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the state of the Greeks as traders, at a time when Babylon the Old Testament; and for the exercise of it he was responcombined a crowded and industrious population with ex sible only to Zeus, and not to his people. He had the sole tensive commerce, and when the Phænician merchant command of his people in war, he administered to them ships visited in one direction the southern coast of Arabia, justice in peace, and he offered up on their behalf prayers perhaps even the island of Ceylon, in another direction, the and sacrifices to the gods. He was the general judge and British Islands.

priest of his people. It was necessary that he should be

brave in war, wise in counsel, and eloquent in debate. If a INTERNAL COMMERCE.-Greece, considering its limited

king became weak in body or mind, he could not easily retotal extent, offers but little motive, and still less of conven

tain his position; but as long as his personal qualities comient means, for internal communication among its various

manded the respect of his subjects, they quietly submitted inhabitants. Each village, or township, occupying its

to acts of violence and caprice. An ample domain was plain, with the inclosing mountains, supplied its own main

assigned to him for his support, and he received frequent wants, while the transport of commodities by land was suf

presents to avert his enmity and gain his favor. The king ficiently difficult to discourage greatly any regular com

was surrounded by a limited number of nobles, or chiefs, to merce with neighbors. In so far as the face of the interior

whom the title of Basileus was given, as well as to the moncountry was concerned, it seemed as if nature had been dis

arch himself. Like the king, they traced their descent from posed, from the beginning, to keep the population of Greece

the gods, and formed his Boulé, or Council, to which he ansocially and politically disunited, by providing so many nounced the resolutions he had already formed, and from hedges of separation, and so many boundaries, generally which he asked advice. The Boulé possessed no veto upon hard, sometimes impossible, to overleap. One special mo

the measures of the king, and far less could it originate any tive to intercourse, however, arose out of this very geo measure itself. When the king had announced his detergraphical constitution of the country, and its endless alter

mination to the council, he proceeded with his nobles to the nation of mountain and valley. The difference of climate

Agora. The king opened the meeting by announcing his and temperature between the high and low grounds is very

intentions, and the nobles were then allowed to address the great; the harvest is secured in one place before it is ripe in

people. But no one else had the right to speak; no vote was another, and the cattle find, during the heat of the summer,

taken; the people simply listened to the debate between the shelter and pasture on the hills, at a time when the plains chiefs; and the assembly served only as a means for proare burnt up. The practice of transferring them from the

mulgating the intentions of the king. It was in the Agora mountains to the plain, according to the change of season, that justice was administered by the king, sometimes alone, which subsists still as it did in ancient times, is intimately and sometimes with the assistance of his nobles. This pubconnected with the structure of the country, and must from lic administration of justice must have had a powerful tenthe earliest period have brought about communication dency to check corruption and secure righteous judgments.* among the otherwise disunited villages.*

DIVISIONS.--The natural division of Greece is into northUNITY OF FEELING.–The sub-division of Greece into a ern, central and southern. Northern Greece contained in vast number of small states, united by no common political ancient times two principal countries, Thessaly and Epirus. bond, and constantly at war with one another, did not pre Besides these there were on the eastern side of the mountain vent the formation and maintenance of a certain general barrier Magnesia and Achæa Phthiotis; and in the mounPan-Hellenic feeling-a consciousness of unity, a friendli

tain region itself half way between two gulfs, Dolopia, or ness, and a readiness to make common cause against a for the country of the Dolopes. Central Greece contained eleven eign enemy. At the root of this feeling lay a conviction of countries, viz: Acarnania, Ætolia, Western Locris, Æniidentity of race. It was further fostered by the possession ania, Doris, Malis, Eastern Locris, Phecis, Bæotia, Attica, of a common language, and a common literature; of similar and Megaris. Southern Greece, or the Peloponnese, conhabits and ideas; and of a common religion, of rites, tem tained also eleven countries, viz: Corinth, Sicyon, Achæa, ples, and festivals, which were equally open to all.+

Elis, Arcadia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolis, Epidauria, TraRELIGION.–The religion of the Greeks was one of those

zenia, and Hermionis. forms of mythology which have been already spoken of as

The first state which attained to political importance in growing up among most of the Aryan nations. All the pow

Greece was Argos. Among the other states of Greece, the ers of nature and all the acts of man's life were believed to

two whose history is most ample and most interesting, even be under the care of different deities, of different degrees of during this early period, are undoubtedly Sparta and Athens. power. The head of all was Zeus, the god of the sky, and

Every "history of Greece” must mainly concern itself with he is described as reigning on Mount Olympus, in Thessaly,

the affairs of these two states which are alone capable of where the gods were believed to dwell, with his Council

being treated with anything like completeness.f and his General Assembly, much like an early Greek king GRECIAN HISTORY BEGINS.--Grecian history proper beon earth. The art and literature of the Greeks, and, indeed, gins with the celebration of the Olympian games, 776 B. C., their government and their whole life, were closely bound

which was about a half century before the Assyrian capup with their religion. The poets had from the beginning tivity of the Israelites. If it were not invading the bounds many beautiful stories to tell about the gods, and about the

of mythology, it would be a pleasant task to recount here heroes, who were mostly said to be children of the gods.

the story of the Argonautic expedition in search of the GolAnd when the Greeks began to practice the arts, it was in

den Fleece, the dramatic plot of the Trojan war, and to folhonor of the gods and heroes that the noblest buildings and

low Meleager, Theseus, Atalante, and the other heroes in the most beautiful statues and pictures were made.

hunt of the ferocious Kalydonian boar. It was a heroic age, GOVERNMENT.—In the Heroic Age, Greece was already

and has been vaunted in prose and verse from its own day divided into a number of independent states, each governed

I to ours; the Iliad of Homer having been studied by the to its own king. The authority of the king was not limited youth and manhood of the civilized world, and having been by any laws; his power resembled that of the patriarchs in

made the foundation of many other productions of genius

and imagination. George Grote. +George Rawlinson.

* Wiliam Smith, Edward A, Freeman,

+ Rawlinson,


THE TROJAN WAR.—The Trojan war is said to have oc- , their view, Sparta is the full type of Doric principles, tencurred in the year 1184 B. C., after this wise: Venus prom- dencies, and sentiments. This, however, appears to be an ised Paris, the son of Priam, King of Troy and Hecuba, that erroneous view. The Spartans doubtless had original tenhe should have to wife the bandsomest woman in the world, dencies common to them with the other Dorians, but the Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. In the absence constitution of Lycurgus impressed upon them their pecuof her husband, Paris carried Helen to his home in Troy, liar character, which separates them so strikingly from the and to obtain her, the princes of Greece, under command rest of Greece.* of Agamemnon, a brother of the injured husband, undertook an expedition that resulted in the restoration of Helen Sparta had supplanted Argos as the chief state in the Peland the destruction of Troy, after a siege of ten years. oponnesus, soon after the Dorian conquest. She owed her

“Great Hector of the beamy helm, the son of Priam,” led supremacy to the military and political institutions of Lythe Trojans, and under him was Eneas, son of Anchises, curgus, who flourished between B. C. 850 and 776. The whose wanderings subsequent to this war gave Virgil the Spartans were a mere handful of people surrounded by enesubject of his masterpiece. After the Trojan war, Greece mies, and hence were compelled to be soldiers. The ordiwas the scene of great disturbances and political revolution

nances of Lycurgus and the severe gymnastic and military in which new races drove old ones from the places they had training to which the Spartans were subjected, changed inhabited, only to be in turn dispossessed, and thus colonies their government and society, and made them almost irrewere formed which in some cases rivaled the parent coun

sistible. This discipline enabled Sparta to conquer Mestry.*

senia, Arcadia, and Argos. Lycurgus, having obtained from

his countrymen an oath to observe his institutions until his ARGOS.—The importance of the privileges possessed by return, disappeared, and the Spartans worshipped him as a Argos before the rise of the Spartan power, is shown by the

god.+ history of Pheidon. This remarkable man may be placed about the eighth Olympiad, or about 747 B. C., and MONARCHY AND DEMOCRACY. – Sparta was nominally claims our attention the more as one of the first really his a monarchy under two kings, but was really an oligarchy in torical personages hitherto presented to us. He was king the hands of five ephori. The other states of Greece became of Argos, and is represented as a descendant of the Her democratic. The change from monarchy to democracy usuacleid Temenus. Having broken through the limits which ally pursued a regular course. An oligarchy of nobles had been imposed on the authority of his predecessors, he would overthrow the monarchy, and then some one of the changed the government of Argos into a despotism. He nobles would espouse the cause of the people, and overthrow then restored her supremacy over all the cities of her con the oligarchy. He was styled a Tryannus; i. e., a "Usurper" federacy, which had become nearly dissolved. He appears -in allusion to his mode of obtaining power, and not to his next to have attacked Corinth, and to have succeeded in manner of exercising it. Resistance to his government inreducing it under his dominion. He is further reported to cited violence on his part, and he became really a tryant. have aimed at extending his sway over the greater part of His power was rarely transmitted to the third generation, the Peloponnesus--laying claim, as the descendant of Her and a democracy usually succeeded. Sparta was the type cules, to all the cities which that hero had ever taken. His of an oligarchy; Athens, her great rival, the example of a power and his influence became so great in the Peloponne- democracy. sus, that the Pisatans, who had been accustomed to preside at the Olympic games, but who had been deprived of this WARS OF SPARTA.—The early wars of Sparta were carprivilege by the Eléans, invited him to restore them to ried on against the Messenians, Arcadians, and Argives. their original rights, and expel the intruders. This invi- They resulted in making Sparta the undisputed mistress of tation fell in with the ambitious prospects of Pheidon who two thirds of Peloponnesus, and the most powerful of the claimed for himself the right of presiding at these games Grecian states. Of these wars the two waged against Meswhich had been instituted by his great ancestor, Hercules. senia were the most celebrated and the most important. He accordingly marched to Olympia, expelled the Elčans They were both long, protracted and obstinately contested. from the sacred spot, and celebrated the games in conjunc- They both ended in the subjugation of Messenia. These tion with the Pisatans. But his triumph did not last long; facts are beyond dispute, and are attested by the contemthe Spartans took the part of the Eléans, and the contest porary poet Tyrtæus. But of the details of these wars, we ended in the defeat of Pheidon. It would appear that the have no trustworthy narrative. The account of them which power of Pheidon was destroyed in this struggle, but is inserted in most histories of Greece is taken from Pauof the details of his fall we have no information. He did sanias, a writer who lived in the second century of the not, however, fall without leaving a very striking and per

Christian era. He derived his narrative of the first war manent trace of his influence upon (treece. He was the from a prose writer of the name of Myron, who did not live first person who introduced a copper and silver coinage, earlier than the third century before the Christian era; and and a scale of weights and measures into Greece. Through he took his account of the second from a poet called his influence they became adopted throughout the Pelopon- Rhianus, a native of Crete, who lived about B. C. 220. Both nesus and the greater part of the north of Greece, under the these writers were separated from the events which they name of the ginetan scale.+

narrated by a period of five hundred years, and probably

derived their materials from the stories current among the SPARTA.—The progress of Sparta fronu the second to the Messenians after their restoration to their native land by first place among the states in Peloponnesus, was mainly | Epaminondas. Information of an historical character owing to the peculiar institutions of the state, and more

could not be expected from the work of Rhianus, which was particularly to the military discipline and rigorous training

an epic poem celebrating the exploits of the great hero Arisof its citizens. The singular constitution of Sparta was unan touuenes. imously ascribed to the legislator Lycurgus. Some modern writers, on the other hand, have maintained that the Spar * William Smith. tan institutions were common to the whole, Doric race. In

+ Professor Henry C. Cameron, *Gilman's General History,

# Professor Cameron. + William Smith,

$ William Smith,

ATHENS.—The early history of Athens is involved in ob- and much of their greatness. And from this time various scurity. Tradition says that Cecrops divided Attica into disputes arose between the Persian kings and the Greeks in twelve states, which were consolidated, with Athens as the Europe. The Athenians had now driven out their Tyrants, capital, under Theseus, the national hero. The Dorians in and had made their government more democratic. They vaded Attica, and the Delphic oracle promised them vic were therefore full of life and energy, and they gave help to tory if they spared the life of the Athenian king. Codrus the Asiatic Greeks, in an attempt to throw off the Persian entered their camp in disguise and provoked a quarrel with yoke. Then the Persian king Darius wished to make the one of the soldiers, who killed him. The Dorians, learning Athenians take back Hippias, the son of Pisistratus, who the fact, withdrew, and the Athenians, from respect to the had been their Tyrant. At last Darius made up his mind to memory and patriotism of Codrus, abolished the title of punish the Athenians, and to bring the other Greeks under king, and instituted that of archon. The people were di his power; and thus the wars between Greece and Persia vided into three classes--eupatridæ, or nobies, geomori, or

began. husbandmen, and demiurgi, or artisans. The government of the eupatridæ was so oppressive that in B. C. 624 Draco

PERSIAN WARS.--Darius proceeded to make preparations was appointed to draw up a code of laws. They were so se

for the conquest of Greece itself. The first expedition sent vere that they were said to have been written in blood.

out for this purpose, in 492 B. C., proved abortive, but this Cylon attempted a revolution, B. C. 612, but failed. The

did not deter Darius from organizing a much more extensive poorer classes were in poverty, their lands and persons be

army, and a fleet of six hundred galleys, which were sent ing pledged to their creditors; many were reduced to

across the Ægean, and landed on the plain of Marathon in slavery. Amid their dissensions the people turned to

Attica, in the year 490 B. C. An Athenian army of ten Solon, a man of great wisdom and patriotism. Solon be

thousand heavily armed soldiers, under ten generals, of came archon, B. C. 594, with unlimited power. His legisla

whom were Miltiades, Themistocles, and Aristides, was sent tion relieved the poor, and repealed the laws of Draco, ex

out to meet the invaders, whose force was over one hundred cept those against murder, and divided the people into four

thousand men. The chief command devolved upon Milticlasses, according to their income. The kind of military ades, who managed his small force so effectively that with service and the right to hold office were alike determined by

a loss of less than two hundred men, he utterly routed the income. Solon bound the Athenians by an oath to observe Persians, who lost sixty-four hundred, and Aed to their his laws for ten years, and then set out upon his travels.

ships. The city of Athens had been thoroughly excited by its In his absence the old local dissensions broke out again, danger, and was now thrilled with patriotic enthusiasm, for and the result was the triumph of Pisistratus, the leader of

the power of its arms and democratic institutions had stood the party of the mountain, in B. C. 560. Twice driven out,

a test more trying than even the leaders had supposed them he became tyrannus again in B. C. 537, and at his death capable of enduring. This victory was an exhaustless (B. C. 527) left his power to his sons, Hippias and Hippar

source of stimulation to Attic patriotism for centuries, nor chus. He did much for the culture of art and literature at

has it yet lost its power, for, in the words of Dr. Johnson, Athens. In consequence of a private quarrel, Harmodius

“the man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not

It is to be reand Aristogeiton slew Hipparchus, and the character of gain force upon the plain of Marathon." Hippias was completely changed. Clisthenes, of the family

marked that, though the Spartans had been invited to come of the Alcimeonidæ, secured the Delphic oracle, which in

to the help of the Athenians, their contribution of two thouduced the Spartans to overthrow Hippias. Clisthenes re

sand men did not arrive until the victory had been won, turned, and controlled the state only by making the consti

owing to a delay caused by religious scruples on the subject tution more democratic. Athens now defeated Thebes,

of starting on such an expedition at the time of new moon,

Miltiades was now called the savior of his country; bbut conquered a part of Euboea, and despite the opposition of Sparta, entered upon her glorious career.*

having failed in an expedition to the island of Paros, the The brilliant period of the Persian wars now followed, in

next year, he was, at the suit of Xantippus, the father of which two branches of the great Aryan race came in con

Pericles, fined, and died not long after in prison. He was flict.t.

buried by Cimon, his son. Aristides, the Just, was ban

ished, and Themistocles was left the sole leader of the THE PERSIANS.--The people of Persia, though they lived Athenian republic. He was shrewd and able, and seeing far away from the shores of the Mediterranean, in the fur that the only means by which his city could gain superiorther part of Asia, beyond the great rivers Euphrates and ity was by creating a navy, he increased the fleet, and preTigris, were much more nearly allied to the Greeks in blood | pared to meet the new force that the Persians were makand speech than most of the nations which lay between ing ready. Darius was filled with unbounded resentment them. For they belonged to the eastern branch of the at his defeat, and used the vast resources of his kingilom for Aryan family, who had remained so long separate from their three years in collecting an army that he thought invincikinsfolk in Europe, and who now met them as enemies. ble. Before his arrangements were complete he died, but The Persians first began to be of importance in the sixth his favorite son, Xerxes, entered fully into his plans, and in century before Christ, when, under their King Cyrus, they the spring of 480 B. C. set out with a force said to have combecame a conquering people. He took Babylon, which at prised a million seven hundred thousand foot, eighty thouthat time was the great power of Asia, and also conquered sand horse, and a fleet of many hundred vessels. In this the kingdom of Lydia, in Asia Minor, a conquest which first extremity the Spartans joined forces with the Athenians. brought the Persians across the Greeks, first in Asia and A congress was held at Corinth, and it was decided to send then in Europe. For the Greeks who were settled along the an army to the narrow pass of Thermopylæ, to guard the coast of Asia had been just before conquered by Cresus, approach to Athens and the Peloponnesus from Thessaly. king of Lydia, the first foreign prince who ever bore rule Leonidas, the Spartan king, commanded this body in perover any Greeks, and now, as being part of the dominions It included three hundred of his own people, and of Croesus, they were conquered again by Cyrus. The Greek about four thousand from other cities. In the face of the cities of Asia, which had, up to this time, been among the vast Persian army, this handful of men valiantly attempted greatest cities of the Greek name, now lost their freedom their task, but through the efforts of a traitor they were at

last attacked on both sides, and all slain. The Persians * Professor Henry C. Cameron. Gilman's General History.

* Edward A. Freeman. B


were driven back four times, and lost twenty thousand men. tion of nature, but nature of an ideal and elevated stani. They were now masters of Bæotia, and marched to Athens, Epic poetry and the ode give place to a more accurate and which they destroyed by fire.

striking rendering of nature by means of dramatic represen

tations; while sculpture presents us not only with more “Fear on King Xerxes fell, when, like spirits from the tomb, With shout and trumpet-knell, he saw the warriors come.

graceful forms, but with more of dramatic action in the arBut down swept all la is power, with chariot and with charge;

rangement of its groups. The process by which Athenian Down poured the arrow's shower, till sank the Spartan targe.

genius freed itself from the trammels of ancient stiffness, Thus fought the Greeks of old!”

is as visible in the tragedies of Æschylus, Sophocles, and

Euripides as in the productions of the great masters of the Themistocles now availed himself of the fleet that his

plastic arts during the same period. In the dramas of foresight had provided, and at the naval battle of Salamis Æschylus, majesty and dignity are not unmixed with a gained so complete a victory that Xerxes in despair com

rigid and archaic simplicity, which also marks the works menced a hasty retreat through Thessaly, Macedon, and

of the contemporary sculptors. During the time of Pericies Thrace. He left an army in Thessaly, however, which at

we find this characteristic giving place to the perfection of tacked the people of Attica in the spring of 179 B. C. The

grace and sublimity united, as in the tragedies of Sophocles Greeky rallied under Pausanias, a Spartan, and Aristides, and in the statues of Phidias. Art could not be carried and gained so complete a victory at Platåea that the Per

higher. In the next step we find equal truthfulness and sians were glad to save a part of their forces by a hasty

grace. In like manner, with regard to architecture, the flight. For the succeeding ten years there were conflicts

Parthenon, erected in the time of Pericles, presents the between the Greeks and Persians, but in 469 B. C., a peace

most exquisite example of the Doric style in the happiest was concluded which ended the Persian rule. Pausanias, medium between antique heaviness and the slender weakin spite of his previous valor and patriotism, proved a ness of later monuments. Painting also, in the hands of traitor, and offered to betray his country to Xerxes. His

Polygnotus. attained its highest excellence in the grace and plot was discovered, but it cost Sparta her prestige, and majesty of single figures. Among the artists of this period Athens now assumed the supremacy. Themistocles, also,

the sculptors stand out prominently. In general the emi. was corrupted by Persian gold, and was justly ostracized;

nent sculptors of this period also possessed not only a theobut being received with favor by Artaxerxes, he spent his retical knowledge, but frequently great practical skill in last days in princely luxury in Asia Minor.*

the sister arts of painting and architecture.* THE AGE OF PERICLES.—There now became prominent at Athens two men whose fathers had also been intrusted THE DRAMA.–At this time the drama had its origin in with power: Cimon, the son of Miltiades, and Pericles, the Athens. It grew out of the hymns that were sung in son of Xantippus. They represented respectively the aris honor of Bacchus, and was created and perfected as we now tocratic and the democratic parties in Athens. Pericles was see it, by Æschylus, who was one of those men who with a a man of intellectual pursuits, was accustomed to address single stride outdo all previous efforts, and appear to make popular assemblies, was eloquent, of niajestic appearance, greater attainments impossible for the future. He was folwise and prudent. Cimon was a military man, having first lowed by Sophocles, who drew human nature as it ought to attracted attention at the battle of Salamis, after which he be, and Euripides, who drew it as it was. Thus the three was prominent in military affairs. His aristocratic tenden greatest pure tragic poets of the world were contemporary. cies caused him to oppose the democratic party on the ques Comedy was cultivated at the same time, and among the tion of restricting the power and jurisdiction of the Areopa names famous on the list of its writers are those of Phryni. gus, and as he had shown sympathy with Sparta at the cus, Aristophanes, and Menander. insurrection of the Helots, he was ostracized about 459 B. C. He died ten years later, and left to the Athenians a pleasure-ground, which afterward became the seat of the

LITERATURE.-History was written by Thucydides and Academy of Plato. He probably had an honest desire to

Xenophon. Plato founded the Academic school of philososerve his country, but was upon the wrong side in politics.

phy, and Aristotle the Peripatetic school. Oratory was The banishment and death of Cimon left Pericles free to

practiced by Solon, Pisistratus, Miltiades, Aristides, Thecarry out his plans for the aggrandizement of Athens, and

mistocles, Protagoras, Æschines, and Demosthenes, either he so completely succeeded in raising her to the rank of the

for the practical purposes of legislation, for legal argument,

or for use in the schools of the Sophists. most refined and elegant city of the time, that the period is known both as the “Golden Age" and the "Age of Pericles.''

Pericles erected the Propylæa, the Parthenon, and the ARCHITECTURE.—The three great styles of Grecian arTemple of Victory on the Acropolis, the Theseum, and chitecture were the Doric, characterized by simple outline other buildings in the city. He built the long walls to the and massive strength; the Ionic, less pure and severe, but Piræus, and sent out colonies. He popularized intelligence, graceful, and enriched with the most perfect sculpture: the provided plays, processions, and festivals for the people, Corinthian, more florid and splendid. They may be regave employment to skilled artisans by the erection of tem membered from the Spartan simplicity of the Dorians, the ples, and other grand buildings; he encouraged the cultiva

greater grace and softness of the Ionians, and sensuousness tion of the arts of sculpture and design; he provided for the of the people of Corinth. poor and for men of genius; and while thus beautifying and

Sculpture and painting were highly cultivated, the former improving his city at home, he also acquired great renown

by Phidias and Praxitiles, the latter by Parrhasius, Zeuxis, for her name abroad. +

and Appelles. CULTURE OF THE AGE.—The progress both of poetry and

Before Pericles died, the prestige of Athens began to pass

away.t the plastic arts during this epoch is striking. The great principle that pervaded all was a lively and truthful imita

*Gilman's General History. +Gilman's General History.

* William Smith.
+ Gilman's General History:

JESUS CHRIST IN CHRONOLOGY.* they absorb all others--we all know this. Somehow he is

growing great and bright and Godlike every day. He has One thing, at least, is true of Jesus of Nazareth: the world been crushed out a great many times; as often as once in can not forget him, or stop talking about him. I take it for ten years, at least, some poor little bewildered doubter granted that no person who makes any pretension to schol mounts his mole-hill, shouts his frantic challenge, flourishes arship or ordinary intelligence will deny the historical aloft his skeptical sponge, dashes it back and forth hysterrecord of the birth and life of Jesus of Nazareth. Infidels ically across the path of church history, and shouts, “There, and atheists and rationalists and spiritualists all admit that now I've done it!" Done what? “I've rubbed out the there was a crucifixion scene in the city of Jerusalem, in name of your wonderful Christ; I've annihilated your the province of Judea, under Roman supervision, about wonderful Jesus!" In response to all these shrieks of infi1,850 years ago, which tallied essentially with the accounts delity, we, who by the Holy Ghost call Jesus Lord, look up as written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, in the book and see no man save Jesus only; Jesus filling the whole field commonly known as the New Testament. Gibbon, the of vision; Jesus the Alpha and the Omega, to whom be prince of infidel historians, admits this; so also do Strauss, glory and dominion forever and forever. Renan, Parker, and others of this class.

They have a tremendous job on their hands who have The greatest cloud of witnesses hangs over the cross. The undertaken to isolate and unfriend Jesus of Nazareth, and life, crucifixion and death of Jesus are as susceptible of his to make his name obsolete in the language and literature of torical proof as are the life and death of Julius Cæsar, Con the coming age. stantine or Napoleon Bonaparte. They are in history, part Blondin stretched his rope across the river, and in a and parcel of history.

(lown's dress gave a tight-rope exhibition to gaping crowds At the time of his death, the name and the character of of spectators. They had a thrilling circus performance for Jesus were the theme of universal comment, criticism and $1.00 apiece, with the spray and roar and everlasting dispute; I mean that everybody in and about Jerusalem majesty of the cataract gratis. talked and disputed about him. And, strange to say, criti Niagara's thunders shook the continent ages before man cism, dispute and conversation about him did not cease set foot upon it. Its bow will be bright when we are all with his death and burial. The excitement in regard to dead. It never knew that Blondin balanced himself for a him broke out afresh three days after he was buried; and moment in the face of its resistless plunge and power. within thirty days of the time that his sepulchre was Such is the chara:ter, and such will be the result of the stamped with the seal of Cæsar, the civilized world was rationalistic antagonisms of the day. They are skeptical ạblaze with the fame, and aghast before the strange power antics-tight-rope performances before the unchecked moof the crucified man of Nazareth. This is simple historical mentum and the rainbow-girded name of the crucified man fact.

of Nazareth. They fight not a single name of an old Jewish There was neyer so much talk and dispute and criticism genealogical register, but the satisfying Lord Christ of the about Jesus in any other age as there is in this present age. sinful human heart, whose Christhood and Lordship have Men can not drop this theme; the world can not forget him been tested by all classes and races of men with solidarity or let him alone. Long continued criticism and reviews of of satisfying personal communion through 1,800 years, and any other name of history become stale and tiresome. with the whole love-linked fellowship and testimony of Socrates, Alexander, Constantine, Charlem:igne, Luther, 6,000 years of church life and history. Christ's influence become threadbare and empty of meaning, except as they and cause move steadily on. Momentary oppositions, are studied in their relations to the times in which they skeptical antagonisms, attract attention and excite to lived, and the men and things with which they were asso spiteful and break-neck experiments for the time; but these ciated.

all vanish with their short-lived performers; while the There is nothing very new to be said of them; some little church, under the energy of the omnipotent Holy Ghost, inanecdote or personal incident, making a pleasant newspaper creases to the subjugation of the world to Christ and the item, comes out occasionally, and that is all. But Jesus filling of the world with his glory. Christ has been growing in consequence steadily; 1800 years The talk about Jesus, and the criticisms which are made of talk and controversy have not drained his name of its upon him, are very plain and positive in these times. In sweetness or robbed it of its power. Jesus Christ is a new their national meetings the Free Religionists have tried to discovery to each thoughtful soul, as really as America was show their smartness by talking of a certain “Mr. Jesus," to Columbus.

and of his religion as an "exploded humbug." Mr. Emer“Tho' eighteen hundred years are past

son charges the churches with worshiping a Nazarene Since Christ did in the flesh appear,

Fetich. African heathen worship snakes, beetles, stones, as His tender mercies ever last,

"fetiches,' embodiments of divine ideas. Mr. Emerson And still his healing power is here."

says that we worship a Nazarene Fetich. Mr. Frothingham, Oh, how the world does talk about Jesus to-day! His in his book, " The Religion of Humanity," says “The old name is on every lip; all classes and schools of thought and

myth of a God descending to the earth is full of suggestion theology, of faith and unfaith, have something to say about still.” The doctrine of Christ Incarnate is simply “an old him, are trying to form some opinion, to settle down upon myth," though on account of its suggestiveness it may be some exhaustive and final analysis of his character and allowed to live a little longer. Warrington, the late wellplace in history. Newspapers, magazines, reviews, scien known literary and political writer of Massachusetts, in a tific lectures, radical clubs, naturalists, geologists, ethnolo- recent description of the Boston Radical Club, said: gists, elegant lyceum rhetoricians, the odds and ends of all must know that at this club, Jesus as the son of God in any self-deifying isms and notions--how they all swell into no

peculiar sense, is-I mean to speak respectfully-on the detice for a single moment as they try to classify the Nazarine fensive. Nobody defends the church any longer. Hell has with human history, or make some mountebank grimace been dismissed with costs, and as to the scriptures, nobody at his eternal kinghood. There is but one topic of thought

within the same circle pretends to believe in their verbal among us, and that is "Jesus"_"What think ye of Jesus?"

inspiration." The now defunct Radical lived long enough Whose son is he?These are the universal questions; to announce that “The Messianic notion is of the past; let *A lecture delivered in the Auditorium, at Chautauqua, Angust

it repose in honor, but the new world will have no use for 15, 1877.

it. The Christs belong to a dead epoch. The Luthers are

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