Obrázky na stránke
PDF
ePub

acceptance of the fact, his hands stretched out on the table, thew, a fair, youthful form, extends both hands toward the the left palm turned up as if he offered some item of infor- Master, pointing thither as the source of information, which mation, presenting it to his auditors. The palm of the right he is rehearsing to Simon, the eldest of the disciples, and hand is turned down on the table, the fingers stretched out the most unmoved of all. Matthew turns his face toward and slightly elevated, as if repelling something. Judas sits the end of the table, away from the direction in which his on that side, and with his left hand stretched toward the hands point. It is the most prominent gesture in the whole Savior's, seems to repel or object to the statement which he picture, and connects his group with the centre in a very oshas just heard: “One of you shall betray me." There is an tentatious manner. The ostentatious gesture is, however, air of divine resignation in the attitude and gestures of needed in this case, as the group is occupied apart by itself, Christ, while Judas seems startled, and turns round not discussing the nature of the communication.

Jude (or merely his head, but his whole body, looking inquiringly at Thaddeus) turns his face toward Simon, but with an askance the speaker, and grasping the bag of money which he carried, look down the table as if he suspected the traitor, and he as the treasurer of the company (one must not understand lifts his right hand to strike with its back the palm of this to be the thirty pieces of silver which he had yet to re his left, saying quite plainly by this act: “I told you so." ceive). Close behind him the energetic form of Peter is Simon expresses with his hands stretched out a painful surseen: he has leaned toward John; reaching behind Judas prise at the information he receives from Jude and Matthew, and placing his hand on John's shoulder, asks him to in

and a refusal to believe it: “How can such a thing be possiquire of Christ who it is that shall do this fearful deed.

ble? He could not have said it!" John clasps his hands with an air of utter despair, casts

The attitude of Thomas has been interpreted as a threatdown his eyes, and inclines his head toward Peter, upon ening one (by Mrs. Jameson, for example, in “Sac. and feeling the resolute touch of his hand, so as to hear what it | Legend. Art”). This view seems to take no notice of the is he has to say. Peter points at the Master with the fore fact that the index finger is curved slightly toward Thomas's finger of the hand which he places on John's shoulder, while forehead; were it a threatening gesture, the finger would in the other hand he still holds the knife with which he has

turn out or to one side. just now been cutting food, and bending his right arm to

There are numerous attempts to paint this scene; one has turn the point of his knife back out of the way, be thrusts only to study them carefully to increase his admiration of the handle, by accident, into the ribs of Judas, who starts

this treatment of Leonardo.* There is, for instance, the forward with a new fright, and upsets the salt-cellar with his composition of Albert Durer; in this, the disciples are right arm, and thus increases his embarrassment by an evil

seated around a table, instead of along one side of it, in the omen. Goethe considers this group the most perfect one in

oriental fashion. This makes it necessary to represent some the picture. It unites the three characters most distinctly

of them by the backs of their heads, or by the slightest individualized—the fiery Peter, the soft and spiritual John, glimpse of the profile of their faces. John is lying on the the sordid and selfish Judas. On the left of this group of bosom of Christ, apparently in a swoon. Many representathree is another group, at the end of the table, consisting

tions give Judas a villainous look that would leave it diffialso of three disciples. Of these, Bartholomew, at the ex

cult to explain how he had been admitted into such comtreme left (of the spectator) has arisen and is leaning for

pany for so long a time and even entrusted with an importward to hear the result of Peter's question, and perhaps to

ant office. As Goethe remarks: “Good taste would not get a better view of the face of Judas, which is turned away

tolerate any real monster in the proximity of pure and upfrom him. Next to the face of Bartholomew is seen that of right pen." James the younger, a relative of Christ, and showing a

Here is endless subject for study in tracing out in the atfamily resemblance in his mild, refined features. He titudes, gestures, and countenances, the expression of sadreaches with his left hand Peter's shoulder, as if to charge

ness, pain, vexation, uncertainty, anger, indignation, horhim with some additional item for which to seek expla- ror, surprise, astonishment, grief, tenderness, simple loyalty, nation from John. His manner is very civil, while Peter's

steadfastness, candor, innocence, fidelity, honesty, sincerity, is violent and threatening. Peter reaches behind Judas, and

threatening, suspicion, or incredulity, which Leonardo has James reaches behind Andrew, an elderly disciple, who

succeeded in portraying in this picture. holds up both hands, palms outward, and turns his face in

One should not omit to note how the monotony of a reguthe direction whence he has heard the terrible words, full of

lar series of heads, disposed at equal intervals and of the horror at their meaning. Thus each person in the two

same height, is avoided by Leonardo by the grouping in groups on the left hand expresses in his own individual threes; there could not be any arrangement by which the way his inward reaction at the shock produced by the an

groups might be larger-say four, for example

and to have nouncement of the Savior. On the right hand the first

less-two in each group-would make too many groups

and group is composed of three, likewise—three faces that are

render it much more difficult to avoid regularity and symdirected to Christ without inter-modiation, but each one

metry carried to the degree of wearisome repetition. The questions or appeals or remonstrates, addressing his appeal grouping in threes gives the occasion for the bending or directly to the Master. James the elder (another family re

reclining of one or two in each group. The standing possemblance to Christ) opens his arms wide, the palms out

ture of three of the twelve, combined with the bending forward, hands slightly bent as if to repel something, his face

ward or backward, produces undulation in the line of heads showing horror and detestation of the traitor, whoever he

which has been so managed as to destroy the mechanmay be, the brows slightly knit, the mouth gaping with

ical appearance of regularity and symmetry. More importhorror, the arms seeming to appeal to Christ to interpose his power and confound the deeds of such a traitor. Thomas * Some of the most famous of the pictures of the “Last Supper," has approached behind James and holds up his index finger are the following: Giotto's—in the Convent of Santa Croce at Florbent slightly toward his forehead, an earnest, inquiring ence (he has another in a series of scenes in the history of Christ); look on his face; he evidently asks: “Is it I?” Next re Ghirlanda jo's--in the San Marco at Florence; Raphael's-in St. moved is Philip, who has also risen and is bending toward his

Onofrio at Florence ( almost an exact copy in positions and attitudes, Lord, and laying his hands on his breast, a look of the deep

from Ghirlandajo's); another of Raphael's in the Loggie of the est pain on his face, and an expression that seems to appeal

Vatican; Andrea del Sarto's—in the Convent of the Salvi near Florto the testimony of the Savior: “Thou knowest that it is

ence; Titian's-in the Escurial; Tintoretto's; Niccolo Poussin's;

Paul Veronese's; Holbein's; Baroccio's; Agristi's; Franceschini's. not I.” Lastly, there is a fourth group, also of three. Mat

etc., etc.

race.

of

ant it is to notice that the inrlination of John toward Peter comes into spiritual life by association with others—with and a slight turn of (hrist's head to the right (by which he God and with humanity—that the human race is in a cerindicates his resignation makes a wide gap between the tain sense the revelation of God to each member of that Jatter and the disciples anuong whom Judas is sitting, a

“Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of circunstance which gives great effect to the picture, as well these, ye did it not to me." as makes it possible to give to Judas the very significant Man must be always minded to cast in his lot with his attitude which he has, without bringing his face too close fellowmen and give all that he has for their welfare, trustto Christ's.

ing to receive from their reciprocal giving what blessings The entire effect of the pierdure is that of heavenly resig- he shall stand in need of, and accepting his lot without nation under the most bitter of spiritual sufferings--the murmuring. When the individual man has come to sense of betrayal hi those who should manifest the strong possess the mind of Christ he can accept even the betrayal pat sense of yr:titude. Dante makes the lowest round of of his life through his disciples, without admitting hate his Inferno (the • Suderra"; the place of punishment for into his soul. treachery. These Lucifer plunged in a frozen lake, crunches Between his teeth the three traitors, Brutus, Cassius and Judas. Dante gives 14 10 inderstand that the supreme

COMPENSATION. polfishness is pridom mor-t of mortal sins. Pride is punished for its fruits, nd these are the different kinds of

It was the time of autumn, treachery. Pride will sel•rifire all good in others-in kind

When leaves are turning brown,rod. friends, native country, 'ud God. It assumes itself to

Green to yellow and pied to black; 1. sufficient for itself without any participation in the good

And some were tumbling down. of others which it should receive through association with them and "hrough the requisite devotion to them which

It was the time of autumn, makes participation or spiritual combination possible.

When fruits are gathered in, Dante makes envy to be the mortal sin which comes next

Some for the press, some for the vat, above pride. Envy is pimished in the Inferno, not as envy,

And some for the miller's bin. but as ten speries of fraud-the product of envy. Fraud is not so.non-spiritual a treachery because the latter attempts

Then poor men fell a-playing, to destroy all other life than its own; while envy strives

For that their work was o'er; simply to deprive others of good which it would possess exclusively for itself. Envy wishes the recognition of its

And rich men fell a-sighing, fellow men and of God; pride isolates itself from all and

That they could play no more. scorns even the recognition of others. Above envy comes

For the summer-time is a merry time, 'nger as the next mortal win. Fraud, the result of envy, strikes at the bond which holds together human society

If a man have leisure to play; the bond of confidence and good will; violence, the conse

But the summer-time is a weary time, quence of anger and malice, strikes not at society in general

To him who must work all day. but at particular individuals only. In the scene of the "Last Supper” we have the type of the

Then thanks to God the giver, highest spiritual conduct on the part of one who is assailed

Who loves both great and small; by those actuated by the most deadly of human passions.

To every one he something gives, It does not answer treachery by treachery, or by fraud, or

But to no man gives all. by violenre. Christ shows only sorrow and gentle resignation, --he is willing to suffer unmerited ill from others,

The rich who careth for himself and still harbor no feelings of revenge.

Finds, after pleasure, pain; In this lesson of the manisestation of the divine nature

But the toiler whom God careth for, when in contact with sin (for sin all proceeds from selfish

Rests and is glad again. 100% as its root, ind pride is the absolute form of selfishness), we see exhibited before us in phase of spiritual manifesta1.)Wirely different from that which is celebrated in classic

TO MRS. GARFIELD. l'ine Nitre group, for instance, offers to us the spectalol y family destryeri liy the gods because of insolent tu ni on the part of the mother. Niobe boasts that her

Unsullied days with toil and strugglè rife arral Il pe beautiful than the children of the gods. Will win at last; yea, God had given him allof initrom the other fier fondly cherished offspring she sees A seat above the conflict, power to call nder th: arrows of Apollo. She looks up to the

Peace like a zephyr o'er men's turbid strife; its with it countenance in which we see struggling the

Home music, too, children and heroine wife, 19-pain, in ligniiion, defiance, and mother-love for Til Ops aroul her. The Greek gods themselves

God gave-then gave Death's writing on the wall, print without envy, and Greek mortals were full of

And on the road the assassin: bade him fall The Christian conception of the divine removes Death-stricken at the shining crest of life. "!!! il a pride from it, and it worships a God who is willtort the death of a criminal, betrayed by one of his

And yet our tears are sweet. God bade him taste I-}>!(--!

Honey and milk and manna raining down; There is another plane of the Last Supper” not sperially

Clothed him with strength for good whose sweet rebirought out in this pirture. The institution of the sacra1:ani celebrates as the most divine mystery the sacrifice of

Touched wind and wave to music as it passed; the divine for the human. Humanity is allowed to participuble in eternal life thoh the vicarious sacrifice of the Then crowne} him thine indeed-giving at last holy one for the mortal. It celebra.es the fact that man

Heroic suffering, the true hero's crown.

[ocr errors]

1.

1

[ocr errors]

nown

CITY LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES. Such general statements as these might be extended in

definitely; but, while they are strictly true, they are liable It has often been said that all cities are alike, especially to mislead. Any man may find, congenial society in any all American cities. There is some truth in this, as in all great city, and the impression which he carries away decommon sayings. It expresses the feeling of the superfi- pends very much upon his own taste in the selection of ascial traveler who carries away only a confused recollection sociates. General views are always more or less partial of a railway station, an iminense hotel, crowded streets or imperfect. There are men of high culture in New York, lined with costly but irregular buildings or wretched tene- perhaps more than there are in Boston; there are rich ignoment houses, immense wealth and squalid poverty staring ramuses in Boston, still it is true, in general, that culture each other in the face. If in memory he distinguishes one reigns over society in Boston, and money in New York. city from another, the chances are that it is because he en There are old Dutch families in New York, and old Puritan joyed his dinner at one hotel and was badly served at an families in Boston; but nothing to compare with the excluother. If he be a conscientious sight-seer, with guide-book sive Quaker aristocracy of Philadelphia. There are those in hand, he may visit public monuments, libraries, hos even within this charmed circle in Philadelphia who have pitals, or schools, but he will seldom find in these anything heard of places not reached by the Pennsylvania Railway; peruliar and characteristic. Such institutions are very but they feel no personal interest in them. Boston is the much the same the world over The ordinary English seat of Unitarianism, but it is not a Unitarian city. Catraveler soon wearies of American cities, and takes refuge tholicism rules in New York; but nowhere in America is among those grand works of Nature which are always new Protestantism more vigorous and active. Philadelphia is and impressive, and always have an individuality of their the Quaker city; but the Quakers are a small minority own. Mountains are mountains, but no two are alike; and there. The general statements which I have made are we may have a hundred varying views of the same peak. He valuable only as indicating in a rough way, that each of who has seen Niagara does not enjoy the less the humble these cities has a character of its own which distinguishes cascade which makes music among the rocks in his own it from any other. The same thing may be said of the park. It is not so with our cities. The ordinary traveller great cities of the south and west. There is but one New who has seen New York finds all other tuerican cities Orleans, but one Chicago, but one San Francisco in Ameronly a poor imitation of the metropolis.

ica, although these last have their would-be rivals. I have But, after all, this is only a superficial view. Behind the selected the principal Atlantic cities, because, in revisiting bricks and mortar there is life; and whe:ever there is life America, these are the ones where my time has been spent, there is variety. We often forget that cities are anything and I have nothing to offer in this article but the personal more than vast collections of houses, or, at best, great mar impressions of a non-resident American. ket places but the real city is the mass of human beings New York is no longer the city it was fifty years ago. It hinden behind these dumb wails. Each rty has its own has grown so rapidly in extent, in population, and in social life, which i- per ulia: to itself; and the more inti- wealth, that all the conditions of life are changed. I visit mately we know this, the brigu tee- it weer like other cities. the palatial residences of former days, and I find myself in This individuality is not -o maried in Amerira as in the the midst of towering warehouses, or in the midst of a GerOld World It is not so marked in Europe u- in Asia. All man city, or surrounded by squalid tenement houses, vities have free-11 made more cosmopolitan by the wonder- swarming with Irish. Another turn, and I am in a Chifully incru* d facilities for travel and the development of nese quarter. If I would find the fashion and wealth of the internati. I commerrie. Even Paris and London are not city, I nust go far out among the old market-gardens and $0 utterly walike as they once were. In Ameri«a the first the more distant pastures, which are covered now with impression is that foreign immigration and the restless costly dwelling-houses. Then, £20,000 sterling was a great sp rit of the native population have reduced all our cities to a fortune; now, New York boasts of a citizen who is worth common level of chaotic sareness. This is so far true that

£20,000,000 sterling. There are others who are almost as we shoult search in vain in New York for the city of rich. They are railway kings, or men who have grown Irving's “Diedrich Knickerbocker," or in Boston for any rich by the sudden and enormous rise in the value of trare of the social lite depicted in Hawthorne's “Scarlet real estate; and Socialism, imported from Europe, having Letter." if such phlegmatic Dutchmen or canting Puri no kings here to attack, has found a name for these men, tans ever existed they have disappeared and left no trace in and threatens them as “Monopolists." The palaces of the the society of the present day. But it is still true that Bos Fifth Avenue laugh at the faint echoes which reach them ton is very unlike New York, that Philadelphia resembles from the halls near the Bowery, where socialist clubs disneither, while Washington has an individuality peculiarly cuss the rights of labor, and openly advocate the assassinaits own.

tion of monopolists; but no one can seriously study life in New Yorki is the most cosmopolitan, Philadelphia the New York without finding himself confronted, first of all, most provincial, of our cities; Boston the niost cultivated, with this problem of the relations of wealth and poverty. Washington the most american. Society in New York is New York has not grown rich so much through the skill based upon wealth, in Philadelphia upon family, in Boston and energy of her citizens, as through the rapid growth of upon intellert, in Washington upon official position. There the country, with which she has had but little to do, except is most extravagance in New York, most comfort in Phila

in the way of developing her natural advantages by builddelphia, most philanthropy in Boston, most etiquette in ing railways and canals. Most of her rich men owe their Washington. New York is the great commercial center of wealth to the rise in the value of real estate or to fortunate America; Washington has no commerce, Philadelphia is a speculation in stocks. It has not been a slow growth.. city of manufactories, Boston is the business center for the It has come suddenly. The poorest man in New York who manufactories of New England. New York is Democratic, can read a penny paper is familiar with the slang of Wall Philadelphia Republican, Boston doubtful, and Washing Street. He knows that he is cutting stone or carrying morton disfranchised ly the National Constitution. The Ger tar for a palace which is building for a man who has "capmans avoid Boston, the Irish Philadelphia-both congre tured a railroad,” or “watered stock," or "made a corner.” gat in New York. The negroes prefer Washington. Bos He does not need to go far to be told that this does not ton is the place to study Unitarianism, New York Catholi mean money earned, but money stolen from the laboring cism, Philadelphia Quakerism.

classes. He believes it. And even this does not touch liimi

/

so directly as the fact that he pays an exorbitant rent to an nish the best and purest reading which goes into many a other monopolist for his filthy rooms in a tenement house. palace in New York. He is not allowed to forget the fact that this man is an ar But I am dwelling too long upon generalities. Let us istocrat, and lives in untold luxury, simply because his come down to practical everyday life. The New Yorker is father or his grandfather owned a cabbage-garden in what always in a hurry. He is an early riser, and generally eats is now the center of the city. An attempt was made last a hearty breakfast by eight o'clock. If he is a religious man, spring to form an anti-rent organization. It failed; but it he has had family prayers before breakfast, as this is the served to turn the attention of the Irish population to the only time of which he could be sure before midnight. If he fact that there was room for a Land League in New does not read the morning paper at breakfast, he reads it on York as well as Ireland. Why should they subscribe the way to his office. He is almost certain to have callers money to save their brethren at home from paying rent on business before he can leave his house; and if he is known while they themselves were suffering quite as much from to be a benevolent man, he has a score of begging letters by landlords in America? We may be sure that we have not the morning delivery. He gets away as soon as possible, heard the last of this. The opportunity to plunder the and is not seen again until evening, when he comes in just rich through a corrupt city government, which is under the in time to dress for dinner. His household affairs are mancontrol of the non-taxpaying voters, affords a certain satis- aged by his wife. He is liable to have business calls before faction to the Irish especially, and their political leaders he has finished his dinner. If he goes to his club, he talks have found it for their interest thus far to keep aloof from business there. He has committee meetings to attend. At the professional Socialist, and quietly fill their pockets nine or ten o'clock he may go with his wife to a party, or he from the city treasury. But it is at least questionable may get away a little earlier to the theatre. If he has an whether this is not more demoralizing than downright So- evening at home, it is because he has a dinner party or evecialism.

ning entertainment himself. He keeps late hours. If an If we turn from the discontented poor to the more suc active religious man, Sunday is almost as busy a day as any cessful classes in New York, we find the natural results of other. If not, it is divided between business and amusesuddenly acquired wealth-unbounded extravagance and ment. In May, his family goes into the country, or to some luxury. In this respect New York rivals Paris. Those who watering place, to remain until October; but the chance is have attained social rank, and those who aspire to it, live that he gets but little rest. When rest becomes absolutely for display. The profits of legitimate business seldom suf essential, he escapes to Europe. What the ladies do, except fice to meet the demands of this style of living, and every

to make themselves agreeable when they can be found, I can one is more or less engaged in speculation in stocks. One not say from observation, but they seem to be as overworked result of this is that much of the business of New York has as the men. Some of them certainly speculate in stocks. fallen into the hands of more economical foreigners, es They have their clubs and societies, literary and otherwise. pecially the Germans and the Jews. It is astonishing how Many of the charities and religious societies of the city are large a percentage of the signs in the business streets show largely in their hands. Domestic and social affairs are genunmistakably foreign names. The wealth of the city is erally left to their management. If most of the wealthy are gradually passing into their hands. They are making their devoted to fashion, many are devoted to better things-to way, too, into fashionable society. This society is anything self-culture, religion, and benevolence. Perhaps all this is but Puritan in its morals. It is thoroughly Parisian, as enough to account for the fact that there seems to be so little might be expected from the fact that its standard of excel of quiet and repose in New York life. lence is not character, but wealth. I have no wish to enter Life in New York is very expensive. Luxury and exinto details, or give illustrations of the mysteries of New travagance is the rule, and all classes feel the influence of York fashionable society, but no sadder pictures of moral it. Even the poorest suffer from it. The richer can not ruin and degradation could be drawn from the lowest quar maintain their position in society without giving way to it. ters of the city, than from the palaces of the Fifth Avenue. There is but one recognized way of escape, and that is to

If this were all of New York society, this article would take refuge in a hotel. These are expensive enough, but never have been written. There are rieh men whom wealth they are always full; and, singularly enough, many Amerihas not corrupted, and poor men whom poverty has not can families prefer this promiscuous style of living to the embittered. This does not need to be said. It may be said privacy of home life. It must be said, too, that the hotels, of every city. But there are probably few cities in the world as hotels, are very good, especially the more quiet ones of where a choicer society can be found than in New York, and the best class. It is not easy to give an exact idea of the there are few, if any, where there is more earnest, active cost of living, but £1,000 is an ordinary rent for a house Christian life. We find it among the rich and the poor. It near the fashionable quarter, and I do not think that an is colored somewhat by the dominant spirit of the city, but average family, living in such a house, spends less than it is genuine. It is struggling manfully to redeem the city £4,000 a year. In the fashionable quarter, a fashionable from crime, corruption, filth, ignorance, irreligion, and deg family spends ten times that amount. Leading clergymen radation of every kind; and if the city is saved from out receive from £1,000 to £3,000 salary, in addition to their breaks of the worst forms of Communism, it will be by its

houses. Men who love learning, art, and science, are try

The clubs of New York are innumerable, and adapted to ing to win over the wealthier classes to an interest in these all tastes and all ranks of society. I can testify that some things. As art is fashionable, it is patronized; but science of them are delightful places of resort. Among the larger, and learning are not so fortunate. Their patrons are gener the Century Club certainly stands first. It has

very ally to be found only among those who are also interested modest house in a quiet street, but one meets there the best in religious and philanthropic efforts. Literature of the and most intelligent men in New York---men representing lighter sort, novels, magazines, and newspapers, may, of all professions and all shades of thought. It is not a club course, be found in every corner of the city; but it may be where one goes to eat, although he may eat and drink there, doubted whether it does much toward elevating society. but a place for quiet rest or charming conversation. The That which is good is not as likely to reach those who need it great club of the city, which most closely resembles the as is the bad to reach those who would be better without it. great clubs of London, is the Union League Club. It has a. Perhaps an exception should be made in favor of the lead costly and richly-decorated house on Fifth Avenue, and is ing magazines, which are an honor to the country, and fur intended to rival the luxury of the neighboring private:

means.

residences. It originated during the civil war, and exerted have been imported from England—but still more in the a vast influence for the Union in its support of the govern- organized and successful efforts of Christian men to reach ment; but its political importance bas passed away. There the working-classes. The Episcopal Church, which years are many more private clubs, limited to single professions, ago was supposed to be too aristocratic to trouble itself which are the most attractive places of resort in New York, abou the poor, now leads the van in organized church when one can obtain an entrance to them. Political clubs work among them, and has made more rapid progress in are numerous, and most of them are about as reputable as numbers than any other denomination. Other denominathe government of the city. The less said about them the tions do more in united work through various societies, better.

like the Young Men's Christian Union or the City MissionThe newspapers of the city are the Herald, Times, Tri ary Society. These societies are making an impression bune, World, Post, Sun, and a host of lesser lights. If we even upon the foreign population, which is very apparent are to judge of them by what they say of each other, they to those who know the city. No one of these societies has are all equally stupid and corrupt; if by what they say of interested me more than the Children's Aid Society. It themselves, they are unrivaled by any newspaper in the cares for the neglected children of the city. It has lodgingworld. The truth probably lies between these two state houses for boys, which in twenty-five years have housed ments. But they all agree in declaring that they are totally | 170,000. It has industrial schools for girls and boys, with unlike the London Times. As I like the Times better than 10,000 pupils. It has lodging-houses for girls which send any other paper in the world, they will consider it a com out into good houses 1,000 girls a year. It has a home for pliment if I say that I do not fancy the New York dailies. newsboys, with savings banks and other advantages. It Still, they have an immense circulation and a vast influ has found homes among the farmers in the West for 50,000 ence, not only in New York, but all over the country, and this boys from the streets. It does all this work, and much influence has often been used to the great advantage of the more, at a cost of only about £45,000 sterling a year, and country. I think that most of the papers named above act for does it so wisely and successfully that it has the fullest con. what they conceive to be the highest interest of the nation, fidence at once of the street Arabs and the best men in the and they deserve credit for it. They spare no expense to ob- city. the nation if half this news were never published, and if the It is due to such work as this that crimes against person tain news. The only difficulty is that it would be better for and property in New York have decreased 25 per cent. in other half were not given in such a sensational form. The five years, in spite of the increase of population and the style of the papers is that of the twopenny novel, and it de- | peculiar position of the city as the port of entry of foreign moralizes the taste of the people. A remarkable change immigration. The New Yorkers seem to go into this work has taken place in these papers since the war. They have wi:h very much the same zeal which is seen in business become impersonal and, to a certain extent, independent of and speculation. Wealthy philanthropists are not numerous party. They formerly owed their influence to their editors; in New York, but they rival the speculators in untiring acand men asked, not what the Tribune said, but what tivity, or perhaps it may be better said that they make philGreeley said. The paper was the organ of the editor. The anthropic work a part of their business. It must be said, editors of the New York papers have now but little personal too, that they are men of very broad sympathies. They do influence. It is somewhat doubtful what influence controls not confine their charities to New York city, or even to the some of these papers, or in whose interest they really speak. United States. The same spirit is seen in Boston, but not Mr. Bennett, the son of the founder, owns the Herald, and at all in Philadelphia or Washington, although in all these in some sense controls it; but he is seldom in New York, cities local charities, hospitals, and asylums are numerous and is a nondescript in character. The Nation, a weekly, and well-supported. modelled somewhat after the Spectator, was an able and in The Catholics in New York have a great number of charfluential paper, one of the most so in the United States, but itable institutions, but, as they control the city government, it has been merged in the Post. The so-called religious they manage to make the tax-payers support them. The genweeklies exert quite as much influence in the country as eral religious influence of this church is very much the same the New York dailies, and some of them are conducted as in Europe—in some respects good and in others bad. Its with great ability. They are generally in sympathy with supporters are chiefly Irish. the Republican party.

The Jews are very numerous, and rapidly increasing in We pass naturally from the newspapers to the churches. wealth and influence; but the majority have no sympathy It is often claimed that the papers have taken the place of with religion or philanthropy in any form. They have the pulpit in instructing the people of this country, and themselves to blame for whatever prejudice there is against perhaps this idea has led them to publish Sunday editions, them, such as has manifested itself in the refusal to admit as most of them do; but the American population in New them to certain hotels at the watering-places. It is not beYork has not deserted the churches. The New England cause they are Jews, but simply because they make themSabbath was never fully accepted in New York, but the day selves exceedingly disegreeable to respectable people. There was formerly observed with respect, as a day of rest and is a respectable minority of Jews of whom none of these worship. The churches are still full, but in many parts of things are true. the city shops are open, the tramways and elevated railways Education in New York, like everything else connected are crowded, and the city seems given up to amusement, with the city government, is under the control of those who except in certain decorous streets. The great foreign popu pay no taxes, and is consequently managed without much lation has brought its own ideas across the sea, and spends regard to cost; but this is the worst that can be said of Sunday as at home. It is the great day of the beer-gardens, it. The taxpayers would be very well satisfied if all their and the harbor is crowded with overladen excursions boats, money was as well spent. The schools are good, and the when the weather permits. Fashionable New York drives city is proud of them. They are of all grades, including a in the park. It has never been very religious. But, after free college, and any child in New York may obtain a comall, there is more religious activity in the city than ever be- | plete education without expense. The teachers are well fore. It is not confined to any one denomination. It is paid and, as a general rule, well trained for their work. It seen not simply in the multiplication of costly churches, is not easy to compare the schools with those of other cities. nor alone in the vast congregations which crowd to hear They seem to be as good in New York as elsewhere, in spite popular preachers—the most popular of whom, by the way, of the fact that they excite very little public attention,

« PredošláPokračovať »