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Hail to thee, spirit of De Foe! What does not my own a musical as well as a Christian professor-a bold fife, to poor self owe to thee? England has better bards than cheer the Guards and the brave Marines as they marched either Greece or Rome, yet I could spare them easier far than with measured step, obeying an insane command, up De Foe, "unabashed De Foe,” as the hunchbacked rhymer Bunker's height, whilst the rifles of the sturdy Yankees styled him.

were sending the leaden hall sharp and thick amidst the The true cord had now been touched; a raging curiosity red-coated ranks; for Philoh had not always been a man of with respect to the contents of the volume, whose engrav peace, nor an exhorter to turn the other cheek to the smiter, ings had fascinated my eye, burned within me, and I never but had even arrived at the dignity of a halberd in his rested until I had fully satisfied it; weeks succeeded weeks, country's service before his six-foot form required rest, and months followed months, and the wondrous volume was the gray-baired veteran retired, after a long peregrination, my only study and principal source of amusement. For to his native town, to enjoy ease and respectability on & hours together I would sit poring over a page till I had be- pension of "eighteen pence a day;" and well did his fellowcome acquainted with the import of every line. My pro townsmen act when, to increase that ease and respectabil-. gress, slow enough at first, became by degrees more rapid, ity, and with a thoughtful regard for the dignity of the good till at last, under “a shoulder of mutton sail,” I found my church service, they made him clerk and precentor-the self cantering before a steady breeze over an oceau of en man of the tall form and of the audible voice, which sounded chantment, so well pleased with my voyage that I cared loud and clear as his own Bunker fife. Well, peace to thee, not how long it might be ere it reached its termination. thou fine old chap, despiser of dissenters, and hater of papists,

And it was in this manner that I first took to the paths of as became a dignified and high-church clerk; if thou art in knowledge.

thy grave the better for thee; thou wert fitted to adorna About this time I began to be somewhat impressed with bygone time, when loyalty was in vogue, and smiling conreligious feelings. My parents were, to a certain extent, teut lay like a sunbeam upon the land, but thou wouldst be religious people; but, though they had done their best to sadly out of place in these days of cold philosophical latiafford me instruction on religious points, I had either paid tudinarian doctrine, universal tolerism, and half-concealed no attention to what they endeavored to communicate, or rebellion-rare times, no doubt, for papists and dissenters, had listened with an ear far too obtuse to derive any benefit. but which would assuredly have broken the heart of the But my mind had now become awakened from the drowsy loyal soldier of George the Third, and the dignified hightorpor in which it had lain so long, and the reasoning pow church clerk of pretty Ders which I possessed were no longer inactive. Hitherto I We passed many months at this place; nothing, however, had entertained no conception whatever of the nature and occurred requiring any particular notice, relating to myself, properties of God, and with the most perfect indifference beyond what I have already stated, and I am not writing had heard the divine name proceeding from the mouths of the history of others. At length my father was recalled to the people-frequently, alas! on occasions when it ought his regiment, which at that time was stationed at a place not to be employed; but I now never heard it without a called Normon Cross, in Lincolnshire, or rather Huntingtremor, for I now knew that God was an awful and inscru- donshire, at some distance from the old town of Peterbortable being, the maker of all things; that we were His ough. For this place he departed, leaving my mother and children, and that we, by our sins, had justly offended Him; myself to follow in a few days. Our journey was a singular that we were in very great peril from His anger, not so On the second day we reached a marshy and fenny much in this life as in another and far stranger state of be- country, which, owing to immense quantities of rain which ing yet to come; that we had a Savior withal to whom it had lately fallen, was completely submerged. At a large was necessary to look for help; upon this point, however, I town we got on board a kind of passage-boat, crowded with was yet very much in the dark, as, indeed, were most of those people; it had neither sails nor oars, and those were not the with whom I was connected. The power and terrors of days of steam-vessels; it was a treck-schuyt, and was God were uppermost in my thoughts; they fascinated drawn by horses. though they astounded me. Twice every Sunday I was Young as I was, there was much connected with this regularly taken to church, where, from a corner of the large journey which highly surprised me, and which brought to spacious pew, lined with black leather, I would fix my eyes my remembrance particular scenes described in the book on the dignified high-church rector, and the dignified high- which I now generally carried in my bosom. The country church clerk, and watch the movement of their lips, from was, as I have already said, submerged-entirely drowned which, as they read their respective portions of the vener -no land was visible; the trees were growing bolt upright able liturgy, would roll many a portentous word descriptive in the flood, whilst farmhouses and cottages were standing of the wondrous works of the Most High.

insulated; the horses which drew us were up to the knees RECTOR: "Thou didst divide the sea, through Thy in water, and, on coming to blind pools and "greedy power; Thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters." depths,'' were not unfrequently swimming, in which case

Philoh: “Thou smotest the heads of Leviathan in the boys or urchins who mounted them sometimes stood, pieces; and gavest him to be meat for the people in the wil sometimes knelt, upon the saddle and pillions. No acciderness."

dent, however, occurred either to the quadrupeds or bipeds, RECTOR: "Thou broughtest out fountains and waters out who appeared respectively to be quite au fait in their busiof the hard rocks; Thou driedst up mighty waters."

ness, and extricated themselves with the greatest ease from Philoh: The day is Thine, and the night is Thine; places in which Pharaoh and all his host would have gone Thou hast prepared the light and the sun."

to the bottom. Nightfall brought us to Peterborough, and Peace to your memories, dignified rector, and yet more from thence we were not slow in reaching the place of our dignified clerk! by this time ye are probably gone to your

destination. long homes, and your voices are no longer heard sounding

(TO BE CONTINUED.) down the aisles of the venerable church; nay, doubtless, Thos. S. Skein, Annville, Pa., is anxious to get a complete this has already long since been the fate of him of the so set of THE CHAUTAUQUAN for last year. The publisher is

norous “Amen!”—the one of the two who, with all due able to furnish the required readings only for a part of the | respect to the rector, principally engrossed my boyish admi months. Any member of the Circle who will furnish the

ration-he, at least, is scarcely now among the living! Liv complete volume to Mr. Skein will confer a favor by coming! why, I have heard say that he blew a fife-for he was municating with him.


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 16. Q. What is one of the facts given in contradiction of

this argument? A. The use in the seventeenth century of

precisely similar implements by the Indians of New Jersey ONE HUNDRED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON


17. Q. What facts are given that effectually oppose a conERAL HISTORY.

clusion of great antiquity for the stone monuments found in

Great Britain, Germany, France, and other parts of Europe? 1. THE ANTIQUITY AND PRIMITIVE CONDITION OF MAN.

A. Excavations reveal relics of Roman and Christian times. 1. Q. What is the belief of the 'vast majority of Christian 18. Q. What general·statement is made in reference to huscholars as to the length of man's past existence on the man skulls and skeletons found in positions supposed to imearth? A. That there is no evidence within or without the port vast antiquity ? A. In no one instanve has there been Scripture records sufficient to prove it longer ago than four adduced a well authenticated case in which the facts would or five thousand years before the Christian era.

warrant a conclusion of very remote antiquity. 2. Q. How far back does reliable history, aside from the 19. Q. What age does the reckoning of Dr. Andrews make Mosaic record, trace the history of man? A. The monu the Tiniere Cone, which M. Marlot estimates as often thouments of the East take us back the farthest, and shed no sand years? A. The entire mass, at the most, only 4,500 light on known history beyond, at the utmost, 3,000 B. C.

years old. 3. Q. What is there in all the varnished stories of my 20. Q. In what way was the calculation of Mr. Horner thology to warrant the assumption of an immense antiquity that a piece of pottery he found at Memphis, Egypt, at a for man? A. Nothing.

depth of thirty-nine feet, had been buried thirteen thousand 4. Q. What is now the prevailing opinion as to the cause years, set at naught? A. By the discovery, in the delta of of the diversity in form, size, color, and physiognomy of the Nile, at a greater depth, of a brick bearing the stamp of members of the human race? A. Differences of climate and Mohammed Ali. modes of life, rather than a great antiquity, or a plurality of 21. Q. According to the most recent calculations, at what human species.

time was the termination of the glacial age in the north of 5. Q. How do the latest investigations of modern science, Europe, and on the basins of the North American lakes? A. with all accumulated helps, serve to interpret the tenth

It need not have been much over five thousand years ago. chapter of Genesis? A. Only to verify and illustrate it. 22. Q. What are some of the wide gaps evolution needs to

6. Q. To what do the latest results of comparative philol fill up before it can be accepted as accounting for the origin ogy strongly point? A. To a common origin, not very re

of man? A. The gaps that separate man and the ape, vegemote, of the entire human family.

table and animal life, and living organism and inert matter. 7. Q. In what are we told that human fossils are found 23. Q. In what other essential point does evolution also imbedded in such positions as to require us to believe they fail? A. In accounting for the origin of matter. were deposited ages ago? A. River beds, caves, peat bogs,

24. Q. What is said of all the evidences of the primitive shell mounds, and stone monuments.

condition of man? A. None show that he was originally a 8. Q. From these geological evidences what are some of savage. The most ancient nations of which we have any rethe estimates that have been made as to the period of man's liable history were highly civilized. first appearance ? A. Mr. Jukes, one hundred thousand 25. Q. What is said of the Biblical account of man's primyears ago; Dr. Hunt, nine million years ago; Prof. Huxley, itive condition and subsequent degeneracy? A. It is conhundreds of millions of years ago.

firmed by the traditions of many nations, and is every way 9. Q. What are the characteristics of the Somme Valley compatible with reason and all known facts of human hisof France, that are adduced to show the great antiquity of tory derivable from other quarters. man? A. At the bottom, a bed of peat twenty-five to

II. LANGUAGE AND WRITING. thirty feet thick, and below that deposits of gravel and sand in which bones of extinct animals and rude flint imple 26. Q. How is one's native language acquired. A. By exments are found.

perience and intercourse with others, and study under simi10. Q. What answer is made to the argument from these lar couditions. deposits? A. The peat is forest peat of modern formation, 27. Q. What is said of the English language of three huncontaining Roman relics at all depths; immense land dred years ago? A. No one to-day speaks it. freshets rapidly deposited the gravel beds in one formation; 28. Q. What amount of study does it require to understand and the remains of mammoths do not evidence a vast an the Anglo-Saxon of the time of the Norman conquest ? A. tiquity.

As much as to learn to read French or German. 11. Q. What fertile sources of evidence touching prehis 29. Q. How many new words have new inventions introtoric man are found chiefly in England, France, and Ger-duced into our language within one hundred years? A. A many? A. Caves, in which human remains and relics thousand. have been discovered along with those of extinct animals. 30. Q. How many words do Shakspere and Milton use of

12. Q. What is one of the most famous of these caverns ? the more than eighty thousand of the English language? A. A. Kent's Cavern, on the Coast of Devonshire, England. Shakspere uses only fifteen thousand, and Milton less than

13. Q. What is the conclusion of Dr. Dawson as to the ten thousand. history of this cave and others resembling it? A. Such 31. Q. What has followed the compiling of a dictionary histories may at any time be contradicted, or modified by of the language of certain American Indian tribes by misnew facts, and too much value should not be attached to sionaries? A. Their language changed so rapidly that in them.

ten years such a dictionary would become antiquated and 14. Q. What is said of the contents of lake dwellings of worthless. Switzerland and elsewhere? A. They contain nothing that 32. Q. To what language of a thousand years ago do we is necessarily ancient.

trace back English ? A. The Anglo-Saxon. 15. Q. Upon what does the argument for the antiquity of 33. Q. Mention three other languages that belong to the the Danish shell mounds rest? A. The unpolished charac same group with English. A. German, Swedish, and Ruster of the flint implements found among them, and the ab

sian. sence of metal.

34. Q. What four languages form the Romanic group of



the same family? A. Italian, French, Spanish, and Portu 55. Q. The ancient period is how many times as long as guese.

the modern period ? A. More than ten times as long. 35. Q. Name four other languages belonging to this same 56. Q. By what four great monarchies is ancient history family. A. Greek, Persian, Zend, and Sanscrit.

distinguished? A. Assyria, Persia, Greece and Rome. 36. Q. What is this great family to which these several 57. Q. By what were the Middle Ages characterized ? A. groups belong commonly called ? A. Indo-European. The origin and progress of Mohammedanism and the Sara

37. Q. Mention four of the languages belonging to the cen Empire, the Feudal System, the Crusades, and Chivalry. Semitic family. A. The Hebrew, the Phænician, the 58. Q. What are some of the most distinguishing features Syriac, and the Arabic.

of modern history? A. Discoveries and explorations, in38. Q. What literature does the Hebrew possess ? A. ventions, revival of learning, reformation in religion and The oldest and grandest; the sacred Scriptures of the race governments, and wide diffusion of intelligence among the of Abraham.

39. Q. What is said of the extent of the Arabic literature, 59. Q. What is meant by sacred history? A. The history the language of the Koran? A. It contains vast libraries of contained in the Scripture. poetry and philosophy, history and fable, science and re 60. What is the meaning of profane history? A. The hisligion.

tory of ancient heathen nations. 40. Q. What are some of the related languages that be 61. Q. Where are the records of profane history chiefly long to the Turanian family? A. The languages of the Lap found? A. In the writings of the Greeks and Romans. landers, Finns, Hungarians, and Turks in Europe, and 62. Q. What populous communities were so little known tribes of northern and central Asia.

to the Greek and Roman writers that they are beyond the 41. Q. What are some of the languages that belong to range of ancient history? A. Those of India, China, and none of the families mentioned ? A. The Japanese and the Japan. Chinese tongues, and the numerous dialects of the native 63. Q. Who was the earliest profane historian whose tribes of America, Africa, and the islands of the Pacific. works are extant? A. Herodotus.

42. Q. In order to develop, perfect and preserve a lan 64. Q. When was his history written? A. About four guage, what seems absolutely necessary? A. The art of hundred and fifty years before Christ. writing.

65. Q. Huw far back of the time when it was composed 43. Q. So far as any direct or collateral evidence bears on does his history extend? A. About two hundred and fifty the subject to what time is the origin of writing to be referred? A. To the most remote antiquity.

66. Q. For the history of the world during the ages pre44. Q. What is the most plausible supposition as to the ceding about seven hundred years before the Christian era manner in which the art of writing was first invented ? A. upon what do we almost wholly depend ? A. The Bible. That it began with the carving of rude pictures.

67. Q. What are some of the most important events re45. Q. What is the responsive theory that has been ad corded in the Bible previous to the commencement of the vanced to show how men might have taught themselves to records of profane history? A. The creation, the fall, the speak? A. That man was originally gifted with a creative deluge, the dispersion, the planting of the different nations, faculty which spontaneously gave a name to each distinct the call of Abraham, and the history of the Israelites. conception as it first thrilled through his brain.

68. Q. By whom and where was the earliest known at46. Q. What is the onomatopoetic theory of the origin of tempt made to form a settled community? A. By the sons speech? A. That the earliest names of objects and actions of Noah, at Babel, after the flood. were produced by imitation of natural sounds.

69. Q. Into what three divisions may the nations of an47. Q. What is the interjectional theory of the origin of cient history be divided ? A. Semitic, Hamitic, and Japhetic, spoken language? A. That exclamations uttered in mo descended from the sons of Noah respectively, as they sepments of emotions are the ultimate elements of speech. arated after the confusion of tongues at Babel.

48. Q. How have these several theories been character 70. Q. What were three principal Semitic nations ? A. ized ? A. As the ding-dong theory, bow-wow theory, and Assyrians, Hebrews, and Arabs. the pooh-pooh theory.

71. Q. What were three prominent Hamitic nations ? A. 49. Q. What is the only logical inference of science as to Chaldæans, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. the origin of language? A. That the first man was assisted 72. Q. Into what two great classes are the Japhetic nations to speak by a superior intelligence, by living long enough divided ? A. Asiatic Aryans, and European Aryans. in his society, and learning as a child learns.

73. Q. In what has the active intellect of the Aryan race 50. Q. State some characteristic facts connected with the made it the leader? A. Art, literature and laws. existence of language and writing? A. Written language 74. Q. Mention four ancient nations of the Aryan race. A. alone makes history possible; language and writing are es Persians, Greeks, Romans and Germans. sential factors in all civilization; languages are an index of 75. Q. At the close of the period of ancient history, what national character.

race became predominant in Europe, and overthrew the RoIII. GENERAL HISTORY.

man Empire of the West? A. The German race. 51. Q. Into what three divisions is the history of the world often divided ? A. Ancient, mediæval, and modern.

76. Q. Into what two periods may mediæval history be di52. Q. What period does ancient history comprise ? A. vided ? A. The Dark Ages and the Middle Ages. From the creation of man, B. C. 4,004, to the subversion of 77. Q. What period is included in the Dark Ages ? A. the Western Empire of the Romans, A. D. 476, nearly four The first six hundred years, when the destructive passions thousand and five hundred years.

of men were in ascendency. 53. Q. What period is embraced by mediæval history? A. 78. Q. What is meant by the Middle Ages? A. The last From the subversion of the Western Empire of the Romans, 'four hundred years of the mediæval period, when the tenA. D. 476, to the end of the Eastern Empire, A. D. 1453, dencies to order and civilization had gained strength. nearly a thousand years.

79. Q. What barbarous nations from the north possessed 54. Q. What period is included in modern history? A. themselves of the middle and south of Europe at the begin. From the end of the Eastern Empire of the Romans to the ning of the Dark Ages? A. The Goths, Vandals and Huns. present time, about four and a quarter centuries.

80. Q. What is said of learning in the Dark Ages ? A. It


had almost wholly disappeared from among the laity, and C. L. S. C. NOTES AND LETTERS. the clergy alone could read and write.

81. Q. Mention five names prominent in the history of the A C. L. S. C. student says: “In the dining room I have Dark Ages. A. Justinian, Emperor of the Eastern Roman a library chair. It was thoughthtoo shabby for use, and had Empire; Mohammed, founder of Mohammedanism; Haroun been banished for years. I returned it from exile, and coral Raschid, Caliph at Bagdad; Charlemagne, Emperor of the

ered it with cretonne, and the desk with oil cloth, and dediFranks; and Alfred the Great, King of England.

cated it to Chautauqua. In the drawer underneath are my 82. Q. In less than a hundred years from the time of Mo books. Whenever I have a moment to myself I read them hammed, what countries did the Saracen Empire embrace?

there." A. Persia, Syria, Asia Minor, Arabia, Egypt, Northern Africa, and Spain.

The art students of the Chautauqua Course will always 83. Q. What was the Feudal System in force largely in be glad to hear anything from Prof. J. L. Corning. We Europe during the Dark Ages? A. A system under which quote from a letter to Dr. Vincent the following informalands were held by military service and homage to the chief tion in regard to pictures of ancient cities: Professor Corn. or king who granted them.

ing says: "I suppose I. Levy & Company, 113 Boule84. Q. What were the Crusades of the Middle Ages? A. vard Sebastopol, Paris, France, has the most exMilitary expeditions undertaken by Christian powers of Eu tensive list of slides of ancient cities. The size is rope for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Mohamme- just about three inches, and of course they could easily dans.

supply photographs from their negatives. I append a few 85. Q. What were the two great powers of Europe during hints from their catalogue: (1) All the arehitectural relics the Middle Ages ? A. The Church and the Roman Empire, of Rome. (2) All the architectural relics of Tivoli. (3) All often at deadly strife.

the architectural relics of Pompeii. (4) All the architectural 86. Q. What were the three great Universities of the Mid relics of Poestum. (5) All the architectural relics of Syracuse. dle Ages? A. The schools of Bologna, Paris, and Oxford. (6) All the architectural relics of Athens. (7) All the archi

87. Q. What three important events mark the dawn of the tectural relics of Egypt (Alexandria, Cairo, Beni-Hassan, era of modern history ? A. The invention of gunpowder, Luxor, Karnak, Thebes, etc., etc.) (8) All the architectthe invention of printing, and the discovery of America. ural relics of Baalbek. For photographs I would consult

88. Q. What countries of Europe took the lead in the mar catalogue of John P. Soule, Art Publisher, 338 Washington itime discoveries and commercial enterprise of the fifteenth street, Boston, Mass. A few views can be found of ancient and sixteenth centuries? A. Portugal and Spain.

cities in his collection. I suppose the best illustrated works 89. Q. By what countries were they succeeded in mari on ancient cities are published in Germany. .. I doubt time enterprise and activity? A. By the Netherlands, Hol not many electrotypes could be procured at moderate figures land, and England, which became in turn the most commer of Hallberger, of Stuttgart; Sumann, Leipzig; Wachsmuth, cial states in Europe.

Berlin; Neff, Stuttgart." 90. Q. What are the five most powerful states in Europe at the present time? A. England, France, Germany, Rus

A young man from Boston, twenty-two years of age, sia and Austria.

clerk in a dry goods house, canvassing the question of with91. Q. From what time does the history of the French

drawing from business that he may secure a college educamonarchy date? A. The latter part of the fifth century.

tion, says: “I have been a member of the C. L. S. C. for 92. Q. In 1871 what form of government was proclaimed

one year. in France for the third time in its history? A. A Republic. really awakened me.

This is a wonderful encouragement, and has

I am happy in reading, and send my 93. Q. What is the farthest back any of the other sover

papers this week. Aside from business hours, and my aleignties of Europe can trace their origin? A. To the com

most daily study of Latin, my time is very short, but I use mencement of the ninth century.

every second in perfect enjoyment, looking into the Chau94. Q. From what time does the present German empire

tauqua studies." date its existence ? A. 1872.

95. Q. The histories of what two European governments are intimately connected, and are the most important to Amer

Members of the Circle do not forget to speak good words icans? A. England and France.

for THE CHAUTAUQUAN. We quote from a number of let96. Q. What was the great event of the sixteenth century?

ters before us, as follows: "THE CHAUTAUQUAN is highly A. The separation of the most of the northern nations of prized by the Circle. Each issue is an improvement on the Europe from the Roman Church, and the result in the Re

previous. It is a literary triumph, and full of good things.' formation.

A New England member writes, "THE CHAUTAUQUAN im97. Q. Who was the great leader in the Reformation? A.

proves with age. I should like to thank the gentleman who Martin Luther.

conceived the bright idea of those one hundred questions 98. Q. By what European nations were the principal things in our minds.” A member writes from Minnesota :

and answers we are having. It is such a help in fixing early discoveries and settlements in America made? A. Spanish, English, French and Dutch.

"I am delighted with THE CHAUTAUQUAN. The only thing 99. Q. Following the Revolution, when was the indepen; pleasant little village, I have to lend them to so many of my

that troubles me is that being the only subscriber in our dence of the United States acknowledged by Great Britain ? A. In 1783.

friends that they come back all worn out, and I find that I

need to re-read them also.” A member writes from the 100. Q. Who was the first President of the United States, and who is the present one? A. George Washington was

State of New York: "I think THE CHAUTAUQUAN is grand. the first, and Chester A. Arthur is the present.

It contains so much instructive reading that it seems to give

one a glimpse into each corner of this great universe of ours. The class of 1885 is rapidly increasing in membership. 'I can not help wishing everybody could or would read it.” Thousands of circulars and blanks have been sent from the Plainfield office to those asking for information. There is We have had circles and triangles in the C. L. 8. C. work, yet time to join the ranks the present year, as applications and now comes a letter from a member in Alabama, telling for membership will be received until the 1st of January, 1882. of a straight line. She writes to Dr. Vincent as follows:

"I want to thank you for the C. L. S. C., which has opened Temple. On the same page it mentions him passing through to me such a new and wonderful source of pleasure and im New Inn. On page 301 we read where Sir Roger and the provement, and to tell you how lonely I feel away down Spectator look back upon London and Temple-Bar. Now I here in the back woods, among the mountains of North Al think to the majority of readers those words are only names abama, prosecuting the studies all alone. I have tried to of places, and so they are; but upon an investigation each organize a local circle, but failed, owing to the fact that there is discovered with a hidden history. I find in my 'memory is so little accessible material of which to form one. We library' a book read March 12–21, 1878, entitled 'Patty could not even form a triangle, as they did in Michigan, but Grey's Journey,' by Caroline H. Dall, published 1870, from only a straight line extending from me to my neighbor over which I had copied the following extracts, page 114: the hills; and so far as I know, she and I are the only mem "INNER TEMPLE.-A great law school; one of the inns of bers in Alabama; but perhaps in thinking so I am as greatly court in London. Two or three hundred years ago an inn mistaken as the prophet Elijah when he said, 'and I, even I meant a great family house, and great professors had classes only, am left.""

and taught law in their own houses, and at last when the classes crowded out the professors and their little children

they called the houses inns of court. The intellectual and moral influence the circle has on the

"TEMPLE.— There are four large schools in London-Linhomes of its members finds frequent illustration in the let

coln's Inn, Grey's Inn, and the Inner and Middle Temple. ters that come to Dr. Vincent. We have before us two let

The King of Jerusalem gave the old knights who went to the ters of this character, one from Michigan and one from New

crusades a home near the Temple, and so they came to be York, and we make the following quotations: “My little

called Templars. At last they grew rich and spread all over boy, who is barely eleven years old, was very much inter

the world. They had their houses in London, the old Temested in reading aloud to me Ridpath's History of the United

ple-which has been pulled down—and the Inner and MidStates, during the long winter evenings, and I was equally

dle Temple, which the lawyers bought for law colleges. interested in more fully explaining much of it to him. I

"TEMPLE-BAR.-A gate in the old wall of the city, near read aloud to him from 'Cyrus and Alexander,' last fall. He

these very temples. The wall was Roman, almos two thouwas greatly delighted with Alexander at first, but finally

sand years old, but the gate was the work of Sir Christopher made his own observation that 'when a man grew to have

Wren, not quite two hundred years ago.' 50 much power he would be almost certain to use it wrong,

This correspondent intimates that she has many more and ruin himself as well as injure others.' I anticipate much pleasure and profit in reading and talking about the

things in reserve that might prove interesting to the readers

of THE CHAUTAUQUAN. We trust that she will not keep books of the entire course with my boy in the future, as we

them all to herself, but that the members of the Circle may have time and opportunity, and I feel so grateful for the

have further opportunities to learn of her methods of classicourse myself. I feel it will make me more useful as a

fying and rendering more available the results of her readteacher, and especially better prepared to guide and help

ing and study. my boy in forming his tastes, developing his character, and informing his mind." From the other letter we take this

LOCAL CIRCLES.* extract: “This reading has been the source of untold comfort to me. It is so pleasing to learn something of those studies I have always longed to understand. Although I

Fifty-two new local circles have reported organization get but a little, still that is a pleasure, and I hope will be

this year and others are coming. There is room enough for profitable. Truly it may be to my grandchildren. A little

thousands more.—Dr. S. Stewart, President of the Big boy four years old tells a number of constellations at sight,

Grove, Iowa, local circle, writes: “Our little circle numbers and says he never will be satisfied till he can learn Pegasus.

about a dozen of good, faithful workers, and most of us hope to He is asking for 'a 'zervatory’on the house, and a telescope.

come to Chautauqua next year to receive our degree, if we Physiology is very interesting to him. He asks where is

are deemed worthy to have it conferred on us.”—Members the 'tonograph' line that tells his head when he hurts his of the C. L. S. C., whether belonging to local circles or not, hand, and is the part situated in the head or heart that goes

are not required to send answers to “Questions for further to heaven to live with Jesus when we die? For such rea

study." The failure to send answers will in no wise affect sons I cannot give up the course, unless actually compelled

the standing of any member in the circle. The responses to by failing health."

the request to send answers are to be considered as entirely voluntary. The questions have evidently widened the re

search of a good many members, and have been, we trust, A member of the C. L. S. C., whose educational enthu

productive of corresponding good.- One of the members of siasm takes a methodical shape worthy of wide imitation,

the local circle in Calcutta, India, writes: “We all hope writes as follows: "Since 1874 I have kept a list of every

that the day is not far distant when India will have a local book I have read, the date of reading, the author's name,

circle wherever an American missionary is sent." -Mr. I. the publishers, and date of publishing, and what is most

E. James, Pittston, Pa, says: “I have been collecting coal important, all items of special information, or anything I plants for several years, and if you know of any members of desired especially to remember. It is all in one nice large

the circle who wish to exchange either minerals, fossils, or blank book, with ruled pages, so smooth and clear it tempts objects of natural history for coal plants, please refer them one's pen to write. I can date many an improvement of

to me. I can furnish from two hundred to three hundred mind back to the first page of that book. You will not

pounds." wonder that I call it my 'memory library' within two covers. You know it is not time most people would need for

For this month the Memorial Day comes on Friday, the such a plan, but an incentive, and an inclination to benefit

9th—"Milton's Day." It will not be forgotten by loyal themselves and others. My incentive was a book, 'How to

members of the C. L. S. C. The life and works of Milton Do It,' by Edward Everett Hale, 1872. It is the first book

afford grand themes for a special meeting of local circles. on the list, and from it are taken extracts as to the best way to read, etc. And now, here is a point to the plan. See

* All communications from local circles intended for The CHAUApril CHAUTAUQUAN, page 300, in extracts from The Spec TAUQUAN, should be addressed to Albert M. Martin, General Secretator, we read of a person who is a member of the Inner tary of the C. L. S. C., Pittsburgh, Pa.

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