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Grande ebur, et magno sublimis pardus hiatu,
Dentibus ex illis, quos mittit porta Syenes,
Et Mauri celeres, et Mauro obscurior Indus,
Et quos deposuit Nabathæo bellua saltu,
Jam nimios, capitique graves : hinc surgit orexís,
Hinc stomacho vires : nam pes argenteus illis,
Annulus in digito quod ferreus. Ergo superbum
Convivam caveo, qui me sibi comparat, et res
Despicit exiguas; adeo nulla uncia nobis
Est eboris, nec tessellæ, nec calculus ex hấc
Materiâ ; quin ipsa manubria cultellorum
Ossea : mon tamen his ulla unquam opsonia fiunt
Rancidula ; aut ideo pejor gallina secatur.
Sed nec structor erit, cui cedere debeat omnis

123. Ivory sustaini, &c.] Unless their tables, which were of a round form (orbes) were set on huge pedestals of ivory. The cir. cumference meant by orbes, is here put for the tables themselves. Synec.

A lofty leopard, &c.] The figure of a great leopard carved in ivory, put by way of pedestal to support the table.

- A great gape.] His jaws represented as stretched wide open. 124. Those teeth.] Elephants' teeth.

The gate of Syene.] Porta is here put, as denoting Syene to be the door, or gate, as it were, through which, from the island, the passage lay into Ægypt, and thence to Rome. Syene was the metropolis of an island of that name ; and this island was called Insula Elephantina, from the number of its elephants. It belonged to Egypt, and bordered on Æthiopia. He uses the word porta here, as Horace uscs janua, when speaking of the city of Cumæ, as to be passed in the way to Baiæ. Sat. fi. 4.

. Janua Baiarum est. 125. Swift Moors.] The poet is describing the places from whence the elephants came. Many came from Mauritania, the inhabitants whereof were called Mauri, who were remarkable for their swiftness and activity,

The Indian.] The largest elephants came from India. - Darker, &c.] Of a blacker colour or complexion. 126. A beast has deposited, &c.] Bellua signifies any great beast

here, an elephant. These animals shed their teeth, which are often found.

- Nabathaan forest.] Some forest of Arabia, which was called Nabathæa, from 1992-Nebith, the first-born of Ismael, the supposed father of the Arabs.

127. Too much and too heavy, &c.] The teeth of elephants grow to an enormous size and weight, so as to be burthensome to the ani. mal when grown old, till they drop out through age..

- Hence arises appetite, &c.] Orexis, from Gr. ogeyw, appeto,

Ivory sustains, and a lofty leopard, with a great gape,
Out of those teeth, which the gate of Syene sends,
And the swift Moors, and the Indian darker than the Moors, 125
And which a beast has deposited in a Nabathæan forest,
Now too much and too heavy for his head : hence arises appetite,
Hence strength to the stomach : for a silver foot to them,
Is what an iron ring would be upon the finger. Therefore the

Guest I am aware of, who compares me to himself, and despises 130
My little affairs; insomuch that I have not an ounce of ivory,
Nor are my squares, nor a chess-man of this
Material : nay the very handles of my knives
Are of bone : yet by these no victuals ever become
Rank; or is, therefore, a hen cut the worse.

135 Nor shall there be a carver, to whom every school ought

cupio. The sight of this fine ivory is a sort of whet to their appe. tite (comp. I. 121, 2.)-gives vigour to the stomach.

128. Å silver foot, &C.] A table set upon a foot made of silver they would scorn, as much as to wear a ring made of iron, instead of gold, upon their finger. The Romans were very anxious to appear with fine rings, and were so luxurious as to have different sorts for summer and winter. See sat. i. 28, 29. sat. vii. 140, 1.

129–30. Proud guest, &c.] Who can't sit down to a plain meal upon a plain table, but expects dainties set upon ivory.

130. Who compares, &c.] Who measures my fortune and expenses by his own, and expects me to entertain him as he entertains others.

131. Little affairs.] My plain and frugal manner of living, according to the smallness of my fortune.

Insomuch that, &C.] I am so much (adeo), so totally without a single ounce of ivory, that even the squares of my chess-board are without it, nor is one of the chess-men made of it.

Tessella is a small square stone, or piece of wood, with which they make chequer-work in tables, or boards. Here, probably, tessellæ means the chequers of a chess-board.

Calculus signifies a little pebble, or gravel.stone, with which they marked--hence calculi, chess-men, table-men. AINSW.

The game of chess is much more ancient than the days of Juvemal; it is a common opinion that it was invented by Palamede, at the siege of Troy. See CHAMBERS, art. Chess,

134. Yet by these, &c.] Though the handles of my knives are made of bone, yet my victuals suffer do damage, but taste as well, and are carved as well, as if my knife-handles were made of ivory. . 136. A carver.7 It was, among other instances of luxury, a fashion to have an artist, who had been taught to carve dexterously, at their entertainments : he, as well as the se:ver who set on the dishes, was called structor, from struo, to prepare, or make rearis.

School.] Pergula here signifies a place where the professors of any art, or science, taught their scholars publicly. I know


Pergula, discipulus Trypheri.doctoris, apud quem
Sumine cum magno lepus, atque aper, atque pygargus,
Et Scythicæ volucres, et Phænicopterus ingens,
Et Gætulus orix, hebeti lautissima ferro
Cæditur, et totâ sonat ulmea coena Suburra.
Nec frustrum capreæ subducere, nec latus Afræ
Novit avis noster tyrunculus, ac rudis omni
Tempore, et exiguæ frustis imbutus ofellæ.
Plebeios calices, et paucis assibus emptos
Porriget incultus puer, atque a frigore tutus ;
Non Phryx, aut Lycius, non a mangone petitus
Quisquam erit, et magno: cum poscis, posce Latine. -
Idem habitus cunctis, tonsi, rectique capilli,
Atque hodie tantum propter convivia pexi.

· 150

not that we have an English word which exactly expresses it : in this sense of it-school, or academy, may come the nearest.

137. Doctor Trypherus.] He was eminent for his skill in carving, which he taught in a public school; hence Juvenal ludicrously calls him doctor.

138. A large sumen.) The udder of a sow, with the paps and part of the belly, cut from her the day after she has farrowed. See 1. 81, note.

-- Pygarg:] A sort of deer ; perhaps a roe-buck.

139. Scythian birds.] It is thought that pheasants are meant here; but the description is too vague, to be certain what birds are precisely meant.

- Phænicopter.] So called from Gr. Qorix:05, crimson, and area gov, a wing--a bird, having its wings of a crimson colour. The tongue of this bird was a great dainty among the Romans. Phæni. copterus.

Dat mihi penna rubens nomen: sed lingua gulosis
Nostrą sapit.

Mart. epigr. lxxi. lib. xii. 140. Gætulian goat.] Orix, a sort of wild goat, from Gætulia, a country of Africa.

Blunt iron.] Some large knife, or some chopping instrument of iron, worn blunt with constant use.

141. Made of elm, &c.] Trypherus had all kind of provision for a feast made in wood, as the best material for the conveniency of teaching ; the hacking and hewing of which, among the scholars, must have made no small noise.

Throʻall the Suburra.] A very public street in Rome, often ' mentioned before. The idea of carving being erected into a science, and taught by a public professor, but exercising his pupils on wooden subjects, is truly ludicrous. See sat. v. 121, note: :

142. To take off, &c.] To carve according to art. '

142--3. The side of an African bird] The wing of a turkey: This bird came from Numidia, a country of Africa--hence called gallus Numidicus.--To take off the wing (as we call the pinion,

To yield, a disciple of doctor Trypherus, at whose house
An hare with a large sumen, and a boar, and a pygarg,
And Scythian birds, and a huge Phænicopter,
And a Gætulian goat, most delicious things, with a blunt iron 140
Are cut, and the feast made of elm sounds thro' all the Suburra.
Neither to take off a piece of a roe, nor the side of an African
Bird, does my little novice know, and always rude,
And accustomed to the broken pieces of a little steak.
Plebeian cups, and bought for a few pence,
The homely boy, and safe from cold, shall reach forth.
There shall not be Phrygian or Lycian, nor any bought from
A slave-merchant, and costly : when you ask, ask in Latin.
The same habit is to all, the hair cropp'd and straight,
And to-day comb'd only on account of our feast.



and part of the breast) of a roasted bird, without leaving some part behind, is 'reckoned to require some skill in carving.

143. My little novice.] Tyrunculus (dim. from tyro) signifies a young soldier, scholar, or a young beginner, in any science. Here it describes Juvenal's boy, as lately come out of the country, and be. ginning to learn his business.

Always rude.] Untaught from his cradle to this hour. 144. Accustomed.] Used only perhaps to cut a piece off a collop, or steak, of some plain meat.

145. Plebeian cups.]. Such as the common people use.

146. Homely boy, &c.] Incultus here, perhaps, rather means meanly dressed, not trimmed up, not spruce ; and yet so clad as to keep him warm, to secure him from the cold—A frigore tutus.

Reach forth.] Porriget here describes the act of the seryant, when he brings what is called for, and reaches or holds it forth io the guest, that he may take it. See sat. i. 1. 70; and sat. v. l. 67.

147. Phrygian-Lycian, &c.] The nobility of Rome purchased elegant and handsome slaves, which were brought from Phrygia' and Lycia, countries of Asia, by merchants who made it their business to traffic in slaves, and who, by using all arts to set them off to the best advantage, sold them at an extravagant price. These dealers were called mangones, because they painted the slaves, to make them look the better and sell the dearer; from Gr. peceyreevov, a deceit by some contrivance, such as witchcraft. See Ainsw. Or disguising a thing to make it look better than it is. "148. Ask in Latin.] For my poor boy understands no other language ; therefore, when you ask, or call, for what you want, do it in Latin, or he won't understand you.

149. The same habit, &c.] All my servants are dressed and appear alike.

- Cropp'd and straight.] Not long and curled, like the fashionable waiters at table. : 150. Comb'd only, &C.] On this occasion, indeed, their hair is

Pastoris duri est hic filius, ille bubulci;
Suspirat longo non visam tempore matrem,
Et casulam, et notos tristis desiderat hædos :
Ingenui vultûs puer, ingenuique pudoris,
Quales esse decet quos ardens purpura vestit.
Nec pugillares defert in balnea raucus
Testiculos, nec vellendas jam præbuit alas ;
Crassa nec opposito pavidus tegit inguina gutto.
Hic tibi vina dabit diffusa in montibus illis,
A quibus ipse venit, quorum sub vertice lusit :
Namque una atque eadem est vini patría, atque ministri.
Forsitan expectes, ut Gaditana canoro
Incipiat prurire choro, plausuque probatæ
Ad terram tremulo descendant clune puellæ.
Spectant hoc nuptæ, juxta recubante marito,
Quod pudeat narrasse aliquem præsentibus ipsis :
Irritamentum Veneris languentis, et acres
Divitis urticæ : major tamen ista voluptas
Alterius sexûs : magis illa incenditur, et mox
Auribus atque oculis concepta urina movetur.

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combed out, with a little more care than usual, that they may appear neat and decent. So Hor, sat, viii. lib. i. 1. 69, 70.

Ut omnes Præcincti recte pueri, comptique ministrent. 153. Little cottage.] Where he was born and brought up. Comp. sat. ix. I. 60, 1.

Known kids.] Which he used to tend and play with. 154. Ingenuous countenance, &c.] An honest countenance, and a genuine unaffected modesty. · 155. Such as it becomes, &c. q. d. It would be well if the same could be said of our young nobility.

Glowing purple.] Alluding to the white robe, faced and trimmed with purple, which was worn by the young nobility till seventeen years of age. This was called prætexta, and those who wore it prætextati. It was worn also by magistrates, and other noble persons, as a mark or badge of honour. See sat. i. 1. 78, note ; and sat. ii. I. 170, note; and sat. x. 99.

156. Nor, hoarse.] Alluding to the change of the voice in boys at the age of puberty. ti ūtiņ2\òm2 2ū22??ģ2–2 2Ỉ2ūti\/\22\\2\/2\/2m22ti2?/m2/2Ứ► for purposes too horrid to explain.

159. Give you wine.] This modest boy of mine shall wait upon you at supper, and serve you.

With wine from his own country brought; and made 2
From the same vines, beneath whose fruitful shade,
He and his wanton kids have often play'd.

J CONGREVE 162. A Gaditanian.] A spanish girl from Gades, now Cadiz. See sat. x. l. , note.

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