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Confisus ligno, digitis a morte remotus
Quatuor, aut septem, si sit latissima teda.
Mox cum reticulis, et pane, et ventre lagenæ,
Aspice sumendas in tempestate secures.
Sed postquam jacuit planum mare, tempora postquam
Prospera vectoris, fatumque valentius Euro,
Et pelago ; postquam Parcæ meliora benignâ
Pensa manu ducunt hilares, et staminis albi
Lanificæ ; modicâ nec multo fortior aurâ
Ventas adest ; inopi miserabilis arte cucurrit
Vestibus extensis, et, quod superaverat unum,
Velo prora, suo: jam deficientibus Austris,
Spes vitæ cum sole redit: tum gratus lülo,


gers as have been described. Comp. Hor. lib. i. ode iii. I. 9-24.

57. Trusting, &c.] The timber, of which the sides of the ships were made, was hewn in a rough manner into planks of four or seven fingers breadth in thickness ; so that the passengers, having no more between them and the water, might be said to be no further removed from death. Alluding to a saying of Anacharsis the philosopher, who, on hearing one say that a ship was three fingers thick, answered, " then just so far from death are those who sail in her."

59. If the pine.] Teda signifies the middle or heart of the pine, tree. Ainsw. Of this, it seems, they made the sides of their ships, after cutting or hewing it into planks. See note on l. 57. These were, at the thickest, seven fingers breadth, or thickness, measuring from one edge to the other on the same side. Teda here means the plank, by synec.

60. Provision-baskets.] Reticulis-twig baskets made like a net to carry provisions in; or bags made of network, used for that purpose by sailors, soldiers, and travellers, something like our knapsacks as to their purpose.

- Belly of a flagon.] Lagena--a fagon, or bottle with a large belly, to keep wine in-q.d. a great-bellied fagon.

61. Axes to be used, &c.] To cut away the masts upon occasion. See l. 54. These may happen to be as necessary as your other sea. stores; therefore, in the next place (mox,) provide axes, Aspice vide et memento, MARSHALL. To be used, sumendas - lit. to be taken.

62. But after, &c.] The narrative of Catullus's adventure is here resumed. --- Lay smooth.] Became calm, on the storm ceasing

-Circumstances, &c.] When the happy fortune of my friend prevailed, (See Ainsw. Tempus, No. 2.) and things put on a more prosperous appearance.

62--3. The mariner.] Vector signifies a bearer, or carrier; also a passenger in a ship ; likewise a mariner. See Ainsw.

A hewn plank, removed from death four
Fingers, or seven, if the pine be very large.
Immediately with your provision-baskets, and bread, and belly of a

60 „Remember axes to be used in a storm. But after the sea lay smooth, after the circumstances of the Mariner were favourable, and his fate more powerful than the east

wind, And the sea; after the cheerful destinies draw better Tasks with a benign hand, and of a white thread Are spinsters, nor much stronger than a moderate air Is there a wind, the miserable prow rart with a poor device, With extended garments, and, which alone was left, With its own sail : the south winds now failing, The hope of life return'd with the sun : then, acceptable to lülus, 70


63. Fate more powerful, &c.] The Romans believed every thing to be governed by fate, even the gods themselves.

64. The cheerful destinies, &c.] The parcæ, or fates. See sat. x. 252, note. Pensa--tasks enjoined to people that spin ; also thread, &c. spun. Ducere pensa, to spin. Ainsw. See Hor. lib. iii. ode xxvii. 1. 63.

65. White thread.] It was the opinion of the ancients, that when the destinies intended long life to a person, they spun white thread; when death, black thread.

-The phrase of ducere pensa, to spin, taken notice of in the last note, alludes to the action of the spinster, who draws the wool, or fax, from the distaff as she spins it; this she continues, till the task (pensum) assigned her, is finished.

66. Spinsters.] And are now become spinsters, &c.

67. The miserable, &c.] The shattered vessel left in a miserable plight. Prora (by synec.) may mean the vessel itself: but it liter. ally signifies the forepart, the foredeck or forecastle of a ship ; and so it is probably to be understood here, as the velo suo implies the sail proper to this part of the ship the foresprit sail, as we call it. This was the only remaining sail.

- Poor device. 7 She made a sad shift to make her way through the water, by the poor contrivance of the seaman's clothes spread out-vestibus extensis--to help her on.'

68. Was left.] i. c. Had surmounted the violence of the storm. Superaverat, quasi supererat--remained ; as in Virg. Æn. v. 519.

Amissâ solus palmâ superabat Acestas. 69. The south winds, &c.] Which were very dangerous on the coasts of Italy. See Hor, sat. i. 1. 6; and lib. iii. ode iii. l. 4, 5. ode iii. lib. i. 1. 14--16. These now began to abate. 70. Return'd with the sun.] With the day-light.

Acceptable to lulus, &c.] The Alban mount, on which Iu. lus Ascanius, the son of Æneas, built Alba longa. This is the sublime top, mentioned l. 72.

Atque novercali sedes prælata Lavino,
Conspicitur sublimis apex, cui candida nomen
Scrofa dedit, (lætis Phrygibus mirabile sumen,)
Et nunquam visis triginta clara mamillis.
Tandem intrat positas inclusa per æquora moles,,
Tyrrhenamque Pharon, porrectaque brachia rursum,
Quæ pelago occurrunt medio, longeque relinquunt
Italiam : non sic igitur mirabere portus,
Quos natura dedit : sed truncâ puppe magister
Interiora petit Baianæ pervia cymbæ
Tuti stagna sinûs: gaudent ibi vertice raso
Garrula securi narrare pericula nautæ.
Ite igitur, pueri, linguis animisque faventes,

The poet calls it gratus Iulo, because he left Lavinur, built by Æneas, to live at Alba.

71. Lavinum of his step-mother, &c.] When Iulus came to live at Alba, he left Lavinum to his mother-in-law Lavinia, the second wife of Æneas, (who had named the city Lavinum after his wife Lavinia.) Hence Juvenal says, novercali Lavino.

72--3. A white sow, &c.] From which the city was called Alba ----white. See sat. vi. l. 176, note,

73. A wonderful udder, &c.] Sumen--the belly, paps, or udder of a sow. Ainsw.--Here, by synec. it is to be understood to sig. nify the sow. This was a sight much admired by the joyful Trojans, who, after all their dangers and toils, discovered, by this, their promised resting-place.

Hic locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum. Æn. lib. viii. l. 46. Troy was the capital of Phrygia, a country of Lesser Asia, and sometimes taken for the whole country of Phrygia : hence the Trojans were called Phrygians.

74. Thirty dugs.] With each a pig sucking at it. Æn. viii. 1. 45. --A sight never seen before.

75. She enters.] i. e. The ship enters.

- Placed moles.] The moles, or piers, which had been placed, or built, to keep off the violence of the sea, and to form a safe and quiet harbour.

- Included waters.] The waters included betveen and within the moles.

76. Tyrrhene · Pharos.] In this haven of Ostia, on the shore of the. Tyrrhene sea, Claudius built a Pharos, or light-house, in imitation of that at Alexandria in Ægypt.

And again.] We once more return to the spot from whence we sat out.

--- Stretched-out arm, &c.] The two sides of the piers, or artificial mounts, like two arms, stretched so far into the Tyrrhene sea, that they seemed to enclose it as far as the middle way, and, as it were, to leave the coast of Italy behind.

78. You will not, &c.] This port, formed in this manner by art,

And an abode preferr’d to the Lavium of his step-mother,
The sublime top is beheld, to which the name a white
Sow gave (a wonderful udder to the glad Phrygians) .
And famous for thirty dugs never [before] seen.
At length she enters the placed moles, thro' the included waters, 75
And the Tyrrhene Pharos, and again the stretched out arms
Which meet the middle sea, and far leave
Italy: therefore you will not -80 admire the havens
Which nature has given : but the master, with mangled ship,
Seeks the interior pools of the safe bay, pervious to

A Baian boat: there, with a shaved head, secure,
The sailors rejoice to relate their chattering dangers.
Go then, boys, favouring with tongues and minds,

is much more wonderful than any port naturally formed by the shore itself; therefore the former is more to be admired than the latter.

80. The interior pools, &c.] The innermost part of this artificial haven, as the most secured from the sea.

81. A Baian boat. Little wherries were used at Baia to cariy people in still water; perhaps from one side of the bay to the other.

Shaved head, &c.] It was a custom, when in distress at sea, to invoke the aid of some god or other (see Jonah i. 5.) with a solemn vow of cutting off their hair, and offering it as an acknowledyment for their preservation. See Acts xxvii. 34. where Paul says, 6 there shall not an hair of your head perish ;" alluding, probably, to this custom. As if he had said, “they should not need to shave « and devote their hair, for they should be preserved without it." See Power's note.

82. The sailors rejoice, &c.] Take a delight to chatter and prate about what had happened to every boy they met. The poet says, garrula pericula quia nautas garrulos reddebant-i.e. because they set the sailors a prating. Brit. See a like figure of speech, sat. vii. 49. Hypallage.-9.d. The chattering sailors delight to relate their dangers.

83. Boys.] Go, my boys-speaking to his servants. See sat. xi. 1. 151, where he describes his two servants-lads.

Favouring, &c.] Helping on the solemnity, by observing a profound silence and attention ; this was always commanded during a sacrifice, that there might be no disturbance or interruption. 1 . this view, faveo means to attend with silence. AinsW. So , Hor.. lib. iii. ode i. 1. 2. Favete linguis, which Smart translates, Give a religious attention ; and which is thus commented on in Delph. edit.

Favete linguis. 7,66 Vox in sacris olim usitata, qua silentium im. “perabatur." "An expression formerly used at sacrifices, or sa. “cred rites, by which silence was commanded.”

Go then, my boys, the sacred rices prepare,
With awful silence, and attention hear.

See Virg. Æn, v. l. 71. Ore favete omnes, &c.
VOL. 11.


Sertaque delubris, et farra imponite cultris,
Ac molles ornate focos, glebamque virentem.
Jam sequar, et sacro, quod præstat, rite peracto,
Inde domum repetam, graciles ubi parva coronas
Accipient fragili simulachra nitentia cerâ.
Hic nostram placabo Jovem, Laribusque pateruis
Thura dabo, atque omnes violæ jactabo colores.
Cuncta nitent ; longos erexit janua ramos,
Et matutinis operatur festa lucernis.

Nec suspecta tibi sint hæc, Corvine : Catullus,

84. Put garlands, &c.] On' solemn occasions all the temples of the gods were adorned with garlands. So Virg. Æn. ii. 1. 248, 9. Nos delubra Deum

festâ velamus fronde per urbem. Meal on the knives,] The custom was to make cakes with meal and salt, with which they sprinkled the sacrificing knife, the head of the victim, and the fire. Hence comes the word immolor, from the sacred mola or cake. Virgil calls them salsæ fruges, Æn. ii. 132, 3.

Mihi sacri parari .

Et salsæ fruges. 85. Soft hearths, &c.] The poet gave us to understand, 1. 2, that his altar was made of turf, or green sod. 86. I'll soon follow.] i. 6. After these preparations are made.

The sacred business, &c.] That of the public sacrifice, which I shall offer.

- Which is best.] Quod præstati. e. which is the most ma. terial thing, and most necessary to be done..

87. Then return home.] In order to offer private sacrifices on the little turf-altar to my domestic deities.

- Little images, &c.] Little statues of the Lares, or house. hold gods, made of wax, neatly polished, so as to shine. Hence Hor, epod. ii. l. 66, calls them renidentes Lares.

88. Slender crowns. 7 Small garlands, or chaplets. 89. Placate.] Appease and render propitious.

Our Jupiter.] The favourer and guardian of our country ; or, as the poet mentions the worship of Jupiter after his return home, we may suppose, that, among his other little statues, there was one of Jupiter, before 'which, as before the others, he intended to offer incense, in order to make him propitious.

mo. Paternal Lares.] Left me by my forefathers, who used to worship them as I do..See note on sat. viii. 1. 110.

The Romans were very superstitious about these little images of the Lares; they thought no house safe without them, they constantly worshipped them, and, if they removed, they carried their Lares along with them : they were looked upon as tutelar deities, which protected their houses and lands.

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