notaries, who wrote and at. tested wills, deeds, marriage-settlements, &c. These also were present ; for, before the marriage, they wrote down in tables (tabulis ---see sat. ii. 58, note) by way of record, the form of the contract, to which they, with the witnesses, set their seals.

337. These things secret, &c.] That she does things privately, so that only a few chosen secret friends should know them? by no means. . 338. Unless lawfully. ] She determines to marry publicly, with all the usual forms and ceremonies; and this, says Tacitus, in the face of the senate, of the equestrian order, and of the whole people and soldiery. See Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 344, note i.

-- Say, what like you ??] Quid placeat--what it may please you to do.--Say, Silius, which part will you take in such a situationwhat do you think best to do, under so fatal a dilemma ?

339. Unless, &c.] If you refuse this horrid woman's offer, she will have you murdered before night.

340. If you commit the crime.] Of marrying the wife of another.

-- A little delay, &c.] You will probably live for a few days ; the public rumour will reach the prince's ears, though later than the ears of others, as he will probably be the last who hears the disho.

VOL. II. "

945

Nota urbi et populo, contingat principis aures :
Dedecus ille domûs sciet ultimus. Interea tu
Obsequere imperio, si tanti est vita dierum
Paucorum ; quicquid melius, leviusque putaris,
Præbenda est gladio pulchra hæc et candida cervix.

Nil ergo optabunt homines ? si consilium vis,
PERMITTES IPSIS EXPENDERE NUMINIBUS, QUID
CONVENIAT NOBIS, REBUSQUE SIT UTILE NOSTRIS.
Nam pro jucundis aptissima quæque dabunt Dî.
CARIOR EST ILLIS HOMO, QUAM SIBI: nos animorum
Impulsu, et cæcâ magnâque cupidine ducti,
Conjugium petimus, partumque uxoris : at illis
Notum, qui pueri, qualisque futura sit uxor.
Ut tamen et poscas aliquid, voveasque sacellis
Exta, et candiduli divina tomacula porci;

350

: 355

nour done to his family, few, perhaps, daring to break such a thing to him.

343. The command.] Of Messalina.

-- If the life of a few days, &c.] If you think that living a few days more or less is of so much consequence, that you will sooner commit a crime of such magnitude to gain a short respite, than risk an earlier death, by avoiding the commission of it, then to be sure you must obey ; but whichever way you determine

345, Neck, &c.] This beautiful person of yours will be sacrificed --either to Messalina’s resentment, if you don't comply, or to the emperor's, if you do. However, the marriage took place, and they pleased themselves in all festivity that day and night; afterwards Silius was seized, by the emperor's command, and put to death_thus exhibiting a striking example of the sad consequences which often attend being remarkable for beauty. Messalina, soon after, was killed in the gardens of Lucullus, whither she had retired. See Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 348, 9.

346. Shall men therefore, &c.] If all you say be considered, the consequence seems to be, that it is wrong to wish, or pray, for any thing.

- Have advice.] If you will be advised what is best to do, I

answer

347. Permit the gods, &c.] Leave all to the gods; they know what is best for us, and what is most suitable to our circunstances and situations.

349. Instead of pleasant things, &c.] They can, though we cannot, foresee all consequences which will arise, and therefore, instead of bestowing what may be pleasing, they will give what is most proper, most suitable, and best adapted to our welfare ; and this, because mortals are dearer to them than we are to ourselves. Comp. 1 Pet. v. 7.

350-1. By the impulse, &c.] We are impelled to wish for things, merely from the strong desire we have to possess them ; and

Known to the city and to the people, reaches the prince's ears,
(He will last know the disgrace of his house.) In the mean while
Do-thou obey the command, if the life of a few days is
Of such consequence ; whatever you may think best and easiest,
This fair and white neck is to be yielded to the sword.

345
Shall men therefore wish for nothing ? If you will have advice,
PERMIT THE GODS THEMSELVES TO CONSIDER WHAT
MAY SUIT US, AND BE USEFUL TO OUR AFFAIRS.
For, instead of pleasant things, the gods will give whatever are fittest.
MAN IS DEARER TO THEM, THAN TO HIMSELF: we, led by the 350
Impulse of our minds, and by a blind, and great desire,
Ask wedlock, and the bringing forth of our wife : but to them
Is known, what children, and what sort of a wife she may be.
However, that you may ask something, and vow in chapels
Entrails, and the divine puddings of a whitish swine,

355

do not reflect, as we ought, on the blindness of our minds, which cannot see farther than present things, and therefore are led to judge amiss of what may be for our good in the end.

352. Wedlock, and the bringing forth, &c.] We pray for a wife, and that that wife may bring forth children; but the gods only can foresee how either the wife or children may turn out, consequently, whether the gratification of our wishes may be for our happiness

354. Ask something. ] In the former part of this fine passage, the poet speaks of leaving all to the gods, in such an absolute and unreserved manner, as seemingly to exclude the exercise of prayer : as to outward things, such as power, riches, beauty, and the like, he certainly does, inasmuch as these matters ought to be left entirely to Providence, we not being able to judge about them; and, indeed, as ke has shewn throughout the preceding part of this Satire, the have ing of these things may prove ruinous and destructive, therefore are not proper subjects either of desire or prayer : but now the poet finely shews, that there are subjects of prayer, which are not only desireable, but to be petitioned for, as conducive to our real good and happiness.

-- Vow in chapels.] Sacellum signifies a chapel, a little temple, or perhaps any place consecrated to divine worship. Here it may signify the sacred shrines of their gods, before which they offered their vows, prayers, and sacrifices.

355. Entrails.] The bowels, or inwards, of animals, which were execta, (unde exta,), cut out, and offered in sacrifice.

-- Divine puddings, &c.] Tomacula, or tomacla, from Gr. Tepeyw, to cut, were puddings, or sausages, made of the liver and flesh of the animal, chopped and mixed together, and were called also farcimina--gut-puddings; and, like our sausages, were made by stuff. ing a gut taken from the animal with the above ingredients. These accompanied the sacrifices, and were therefore called divine.

ORANDUM EST, UT SIT MENS SANA IN CORPORE SANO.
Fortem posce animum, et mortis terrore carentem ;
Qui spatium vitæ extremum inter munera ponat

Naturæ, qui ferre queat quoscunque labores ; · Nesciat irasci ; cupiat nihil ; et potiores

Herculis ærumnas credat, sævosque labores,
Et Venere, et cænis, et plumis Sardanapali.
Monstro quod ipse tibi possis dare : SEMITA CERTE

360

· 352. Whitish swine. This was offered to Diana, under the name of Lucina, in order to make her propitious to child-bearing women, as also on other occasions. See Hor. lib, iii. ode xxii.

356. You must pray, &c.] As if the poet had said " I by no « means object either to sacrifices or prayers to the gods-provided “ what is asked be reasonable and good, we cannot be too earnést.”.

- A sound mind, &c.] 9. d. Health of body and mind is the first of blessings here below-without a sound mind we can neither judge, determine, or act aright--without bodily health there can be no enjoyment.

357. A mind strong, &c.] Fortitude, by which, unmoved and undismayed, you can look upon death without terror.

358. The last stage, &c.) Ultimum spatium, in the chariot and horse-racing, signified the space between the last bound or mark, and the goal where the race ended. Hence, by an easy metaphor, it de. notes the latter part of life, when we are near our end, and are about to finish our course of life. · So the apostle, 2 Tim. iv. 7. says-Tov deoploy TETEMEKO~I have fie nished my course.

358--9. Gifts of nature.] The word munus either signifies a gift, or a duty or office. If we take munera, here, in the former sense, we must understand the poet to mean, that true fortitude, so far from fearing death as an evil, looks on it as a gift or blessing of. nature. So Mr. DrYDEN :

A soul that can securely death defy,

And count it nature's privilege to die. In the other sense, we must understand the poet to mean, that death will be looked upon, by a wise and firm mind, as an office, or duty, which all are to fulfil, and therefore to be submitted to as such, not with fear and dismay, but with as much willingness and complacency as any other duty which nature has laid upon us.

359. Any troubles, &c.] Any misfortunes, without murmuring and repining, much less sinking under them.

360. Knows not to be angry.] Can so rule the tempers and passi. ons of the soul, as to control, on all occasions, those perturbations which arise within, and produce a violence of anger.

---- Covets nothing.) Being content and submissive to the will. of providence, desires nothing but what it has, neither coveting what others have, or uneasy to obtain what we ourselves have not.

YOU MUST PRAY, THAT YOU MAY HAVE A SOUND MIND IN A SOUND

BODY. Ask a mind, strong, and without the fear of death ; Which puts the last stage of life among the gifts of Nature ; which can bear any troubles whatsoever ; Knows not to be angry; covets nothing ; and which thinks 360 The toils of Hercules, and his cruel labours, better Than the lasciviousness, and luxury, and plumes of Sardanapalus. I shew what yourself may give to yourself: SURELY THE ONLY

361. The toils of Hercules, &c.] Alluding to what are usually called--the twelve labours of Hercules.

362. Than the lasciviousness, c.] Such a mind as has been described, esteems the greatest sufferings and labours, even such as: Hercules underwent, more eligible than all the pleasures and enjoy. ments of sensuality.

Sardanapalus. 7 The last king of Assyria, whose life was such a scene of lasciviousness, luxury, and effiminacy, that he fell into the utmost contempt in the eyes of his subjects, who revolted; and he, being overcome, made a pile, set it on fire, and burnt himseif, and his most valuable moveables, in it : “ The only thing,” says Justin, “ he ever did like a man.”

As the word venere, in this line, is metonymically used for lewd. ness, or lasciviousness, Venus being the goddess of these, and cænis for all manner of gluttony and luxury, so plumis may here be used to denote softness and effeminacy of dress.

Plumæ, in one sense, is used sometimes to denote plates, scales, or spangles, wrought on the armour or accoutrements of men or horses, one whereof was laid upon another. Garments also were adorned with gold and purple plumage, feather-work. AinsW. See Æn. xi. 1. 770, 1.

363. What yourself may give, &c.] While others are disquieting themselves and asking for the gratification of their foolish aud hurtful desires, let me tell you the only way to solid peace and comfort, and what it is in your own power to bestow upon yourself—I mean, and it is most certainly true, that there is no other way to happiness, but in the paths of virtue. Comp. Eccl. xii, 13, 14. The heathen thought that every man was the author of his own virtue and wisdom--but there were some at Rome, at that time, who could have taught Juvenal, that-EVERY GOOD GIFT, AND EVERY PERFECT GIFT, IS FROM ABOVE, AND COMETH DOWN FROM THE FATHER OF LIGHTS.-Comp. Jer. x. 23. " Hor. lib. i. epist. xviii. 1. 111, 12, says:

Sed satis est orare Jovem qui donat et aufert,

Det vitam, det opes, æquum mi animum ipse parabo. . Cic. Nat. Deorum, lib. iii. c. xxxvi. declares it as a general opi. nion, that mankind received from the gods the outward conveniences of life ---virtutem autem nemo unquam acceptam Deo retulit" but

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