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Over three hundred girls have recently been removed from the public schools of Lewiston, Me., and placed in a Catholic parochial school, and their withdrawal will involve the closing of at least six of the public schools.

The Attorney-General of Texas has decided that it is unlawful to employ boys about saloons in any capacity. Such a decision and its enforcement in other States would save a multitude of boys from ruin.

Miss Ellen Warren, daughter of Bishop H. W. Warren, An over-zealous man is quite liable sometimes to embarlast year, in Philadelphia, painted the portrait of Christo- rass himself and the friends of a good cause. We are told pher Herring, M. D., one of the men who introduced home that during the revival meetings being conducted by the opathy into this country. She had nothing but an old pho- Rev. Mr. Harrison in San Francisco, two ministers, Messrs. tograph and word pictures of the man from the lips of his Hemphill and Sprecher, recently attended, and when the friends, to paint from. When her task was done the widow meeting was about half over, started to go out, their exit of Dr. Herring called to see the picture. She said, "It seems being necessarily slow, on account of the great crowd. They that I am in the presence of my husband," and she wept had got but a little way when, to their astonishment, they with mingled joy and sadness. A number of Dr. Herring's heard themselves addressed thus: “There are two more medical friends after seeing the portrait pronounced it sinners who are starting to go before they have got salvathe historic picture, and paid Miss Warren the high compli- tion. Hold on, there! Come right up to the altar, and have ment of ordering it engraved at an expense of $2,000. Miss your sins, which are many, forgiven before leaving." Warren visited Paris with her father on his recent trip abroad, where she will remain for some time to pursue the From present appearances Dakota will be the next Terristudy of painting.

tory admitted to the Union as a State. The western sena

tors are all reported as being in favor of the movement. It The Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, D. D., has assumed the edi- embraces 150,000 square miles of territory, and the populatorial management of Frank Leslie's Sunday Magazine, in tion is about 140,000. which both his picture and the story of his life have recently appeared.

The New York Tribune styles George Borrow, author

of “Lavengro," "the late eccentric writer.” For the work he The entire subject of Christian evidences from the Cata did in this story his eccentricity was one of his best qualificombs, which has been so ably discussed by Rev. Mr. With cations. The realities of his times under his pen become as row, in his lecture on the Catacombs of Rome, is treated bewitching as a dream or a drama. Nobody will read the with great fulness of detail and copious pictorial illus- story without being benefitted intellectually and morally. tration in a work by the writer, “The Catacombs of Rome, Some parts of it must be read more than once to be appreand their Testimony Relative to Primitive Christianity." ciated. Cr. 8vo., 560 pp, 136 engravings. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Price, $2.50. It discusses at length the structure,

· By fairy hands their knell is rung, origin and history of the Catacombs, their art and symbol

By forms unseen their dirge is sung." ism; their epigraphy as illustrative of the theology, minis

In the last number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN, the proof try, rites, and institutions of the primitive church, and

reader allowed Wordsworth to say “keel” for “knell,” in Christian life and character in the early ages. The gradual

the above lines. Knell is a very significant word in such a corruption of doctrine and practice and introduction of Ro

connection. manist errors, as the cultus of Mary, the primacy of Peter,

EDITOR'S TABLE. prayers for the dead, the invocation of saints, the notion of purgatory, the celibacy of the clergy, rise of monastic orders, and other allied subjects are fully treated.

[We solicit questions from our readers to be answered in this department.]

Q. Much was recently written about our criminal neglect in Twenty-four Morinon Missionaries have just started for

not having some kind of a guard to protect the person of Europe to enlist women for their church in Utah. When the President when he appears in public. Is it probable will Congress meet this system at this, one of its strongest that Congress will make some such provision ? but most vulnerable points ?

A. We apprehend that the old-time simplicity and unosten

tation will continue to characterize the public appearances of It is announced by a Methodist paper in New York, that

our chief magistrate. More precaution may be and should be the Rev. Henry Baker, now pastor of St. Paul's Church,

taken to protect him from "cranks" and lunatics, but beNewark, N. J., has been invited to take, next spring, the yond this, nothing better can be attained than the affection pastorate of Simpson Methoilist Episcopal Church, Brook

and esteem of an enlightened and free people. History lyn, N. Y. We suspect the arrangement will be consumma

shows that an ever present body-guard is but an invitation ted. It is a wise arrangement that a bishop has charge of

to the assassin. So long as bad men and wicked motives a conference six months before he presides over its deliber- exist, presidents, like all other men, are liable to be murations. If the churches and pastors have a good deal to

dered. The man most liable to be struck down the next say about their relations, they will both do a good deal bet

moment is be at St. Petersburg, who sleeps in the inner ter work. There will be less lying down in the fur

room with doors barred and bolted, and with thousands of row, and a better (sprit de corps in the army after the ap

soldiers surrounding his castle night and day to protect

him. pointments are read of!.

Q. I heard a minister say that he did not believe that

Jesus ever smiled. Does the New Testament present the A Chautauqua Lake hunter captures wild fowls in the Savior as always sad and gloomy in spirit ? following manner: He scoops the inside out of a large A. “For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they pumpkin, cuts a couple of holes through which he can see, say he hath a devil. The Son of man came eating and slips the shell over his head, wades out to where the flock drinking, and they say, behold a man gluttonous and a are swimming all unconscious of danger, and grabbing a wine-bibber.” Matthew xi. 18, 19. We do not believe that goose by the legs gently draws her under, and so proceeds the New Testament justifies any such statement concernuntil none are left to tell the tale.

ing Christ. Our Savior shared both the joys and the sor


rows of men. He wept over Jerusalem and at the grave of A. Chief among the many weaknesses which pertain to Lazarus, but he was invited and accepted the invitation to Mr. Ingersoll in his assault upon Christianity, is the flipihe joyous occasion of a wedding. His message was good pant, exultant spirit which pervades all his utterances. The news, and he bade men rejoice. It is not a sin to smile, and man who can declare with flippancy that those things no man ought to caricature the religion of Christ by culti which have been the anchorage of human hopes in all the vating a spirit of sadness under the impression that such a past are but empty delusions, who can indulge an unsymspirit is pleasing to God. Better bring the power of cheer- pathetic smile while attempting to destroy the house that fulness and hope to bear on the work of the world's con has sheltered and still shelters millions of human hearts, version.

such a man forseits his claim upon the respect and sympaQ. Is it plagiarism for a minister to adopt the plan or

thy of mankind. The philosopher, the scientist, the thoughtoutline of another's sermon, filling out the details with his ful man whose conclusions lead him with sadness into the own thoughts and illustrations ?

realm of doubt, deserves our sympathy and help, and has a A. Yes, if he presents it as all his own. Thoughts and

claim upon our respect. The flippant sneerer has none whatwords are public property. The world has very few new Herein is Mr. Ingersoll very weak, and time is makthoughts, and not many new words. No man has a right | ing it more and more apparent. to assert his ownership of either. But order, arrangement, plan, whether of thought or words, are private property, Q. Will you give your readers a brief view of the early the creation of an individual mind. These no minister life of Louis Napoleon. Some members of the C. L. S.C.,

myself among the number, do not have access to standard ought to steal. He may borrow them, but he should avow

histories or cyclopædias. the borrowing. In truth, he who has furnished the skeleton of & sermon or lecture has performed the chief labor, has A. We quote what Madame Cornu says in a recent numprovided its brains if it have any. The minister whose laz ber of Fraser's Magazine: "Louis Napoleon is a strange iness or lack of ability leads him to adopt the plans of being; one who did not know him, would think that he had other men's sermons had better carefully reconsider the enough to do without wasting a day in looking for the evidences of the supposed call to his work.

cover of a vase. But it is just like him. His mind wants Q. Who were the seven wise men of Greece?

keeping. A trifle close to his eyes hides from him the A. Bias, Chilo, Cleobulus, Periander, Pittacus, Solon and

largest object at a distance.

We lived together from Thales.

our births till I was about fourteen and he about eighteen. Q. I find allusion made in an English magazine to the

During the first seven years of the time he was surrounded "'Cockney Poets." Will you inform me what poets are re

by all the splendor of a court. During the last eight he ferred to?

was in Germany, looked down on by the Germans, who A. Some English critics applied the above epithet to a would scarcely admit the Buonapartes to be gentry, and literary sect whose works were said "to consist of the most would call him 'Monsieur Buonaparte.

, His long incongruous ideas in the most uncouth language." It in exclusion from the society of the higher classes of his couneluded Keats, Shelley, Leigh Hunt and others.

trymen, and, in great measure, from the higher classes of Q. Where is Mison and Dixon's line, and how was the

the foreigners among whom he resided did him harm, in name derived ?

many ways. It is wonderful that it did not spoil his manA. It lies in north latitude 390 43' 26.3". With the excep

He was saved perhaps by having so admirable a tion of small portions of Delaware and Virginia it formed model before him as his mother. But it made him somethe northern limit of the original slave states, and hence thing of a parvenu--what you would call a tuft-hunter. He was much mentioned in the old slavery controversies. It looked up to people of high rank with a mixture of admirais so called from Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, tion, envy, and dislike.

The great progress in polEnglish surveyors, who run the line between the years 1763 itical knowledge made by the higher classes in France beand 1767.

tween 1815 and 1813 was lost to him. When we met in 1826, Q. What would THE CHAUTAUQUAN advise concerning after three years separation, I was struck with his backthe reading of books known to be heterodox and skeptical? wardness as to political matters. In France he has never May such books be read, or is it better to abstain from them entirely?

lived except as a child, a prisoner and a sovereign. It will A. The question is an important one and difficult to an

seem a paradox to you, that it is to his want of sympathy swer in general terms. Circumstances may make a great

with the feelings of the higher classes in France that I atdifference.

tribute much of his success. Parents and teachers are responsible for the

His opinions and feelings are reading of the undeveloped minds committed to their care,

those of the French people from 1799 to 1812, as they were and can not be too watchful over their reading. It is their fashioned by Napoleon during his thirteen years of despotduty to shield the young from such books as tend to unbal

ism, war, and victory. Now these opinions and feelings, ance faith or sop ticate the mind.

all modified or abandoned by our higher classes, are still

those of the multitude. They despise parliamentary govThe case of the reading of such books by adult minds is different. Very often we may not choose to read such works ernment, despise the Pope, despise the priests, delight in on the ground that such reading is unprofitable and time

profuse expenditure, delight in war, hold the Rhine to be may be much better spent. Such a view of the case is very

our rightful frontier--that it is our duty to seize all that is true and just. But to refuse to look into such works lest our

within it-and have no notion of any foreign policy except foundations be unsettled, savors of cowardice and seems like

one of aggression and domination. The people, and he, a confession of the weakness of our position. Besides, if we

therefore, perfectly agree. It is not that he has learned their are unwilling to examine the views of the unbeliever, we

sentiments—how could he, in prison or in exile? But they can hardly with consistency ask his attention to the claims

are his own. I have no doubt that the little he heard, and of religion. It ought, however, never to be lost sight of, that

the less he attended to, from the persons he saw between if we would escape unharmed from our investigations, we

1848 and 18.32 about liberty, self-government, economy, the must make them not in the spirit of controversy, but of

supremacy of the Assembly, respect for foreign nations and earnest truth seeking.

fidelity to treaties, appeared to him to be the silliest trash.

So it would have appeared to all the lower classes in France, Q. What do you regard as the prominent weak point in the position of Mr. Ingersoll in his attack upon Christian

so it would have appeared to the army, drawn from those ity?

classes, and exaggerating their political errors."



printed on beautiful white paper, and with new, clear, and

open type. The author ranks high among the learned saEvery form of error is quickly met in our times, by some vants of Europe, and whatever he publishes is worthy of champion of the truth. No sooner does a false view of phil- | careful attention. In the work before us he undertakes to osophy or Christian doctrine appear than some Christian harmonize the teachings of Scripture with modern science, scholar confronts the false teacher, prepared to expose his and especially with the doctrine of evolution. The work is mistakes and to tear off the mask from his hypothesis or written in a clear, dispassionate spirit, with a profound consystem of sophistry he has built. Spiritualism is next to viction that both the Bible and the hypothesis of evoluMormonism in its infamous teachings and practices. In tion as interpreted by Spencer are based upon demonstrable this book' the author exposes a multitude of delusions, such facts. The looseness and wide latitude required in the inas “Superstitions of Philosophers" and "Superstitions of the terpretation or reconstruction of Scripture does not embaruncultured concerning the spirit world;' "The sleep of rea rass the argument in the least. In every case the Bible son;" "The power of the excited imagination;" “Decep- bends to evolution, evolution to the authority of the Bible tion by natural phenomena;"! "Legerdemain;'! “Alchemy;' never. The great problem to be solved is the existence of “The witch mania;"' "Animal magnetism;" "The origin of the organic world. Has matter worked itself into organic modern spiritualism;" "Mediums exposed ;": "Tricks ex structures or how came they to be? And why does one orplained;"! “The Bible and modern spiritualism." The above ganism differ from another? The Bible teaches that vitalare titles of some of the chapters in this book. The Rev. A. N. ity is the basis of all organic bodies; evolution teaches that ('raft (not W.F.Craft) is the author. They are different men, matter is endowed with forces which cause the evolutiou of and have chosen different specialties as subjects of study in organism. Dr. Branton occupies the platform of materialconnection with their work as ministers. The author of ism, and makes no account of vital substances. He is not, this work has met some of the ablest advocates of spiritual- however, a materialist, but a devout Christian believer. ism in seven public debates, and in every instance, the peo But his concessions to materialism leave hin, logically, no ple gave their verdict in favor of his logical presentation of standing ground of his own. He teaches that matter dethe case.

He is an able preacher and a talented writer. velops itself into bioplasm and that the sun is the source He is thoroughly qualified to prepare a work on the delu of life. If matter has worked itself into the organic world sions he discusses on these pages. In over three hundred it is useless for us to talk of a vital world. Space, matter, pages he has brought together a mass of information which and force constitute the universe. The Bible presupposes has required years to gather. It is presented in a system- the existence of life, but in the presence of a universe of atic and scholarly, yet popular style, so that the common mere matter and its forces it has no meaning or value. Infipeople who are troubled with any of the errors he combats, del materialists will thank Dr. Branton for his defense of will find it not only an entertaining and instructive book, but the theory of evolution, but disregard its bearing upon the a sufficient antidote for the evils it is sent out to cure. It is truth of the Bible. Strange that whilst Dr. Tyndall doubts sure to take rank among the authorities on the subjects in the theory of evolution, Christian scientists are eager to enquestion, and while it is the author's maiden effort in the dorse it and bold to bend and torture the Bible into harbook world, we feel confident that its reception will inspire mony with it. him to appear very soon again with other publications.


We shall now be treated to new commentaries on the "The Outbreak of Rebellion,” by John G. Nicolay. “From
new version of the Scriptures. This is reasonable and Fort Henry to Corinth," by M. F. Force. Both by Charles
proper. The changes made by the revision will make it Scribner's Sons, 743 Broadway, New York.
necessary that new editions of the old commentaries be “Views of Vexed Questions," by William W. Kinsley.
issued, while publishers who are about to issue a commen "The Honey Ants," by Henry C. McCook, D. D., both pub-
tary will be careful that both the new and old versions are lished by J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
carefully commented upon.

Shaff's comments on the New Testament cover the Gospel | land's works—"Timothy Titcomb's Letters," "Gold Foil,”
according to Mark. It is scholarly, enterprising, and like Bittersweet;" also, "Books and Reading,'' by Noah Por-
everything from the Doctor's pen, able. It is a convenient ter, D. D., LL. D.
size and will prove a valuable help to the Bible student. "Our Brother in Black.” Phillips & Hunt, New York.
The third volume of a large commentary edited by the
Canon of Exeters, according to the authorized version (A.D.

(1) Epidemic Delusions. By the Rev. A. N. Craft, A. M. Walden 1611) contains explanatory and critical notes, together with

& Stowe, Cincinnati, O. a revision of the translation, by bishops and other clergy of (2) The International Revision Commentary on the Gospel by the Angelican Church, from Romans to Philemon.

Mark. By Philip Schatl, D. D. LL. D. Charles Scribner's Sons, New

Cyclopædias and dictionaries are useful books in a library. (3) The Bible Commentary-from Romans to Philemon. By F.C.
McClintock and Strong have done a noble work in their Cook, M. A., Canon of Exeter, England. Published by Charles
“Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Lit-

Scribner's Sons, New York. erature,''4 the tenth volume of which is just out from the

(4) Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature,

tenth volume. Edited by McClintock and Strong. Published by Harper press. This volume commences with S and ends with Z.

Bro's. New York. It will be followed in due time by a supplement. Besides

(5) The Bible and Science. By T. Lander Branton, M. D., D. Sc., the copious index and thorough work done by Dr. Strong, F. R. S. McMillan & C'o. publishers, London, England. upon whom most of the labor of preparing the later volumes has devolved since the death of Dr. McClintock, it

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. contains a large colored pocket-map of the Temple of Jerusalem.

We have received more postage stamps than we will be

able to use for the next two years. We therefore must deTHE BIBLE AND SCIENCE; By T. Lander Branton, M. D., (line to receive any more on subscriptions to THE CHAUTAUD). Se., F. R. S.

QUAN. Send drafts on New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore This is a recent 12mo British publication of 401 pages, or Pittsburgh, or Post-oflice Money Order.







JANUARY, 1882.

No. 4.

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. consequence of the statement of Aristotle it has been in

President, J. H. Vincent, D. D., Plainfield, N. J.
General Secretary, Albert M. Martin, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Office Secretary, Miss Kate F. Kimball, Plainfield, N. J.

Counselors, Lyman Abbott, D. D.; J. M. Gibson, D. D. ; Bishop H.
W. Warren, D. D.; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D.

ferred that the name of Græci was at one period widely spread on the western coast, and hence became the one by which the inhabitants were first known to the Italians on the opposite side of the Ionian sea. After the conquest of Greece by the Romans, the country was reduced into the form of a province, under the name of Achaia, and did not bear the name of Græcia in official language.*


THE GREEK PEOPLE.-Whether the Greeks were the first Aryan people to settle in Europe, or in Eastern Europe, we

can not tell for certain. But we do know for certain that MOSAICS OF HISTORY.

they were the first Aryan nation whose deeds were recorded IV.

in written history; and there never was any nation whose

deeds were more worthy to be recorded. For no nation GREECE-I.

ever did such great things, none ever made such great adFair clime! where every season smiles

vances in every way, so wholly by its own power and with Benign o'er those blessed isles,

so little help from any other people. Yet we must not look Which, seen from fair Colonna's height,

on the Greeks as a nation quite apart by themselves. We Make glad the heart that hails the sight,

have already seen that the Greek people were part of a And lends to loneliness delight.

great Aryan settlement which occupied both the two eastThere mildly dimpling, ocean's cheek

ern peninsulas, and that the forefathers of the Greeks, Reflects the tint of many a peak,

and the forefathers of the Italians must have kept toCaught by the laughing tides that lave

gether for a good while after they had parted company These Edens of the eastern wave;

from the other branches of the Aryan family. There And if at times a transient breeze

is some reason to think that some of the other nations Break the blue crystal of the seas, Or sweep one blossom from the trees,

bordering near upon Greece, both in the eastern peninsula How welcome is each gentle air

and in the western coast of Asia, in Illyria, Thrace, PhryThat wakes and wafts the odors there!

gia, and Lydia, were not only Aryan, but were actually part Name.-The word Hellas was used originally to signify this may be, it seems quite certain that most of the nations

of the same swarm as the Greeks and Italians. However a small district of Phthiotis in Thessaly, containing a town of the same name. From this district the Hellenes gradu

lying near Greece, as in Epirus and Macedonia, which lie to

the north, in Sicily and Southern Italy, and in some parts ally spread over the rest of Greece; but even in the time of

of the opposite coasts of Asia, were very closely akin to the Homer their name had not become common to the whole

Greeks, and spoke languages which came much nearer to Greek nation. The poet usually calls the Greeks by the name of Danai, Achæi, or Argeii; and the only passage in

Greek even than the languages of the rest of Italy. The peowhich the name of Pan-Hellenes occurs was rejected by all other people of adopting the Greek language and man

ple of all these countries seem to have had a power beyond Aristarchus and other ancient commentators as spurious.

ners, and, so to speak, of making themselves Greeks. The But at the commencement of Grecian history we find all the members of the Hellenic race distinguished by this dred nations which shot in advance of its kinsfolk, and

Greeks seem, in fact, to have been one among several kinname, and glorying in their descent from a common ances

which was therefore able in the end to become a sort of tor, Hellen. The reason why the Romans gave to Hellas

teacher to the others. And one thing which helped the the name of Græcia, and to the Hellenes the name of

Greeks in thus putting themselves in advance of all their Græci, can not be ascertained; but it is a well-known fact

kinsfolk and neighbors was the nature of the land in that a people are frequently called by foreigners by a name

which they settled. + different from the one in use among themselves. The word Græci first occurs in Aristotle, who states that the most

SITUATION OF GREECE.-At that period in the history of ancient Hellas lay about Dodona and the Achelous, and that the world when the Mediterranean was the great highway this district was inhabited by the Selli, and by the people of commerce and civilization, no position could be more then called Græci but now Hellenes. We do not know favorable than that of Hellas. It is separated from Asia by what authority Aristotle had for his statement; but it was

a sea, studded with islands within sight of one another, in opposition to the general opinion of the Greeks, who sup

which even in the infancy of navigation, seemed to allure posed the original abode of the Achæans' in the Achæan Phthiotis, between Mounts Othrys and Oeta. According *William Smith, D. C. L., LL. D, to another authority Græcus was a son of Thessalus. In + Edward A. Freeman, D. C. L.

the timid mariner from shore to shore, and rendered the in-air of Attica was supposed to sharpen the faculties of its intercourse easy between Hellas and the East. Toward the habitants.* south it faces one of the most fertile portions of Africa; and on the west it is divided from Italy by a narrow channel,

COLONIES.—The Grecian colonies may be arranged in four which in some parts does not exceed forty geographical groups: (1) Those founded in Asia Minor and the adjoinmiles in breadth. The sea on the eastern side bore the gen- ing islands; (2) those in the western part of the Meditereral name of the Ægean, of which the southern portion ranean, in Italy, Sicily, Gaul and Spain; (3) those in Africa; was called the Cretan; the sea at the southern end of the ! (4) those in Epirus, Macedonia, and Thrace.

The earliest Greek colonies were those founded on the Peloponnesus was called the Libyan; and the sea on the western side of Greece usually bore the name of the lonian, western shores of Asia Minor. They were divided into of which the northern extremity was called the Adriatic

three great masses. The Æolic cities covered the northern Gulf, while its southern end opposite Sicily was frequently part of this coast; the Ionians occupied the center, and

the Dorians the southern portion. named after that island. *

The origin of these

colonies is lost in the mythical age. It is sufficient to state SIZE.-Greece proper between the thirty-sixth and on the present occasion that the Ionic cities were early disfortieth parallels of north latitude, and between the twenty- tinguished by a spirit of commercial enterprise, and soon first and twenty-sixth degrees of east longitude. Its greatest rose superior in wealth and power to their Æolian and length, from Mount Olympus to Cape Tænarus may be Dorian neighbors. stated at two hundred and fifty English miles; its greatest The colonies of whose origin we have an historical acbreadth, from the western coast of Akarnania to Marathon count began to be founded soon after the first Olympiad. in Attica, at one hundred and eighty miles; and the distance Those established in Sicily and the south of Italy claim our eastward from Ambrakia across Pindus to the Magnesian first attention. The prosperity of the Greek cities in Sicily mountain, Homole, and the mouth of the Peneius is about received a severe check from the hostilities of the Carthone hundred and twenty miles. In regard, however, to all aginians; but for two centuries and a half after the first attempts at determining the exact limits of Greece proper, | Greek settlement in the island, 735 B. C., they did not come we may remark, first, these limits seem not to have been into contact with the latter people, and were thus left at very precisely defined even among the Greeks themselves; | liberty to develop their resources without any opposition and next, that so large a proportion of the Hellenes were from a foreign power. The Grecian colonies in Italy began distributed among islands and colonies, and so much of to be planted at nearly the same time as in Sicily. They their influence upon the world in general produced though eventually lined the whole southern coast, as far as Cuma their colonies as to render the extent of their original dom on the one sea, and Tarentum on the other. They even suricile a matter of comparatively little moment to verify.+ passed those in Sicily in number and importance; and so CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY.-The geographical features

numerous and flourishing did they become that the south which most distinctly characterize the Hellenic peninsula

of Italy received the name of Magna Græcia. The Grecian

settlements in the distant countries of Gaul and Spain were are the number of its mountains and the extent of its seaboard. Numerous deep bays strongly indent the coast,

pot numerous. The most celebrated was Massilia, the mod

ern Marseilles, founded by the Ionic Phocæans in B. C.600. while long and narrow promontories run out far into the sea on all sides, causing the proportion of coast to area to be The commerce of the Massiliots was extensive, and their very much greater than is found in any other country of navy sufficiently powerful to repel the agressions of CarthSouthern Europe. Excellent harbors abound; the tide-age. less sea has few dangers; off the coast lie numerous

The northern coast of Africa between the territories of littoral islands of great beauty and fertility. Nature

Carthage and Egypt was also occupied by Greek colonists. has done her utmost to tempt the population to mar

About the year 650 B. C., the Greeks were for the first time itime pursuits, and to make them cultivate the art of allowed to settle in Egypt and to carry on commerce with navigation Communication between most parts of the

the country. They founded the city of Cyrene about B. (. country is shorter and easier by sea than by land, for the 630. Cyrene planted several colonies in the adjoining dismountain chains which intersect the region in all directions trict, of which Barca, founded about B. C. 560, was the most

important. are for the most part lofty and rugged, traversable only by

There were several Grecian colonies situated on the easta few passes, often blocked by snow in the winter time.;

ern side of the Ionian sea, in Epirus and its immediate CLIMATE.—The climate of Greece appears to have been neighborhood. Of these the island of Corcyra, now called more healthy in ancient times than it is at present. Owing Corfu, was the most wealthy and powerful. The colonies to the inequalities of its surface, to its lofty mountains and in Macedonia and Thrace were very numerous, and exdepressed valleys, the climate varies greatly in different dis- tended all along the coast of the Ægean, of the Hellespont, of tricts. In the highlands in the interior the winter is often the Propontis, and of the Euxine, from the borders of Thes.' long and rigorous, the snow lying upon the ground till late saly to the mouth of the Danube.* in the spring, while in the lowlands, open to the sea, severe weather is almost unknown. The rigor of winter is fre

COMMERCE.-Grecian commerce was necessarily trifling quently experienced in the highlands of Mantinéa and and restricted. The Homeric poems mark either total igTegea in the month of March, while at the same time the norance or great vagueness of apprehension respecting all genial .warmth of spring is felt in the plains of Argos and that lies beyond the coast of Greece and Asia Minor and Laconia, and almost the heat of summer in the low grounds the islands between or adjoining them. Libya and Egypt at the head of the Messenian Gulf. To this difference in

are supposed so distant as to be known only by name and climate the ancients attributed the difference in the intel- hearsay. The mention of the Sikels in the Odyssey, lead lectual character of the natives of various districts. Thus us to conclude that Corcyra, Italy and Sicily, were not the dullness of the Baotians was ascribed to the dampness wholly unknown to the poet. Of the Euxine Sea no knowland thickness of their atmosphere, while the dry and clear edge is manifested in Homer, who, as a general rule, pre

sents to us the names of distant regions only in connection *William Smith.

with romantic or monstrous accompaniments. Such was | George Grote. George Rawlinson.

* William Smith.

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