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But its message was from the first—"There is something Students of Elizabethan literature will recall the inspiration far more profoundly important to be attended to than the of joy and hope which the discovery of the new world kindled reconstruction of society; there is an evil within far more in the old world's soniewhat worn and weary heart. The deadly than all the tyrannies and wrongs which afflict tales which were brought home of the exquisite beauty and the earth. Deny thyself, and take up thy cross and the lavish bounty of the new-found regions seized on man's follow in the Master's footsteps, and then all will begin to imagination, and filled him with a boundless sense of go well in thy world." This was its first imperative man power and a glorious kindling of hope. The peerless imdate. Reformers who begin the reformation within never aginative literature of that time is its fruit. Man walked fail to work in a very self-controlled and reverent fashion, with a firmer step, with a freer port, with a bolder outlook, and will save far more than they can destroy.

when he found low large and splendid was his world. But The great revelation of Christianity was the revelation of this is only a faint image of the kindling inspiration which lite and immortality. The Resurrection made man fired man's spirit when the revelation of life and imcitizen of a spiritual and eternal state. The Church was mortality made his world as wide as heaven. “Who would built on this truth as its corner-stone. The apostles preached fardels bear," he was tempted to cry. "and grunt and sweat *Jesus and the Resurrection." The resurrection and reign under this load of life, when this invisible world of radiant of the man Christ Jesus, the Lord of Glory, was the truth, glory is unveiled to my vision, and will soon be open to my faith in which re-made the world. It changed at once the steps ?" A king's son, the heir of all things, and bound to whole of man's relations and surroundings. It seemed to toil, and sweat, and groan over tasks which seem fitter for dwarf this world utterly in comparison with the eternal the beasts! There is something wrong at heart, he was state which it revealed. The curtains of sense were lifted tempted to say, in the whole system of things which preall round him, and man found himself in the midst of a sents such anomalies; let us strike work and claim our royal great universe of spiritual being, with which his life bad share of all the gifts and advantages which this life will profound and pregnant relations, and in which he was yield to us; or let us hurry through it, that we may the sooner destined to live on, bearing the glorious burden of his free claim our inheritance in heaven. dom, and reaping the harvest of his deeds through eternity. These words indicate two very 'eat dangers to the order, The entrance of the risen man Christ Jesus into that unseen to the very structure, of society, which arose out of the proworld, which was the fundamental article of the Christian | mulgation of the gospel of life and immortality. Men were creed, and his reign on its throne, lent to it a vivid reality, tempted to despise the tasks and toils of their daily callings, an absorbing interest, an overmastering importance, which and all the petty beggarly mterests, as they seemed, with threatened to dwarf the interests, occupations, and relations which they had to do; and men of a loftier strain were of this life to nothingness, and to concentrate all man's tempted to despise life itself, and to cast it away eagerly, energies on the interior workings of his spiritual nature; on that the joys and glories of the heavenly life might be the which he was taught to believe his destinies for eternity more swiftly their own. That the first temptation began to were absolutely dependent; by which he would be raised to work even in the apostle's days we have many significant celestial bliss and splendor, or doomed toeverlasting misery indications, such as 2 Thess. iii. 6–16. And the second and shame. We are hardly in a position to measure the temptation is hinted at in a passage from the apostle's own force of the impact of that revelation on man. To us the experience, Phil. i. 21-25. We can easily estimate how thought of the celestial world, and our relations to it as that would work in minds less firmly balanced and surely immortal spirits, is as familiar as the visible objects of the established than his own. Accordingly it was not long creation around us. We are born, we are nurtured, and before the passion for martyrdom became so strong, even in grow up into life, knowing that we are immortal beings, boys and girls, that it had to be met by stern enactments, and that our destinies reach on through eternity. We and was with grievous difficulty restrained. But of the real breathe, we live in the atmosphere of the world of spirits; gravity of the danger the history of the monastic orders is the whole system of things into which we are born and in the strongest witness. which we live takes for granted man's responsibility before At the root of the monastic life lie the two principles althe Eternal Judge, and the eternal issues which wait upon ready indicated. The monk said to himself, This ceaseless the decisions of his will. Our daily speech, our higher lit toil for bread, shelter, and clothes, is a beggarly occupation erature, our legislation, to say nothing of our hymns and our for an immortal spirit; I leave it to the children of this prayers, recognize that the powers of the unseen world are world, it suits their ideas and hopes; I will cling to the brought to bear upon our lives. But then it was a new and living bread, the robe of righteousness, the home in heaven; transcendently wonderful world, which the gospel revealed. and the more I can macerate and enfeeble this accursed Men were ravished with its beauty, and fairly intoxicated flesh, which has the devil's mark upon it, and the taint of with its joy. The splendid visions unveiled in the Apoca- sin in all its blood, the sooner I shall be there. And the lypse, painting out in full form the reticent suggestion of passion for the monastic life became so dominant that there St. Paul, “Eye hath not seen, ear hath not heard, neither hath was a very real danger in some regions of the overthrow of it entered into the heart of man to conceive the things which the whole order of society. Men set themselves in throngs God hath prepared for them that love him;"' these glorious to reduce to a minimum their « arthly needs and activities, unveilings of the sphere to whose citizenship man's life in and to wear down the flesh by austerities and mortifications; Christ was lifted, and in which his lot was cast for ever, careless wholly what became of the world and all its munflashed out in startling contrast to the toil, the squalor, the dane interests, scorning them too much to care if they perwretchedness, in which on earth the heir of everlasting ished. Nor is this an old world question. Always there is glory seemed doomed to spend his weary days. Why these this startling contrast between their condition and calling tedious tasks, these squalid surroundings, this ceaseless present with men. Always, like Peter, when they realize toiling, moiling, and wrangling about things that perish, their sonship, the powers and prerogative of their calling of when we have but to close our eyes and our ears to the God in Christ, they want to walk on the water, and to enansqualors and wailings around us, to rise by faith into em cipate themselves from the material conditions of their pres. pyrean regions, to catch some vision of celestial splendors, ent. They are tempted to rage at the limitations of their conand hear some echo of the everlasting hynin, which, dition, the narrow round, the common task, the petty cares, musical as the voice of many waters, and mighty as the amid which they are doomed to spend their weary days. voice of many tnunders, pealed around the eternal throne? Always, until they open their minds and learts to take in


the doctrine of the spiritual sacredness of the secular calling, all its springs. Sin has got mixed up with the whole round and to hear the word by which the great apostle, with far of our earthly duties and our daily fellowships, and it may sighted prescience of the way in which things were tending, seem at the first glance as though we must throw them, as settled both the spiritual and the secular life of men on firm a plague-tainted garment, away. But that is not the Lord's foundations, “ Brethren, let every man wherein he is called, counsel. He perpetuates our race with all its sinful protherein abide with God."

clivities, and he perpetuates the conditions under which we The apostle, in these words, with wonderful wisdom and live and work. He sees in all this busy life of ours, with all foresight, lays down a principle which, rightly understood its degrading temptations and harassing cares, the working and seized in all its bearings, secures the higher develop- out of a great plan of development, the plan on which, in the ment of the social and political life of mankind. It is, as beginning, he made the worlds. From the first his delights has been pointed out already, the principle of order; we were not in the deserts of creation, but with the sons of men shall find that is the principle of progress too.

in their crowded, struggling, seething life. All these callings, But what are the underlying truths; on what bases does this various play of human faculty, this manifold proit rest?

duction, this eager, intense, and destructive struggle for Fundamentally it rests on the incarnation. Philosophy life, is part of his counsel, his plan for the full development has struggled with the problem of evil, and has been well of our freedom, and it works into the great harmony of the nigh maddened by it. Is the root of it in the flesh, in the universal progress, whose perfect form is the kingdom of world, or in the earthly needs and occupations of man's

heaven. life? And it has always been tempted to proscribe the

And he hallows and blesses these manifold callings, world and the flesh, and to prescribe an ascetic discipline as because, poor and dull as many of them are, and mixed up the only way of holiness to mankind. The Lord of glory with sin, they are his means of delivering us from sin, of taking upon him the flesh of our humanity, and living not teaching us to conquer it, and to trample it under our feet outside but in our world, not in the deserts but in the streets

for ever. He sends us to our worldly tasks, all the daily and the market places, answered the question and answered round of dull, monotonous toil, by which the world's work it for ever. The body is of Gud, the needs and occupations is done, not to degrade us, but to redeem us; not to punish of this earthly life are of God, the domestic, social, and us by setting us tasks which, mechanical as they are, and political life of man is of God; there is but one thing that worthy of the beasts, are yet all that we are worthy to handle, is pot of God in the world, and that is the heart which is but to train us, to begin a holy culture and discipline of our set on worldly things, and which brings into the world

fallen nature on the lowest forms of duty, so as to prepare death and all its attendant woes. The Lord lent no shadow us in time for the higher lessons of the heavenly schools. of a countenance to the notion that things, places and call Man was sentenced to toil in mercy, and the patient, resoings had in them the essence of evil. Wherever a good man lute, persistent fulfillment of appointed tasks, is lives and works there is a shrine as holy as a sanctuary,

noble education, where the spiritual nature is growing though he feed on crusts and work in rags; wherever a bad under the hand of Christ, for the nobler tasks of eternity. man lives and works there is a sty foul as Hinnom and pro But still, man says, the tasks are poor and mean, and they fane as Tophet, though he speak from a pulpit, bless from fret and gall, and cramp the soul! What good can come to an altar, or rule from a throne. The Lord's forerunner, a spiritual being, a citizen of the heavenly state, with God John the Baptist, "came, neither eating vor drinking." He and the whole spiritual world within reach of his apprewas a man of distinctly ascetic temper and habit; and had hension, in measuring tape, or writing copy, or minding his teaching been all that was to guide it, the world might | spindles, or stitching clothes, or cobbling shoes, the long easily have been led astray. But Christ came in striking day througlt? It is a miserably bungled and ill-managed contrast, a contrast to which he himself calls our attention world, he is tempted to say, which sets him to do it. No and thought, “eating and drinking,' and mixing himself wonder if he rages against the necessity, and extricates freely with the busy life of his times. While John was in himself from it as far as he can. Nay,“ Brethren, let every the deserts, he was in the workshop, acquainting himself by man wherein he is called therein abide with God." Let experience with all the toils and burdens of a workman's the draper measure, and the clerk copy, and the tailor lot. When he came out into the world it is at marriage stitch, and the weaver weave, and the cobbler cobble, and feasts, at Pharisees' banquets, in the throng of the temple, i the shoeblack polish, as the Lord's servant, feeling that the in fishermen's boats, in country villages and in broad high- | task has been set to him to do thoroughly, that the Lord's ways, that we find him; not frowning upon but blessing eye is on him to watch him, that the Lord's hand is outthe manifold, worldly activity of mankind. He not only stretched to help him, and that the Lord's “Well done” took upon him our nature and hallowed it, but he took on will at last reward him, and they have no nobler work, and him our lot, with all its petty cares, and mechanical occu worthier of a spirit, up there among the stars. From a pation, and earthly needs. By his daily life among us he spirit's int of view the work is nothing; the mind, the consecrated our daily lives, and wrote on the very bells of aim, is all. Slave or free, it matters little; the mind to obey the horses that carry on the traffic of our world, “Holiness the unseen Master, makes the slave the workmate of the to the Lord." His presence everywhere, where man had angels and of the elect spirits before the throne. interest and occupation, hallowed our whole sphere of man's To abide with God in a calling is to have supreme regard secular callings, and lifted the whole level of man's daily to his commandment; to accept the task of his appointment, working life into the region in which he shares the tasks and to know that God, as well as man, has an end to gain and tastes the joy of the angels, who abide with God in their in its being bravely and thoroughly done. Abide with God. ministry and are blest.

That means, take all the burden, all the weariness, and all For all this daily round of duty, these small occupations, the pain to him and be refreshed by his sympathy, invigorthese common tasks, are part of God's great scheme of the ated by his strength, and inspired by his love. If we abide order of this human world. Christ calls them holy, because with God, the surroundings, the accidents of the work, he made them; he ordains their conditions, he watches their vanish. It may be poor, mean, tiresome, by human judgprogress; they are a part, and a vital part, of the divine ment; there is but one feature there to heavenly judgments order of the world. It may be said with truth that sin has -a child of the Highest, a son of God, a brother of Christ, created much of the condition under which we are living, hearkening to the voice of the Lord who rules on the everand that it has jarred all the relations of life and poisoned lasting throne. Here, then, is the principle of the order


τινο μ»!

which Christianity has assured in the world of human QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, society-an order which is instinct with the spirit of progress; which, while it would save society from dread! ONE HUNDRED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON cataclysms on the one hand, so leads its onward and upward

THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT LITERATURE. movement on the other, as to give sure promise of the time when Christ's kingdom shall come, and Christ's will shall

FROM 'TAE HISTORICAL WRITINGS OF THE GOLDEN AGE be done on earih as it is done in heaven.

OF GRECIAN LITERATURE TO THE CLOSE OF But we may see here the principle of order, the conserva

LITERATURE, nrinciple, but fail w see the principle of progress. We 1. Q. When was Grecian prose brought to its maturity ? may be tempted to ask, Is not this the principle of stag. A. In the century following the Persian wars. hation? Are not these patient, submissive virtues which 2. Q. Who were the three most prominent Grecian hisChristianity enjoine, and which the life of our Lord to grandly

torians of the golden age of Grecian literature? A. Heillustrates, fatal to that eager, restless longing for progress, rodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon. that noble ambition, by which human soĉiety grows? If 3. Q. What title has been bestowed upon Herodotus ? A. ä man abides with God in his calling, will he not be likely He is called the "Father of History." to grow too content with it, and to hold himself back in 4. Q. How did Herodotus spend the best twenty years of patient submission from higher and more worthy tasks? his life? A. In traveling over the greater part of the then. No; because this is a principle of culture. The man who known world, studying the history, geography, and cusabides with God in his calling, while he is delivered from toms of the countries he visited. all restless desire of change, will strain his faculty to the 5. Q. What is the main subject of the great work of hisutmost; exercise of faculty develops power; and as sure as life? A. The Greco-Persian war, and the triumph of his water finds its level, power will find its sphere. Cultivate country. a man's power, enlarge his nature, mature his judgment, 6. Q. What is the great work of Thucydides on whom it. and he must rise perforce. It is no restless ambition, but an is said the mantle of Herodotus descended ? A. The his-imperative mandate which at last says to him, “Come up to tory of the Peloponnesian war. a higher room." And here is the broad reason why the 7. Q. What first attempts do we find in this history? A. most godly races are the most cultivated, the most industri The first attempts to treat the philosophy of history, to ous, the most progressive peoples of the world.

trace events to their ultimate causes, and to adduce from And here, too, is the broad distinction between the the facts lessons for the future. Romanist and the Protestant views of life and of society. 8. Q. What are the two principal historical works of The Roman Church has always rebelled at heart against this Xenophon? A. “The Hellenica," continuing the story of sentence of St. Paul. Always to the Romanist the secular the Peloponnesian war left unfinished by Thucydides, and life is earthly and profane; when he talks of "religion” he the “Anabasis,” giving an account of the retreat of ten means the cowl, the cell, and selfish, faithless isolation from thousand Greeks from Asia to Greece. all the interests, relationships, and activities of God's great 9. Q. Name two other works written by Xenophon. A. human world. The Reformers stood forth and said, “That The Cyropædia, or Education of Cyrus, and the Morabilia, is false to the heart's core; the religious life is the life lived or Memoirs of Socrates. in a religious spirit, be it kept by a priest at the altar, a 10. Q. What were the first two philosophical schools of shoeblack in the street, a prince on the throne." The Re Greece to the founders of whom the various systems of philformation sanctified once more the work-a-day life of men. osophy may all be traced ? A. The Ionic school of Thales, It honored the body, it consecrated marriage, it reinstated recognized as the founder of Greek philosophy, and the the home at the head of the human order, it blessed from Italic school, founded by Pythagoras. God the homeliest toils and tasks of mankind. It proclaimed 11. Q. What successor to the leadership of the Ionic afresh-and the proclamation rang like a battle march school was the first to make the study of philosophy fashthrough Christendom, stirring the Protestant peoples to a ionable at Athens ? A. Anaxagoras. nobler life and activity, whereby they have continually 12. Q. What three sects sprang from the Italic school? grown richer and stronger, while the Latin nations are torn A. The Eleatic, the Epicurean, and the Skeptic. by intestine conflict or go down to wreck—that to prince 13. Q. What doctrine did Xenophanes, the founder of the and peasant, to master and servant, to clerk, shopman, Eleatic school, assert that was soon perverted by his followploughman, and hodman, who abides with God in his call ers? A. The unity of the Deity. ing, the word of the King of kings will be spoken with equal 14. Q. What was the fundamental doctrine of the Epicuemphasis at last—"Well done, thou good and faithful ser rean school? A. That pleasure is the chief end of life. vant; thou hast been faithful in the few things, I will make 15. Q. What was the leading doctrine of the Skeptic thee ruler over many things; enter thou into the joy of thy school? A. That there is no standard of truth appreciable by Lord.”Good Words.

the human mind; nothing therefore can be asserted as true.

16. Q. What noted philosopher of the Golden Age of ASPIRATION.

Athens denounced the atheistical philosophy of his predecessors? A. Socrates.

17. Q. What are some of the leading doctrines he taught? O thou great arbiter of life and death, Nature's immortal, unmaterial sun,

A. The unity of God, the soul's immortality, and the moral Whose all-prolific beam late call’d me forth

responsibility of man. From darkness, teeming darkness where I lay,

18. Q. What were the principal schools that originated in The worm's inferior, and in rank beneath

the Socratic? The dust I tread on, high to bear my brow,

A. The Academie, the Peripatetic, the To drink the spirit of the golden day,

Cynic, and the Stoic. And triumph in existence; and could know

19. Q. What are some of the leading doctrines of Plato, No motive, but my bliss; and hast ordain'd

the pupil of Socrates, and the founder of the Academic A rise in blessing, with the patriarch's joy,

school? A. A personal and eternal God, the immortality Thy call I follow to the land unknown. I trust in thee and know in whom I trust;

of the soul, future rewards and punishments, man's highest Or life, or death, is equal; neither weighs;

duty consists in searching out God, and imitating the perAll weight in this—0 let me live to thee!

fection of the Almighty as his rule of conduct.

20. Q. What are some of the leading doctrines of the A. Strabo, Geography; Diodorus, Historical Library; Diphilosophy of Aristotle, the pupil of Plato and founder of onysius, Roman Antiquities. the Peripatetic school ? A. He inclined to materialism or 42. Q. Who are some of the writers in Greek that the first pantheism, making reason divine and omnipresent; he century after Christ presents to us? A. The authors of doubted his own immortality, holding that the soul could the New Testament; Clement of Rome, an eminent authornot exist apart from the body, and that there is nothing ity with the early Christians; and Josephus, the Jewish good or bad beyond the dead.

historian. 21. Q. What is said of the influence of the Peripatetic 43. Q. What are the two great works of Josephus ? A. school? A. It can not be estimated; for eighteen hundred "History of the Jewish War,” and “Jewish Antiquities." years, up to the revival of letters in modern times, its 44. Q. What great biographer of antiquity lived during author was recognized as the supreme authority on every the latter half of the first century and the first part of the subject, whether by Moslem or Christian.

second century after Christ? A. Plutarch. 22. Q. Who was the founder of the Stoic school, and who 45. Q. What is Plutarch's greatest work? A. Parallel of the Cynic school? A. Zeno of the Stoic, and Antisthenes Lives. of the Cynic.

46. Q. What are three prominent names in Greek litera23. Q. Among the orators of the golden age of Greece, ture during the second century? A. Lucian, the author of who stands alone in the power of his eloquence? A. De the Dialogues; Pausanias, the Lydian geographer, who wrote mosthenes.

the Itinerary of Greece; and Ptolemy, the astronomer, 24. Q. What are the most famous of the orations of De whose theory of the universe was received as authority for mosthenes? A. The twelve "Philippics," delivered against fourteen hundred years. Philip of Macedon.

47. Q. Who were three eminent Christian writers of the 25. Q. Who was the great rival orator of Demosthenes ? second century? A. Justin Martyr, Polycarp, and Irenæus. A. Æschines.

48. Q. What eclectic school of philosophy became promi

nent in the third century, and remained popular among the 26. Q. Over what time does the Alexandrian period of learned until the time of Constantine? A. The Neo-Platonic Greek literature extend? A. From the death of Alexander school, a medley of Plato's and Aristotle's tenets harmonthe Great, 323 B. C., to the conquest of Egypt by the Ro ized with the leading doctrines of Christianity. mans, 30 B. C., about three hundred years.

49. Q. Who during the third century was the greatest 27. Q. What is said of the literary productions of the critic and most learned philosopher of the age ? A. Alexandrian age? A. The age produced no grand master Longinus. pieces.

50. Q. What is the Anthology? A. A collection of more 28. Q. What is said of the new school of comedy of the than four thousand short pithy poems from the pens of Alexandrian age? A. It dealt with the follies and vices of about three hundred Greek writers. society at large, and not with individuals. 29. Q. Of the sixty-four poets, associated by the ancients 51. Q. When Rome was founded, 753 B. C., as what were

When with the new comedy, what two were the greatest ? A. the predominant Italian races distinguished? A. As Latin Menander and Philemon.

and Umbrian; their languages were closely related, and 30. Q. In whose hands was Idyllic poetry matured and have been called Italic. elevated into a new department of composition in the Alex 52. Q. When was the Latin language, in its most ancient andrian period ? A. Theocritus the Sicilian.

form, spoken by the people of Latium ? A. Probably at 31. Q. What is said of him as a delineator of natural least twelve hundred years before the Christian era. scenery? A. He has no superior among ancient or modern 53. Q. To what extent was the Latin language finally poets.

spoken? A. In greater or less purity throughout the Ro32. Q. During this period what brilliant center of letters man empire at the time of its widest limits. was the first university in the world? A. The Museum, or 54. Q. What is the rough simple verse in which the balTemple of the Muses, at Alexandria, begun by the first lads and heroic poems of the first Latin bards are supposed Ptolemy, and finished by his son Philadelphus.

to have been written called ? A. Saturanian verse. 33. Q. Of what famous library was the Museum the seat? 55. Q. From whom did Italy receive her first lessons in A. The Alexandrian library.

reading and writing, in law-making, in art, and draw.her 34. Q. How many volumes did this library contain at the first inspiration in polite literature ? A. From Greece. time of its largest extent? A. Seven thousand volumes. 56. Q. What did the sixth and seventh centuries of Rome

35. Q. What two poets' names were the greatest associ see in literature? A. The birth of the regular drama and ated with the Museum ? A. Callimachus and Apollonius its decline; the earliest attempts at epic and satiric poetry, Rhodius.

and the rise of a vigorous prose. 36. Q. What two celebrated mathematicians are num 57. Q. Who was the author of the first regular Roman bered among the ornaments of the Alexandrian University ? drama, and what was the occasion of its production? A. A. Euclid and Archimedes.

Livius Andronicus, a Greek slave, who may be called the 37. Q. Who was the chief historian of the Alexandrian father of Roman classical literature, was the author; the age? A. Polybius.

grand celebration over the downfall of Carthage, 240 B. C., 38. Q. For what version of the Old Testament do we owe was the occasion. the Museum? A. The Septuagint, or Greek version, made 58. Q. What two writers of tragedies followed Andronicus? by learned Jews employed by Ptolemy.

A. Nævius and Ennius. 39. Q. By what is the long period of later Greek litera 59. Q. Who were two of the greatest comic poets of the ture, following the Alexandrian age, marked ? A. By a Roman drama? A. Plautus and Terence. further decline, and the ultimate extinction of letters.

60. Q. What two poets already named are famous as 40. Q. What are the prominent figures in the group of writers of epics? A. Nævius, called “The last of the geographical and historical writers gathered about the Native Minstrels," and Ennius, recognized as “The Father Christian era ? A. Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, and Dionysius of Latin Song." of Halicarnassus.

61. Q. What are the most noted epics of each ? A. Of 41. Q. Give the title of the most prominent work of each. Nævius, "The Punic War," and of Ennius, "The Annals."

62. Q. What class of poetry was native-born in this 90. Q. What is the only work we have left from his pen? period of Roman literature? A. Satiric poetry.

A. His “Natural History." 63. Q. Who was the greatest writer of satirical poetry 91. Q. Who was the chief poet of Domitian's reign? A. during this era? A. Lucilius.

Martial, master of the Latin epigram. 64. Give the names of some of the most eminent prose 92. Q. What Roman lyric poetess was the Sappho of Dowriters of this period? A. Cato the Censor, Lælius and mitian's age? A. Sulpitia. Scipio, the Gracchus brothers, Crassus and Antonius, and 93. Q. What noted rhetorician flourished during DomiHortensius.

tian's reign? A. Quintilian. 65. Q. What period is distinguished as the golden age of 94. Q. Who was the only great poet of the age of Trajan Roman literature? A. From B.C. 80 to A. D. 14, less than and the Antonines? A. Juvenal, the satirist. one hundred years.

95. Q. Who was foremost among the prose writers of this 66. Q. Into what two periods is this age divided? A. The later period of Roman literature? A. Tacitus, by some Ciceronian period, from 80 to 43 B. C., and the Augustan considered the greatest of Roman historians. period, from 43 B. C. to 14 A. D.

96. Q. What contemporary of Tacitus wrote the "Lives of 67. Q. What class of Roman literature reached its highest the Twelve Cæsars ?” A. Suetonius. development during the Ciceronian period ? A. Prose writ 97. Q. Who, during this period, was distinguished as a ing.

letter writer? A. Pliny the Younger. 68. Q. Who were the five most distinguished prose writers 98. Q. Who was the last of the writers of this age? A. of the Ciceronian period ? A. Cicero, Varro, Julius Cæsar, Puleius. Sallust, and Nepos.

99. Q. Who were the four great Latin fathers that wrote 69. Q. Who was the great central sun in this period of during the last three centuries of the Roman empire? A. literature? A. Cicero.

St. Augustine, Ambrose, St. Jerome, and St. Gregory. 70. Q. How many books did Varro write? A. Over six 100. Q. What Roman noble, who outlived the fall of his hundred on different subjects.

country, wrote the famous moral treatise “on the Consola71. Q. What are the greatest of Cæsar's works? A. His tion of Philosophy?" A. Boëthius. commentaries on the Gallic and the civil war. 72. Q. What are three of the prominent works of Sallust?

C. L. S. C. NOTES AND LETTERS. A. “The Conspiracy of Catiline," "The Jugurthine War," and a history of Rome. 73. Q. What is the only extant work of Nepos ? A.

There are two Memorial Days in February. The first is "Lives of Eminent Commanders."

Special Sunday, February 12th, and the second is the new 74. Q. What two poets of high rank did Italy produce Longfellow's Day, Monday, February 27th. If any are in during the Ciceronian period ? A. Lucretius and Catullus.

doubt as to how to best commemorate them, they should 75. Q. What is said of Catullus? A. He was the first

not fail to consult Chautauqua Text-Book, No. 7, Memorial great Roman lyrist.

Days, and also refer to what has been said on the subject in

previous numbers of THE CHAUTAUQUAN. 76. Q. For what class of literature was the Augustan period, particularly the golden age, noted ? A. Poetry

A member writes from Ohio: “My daughter is study77. Q. Who were the three most eminent poets of the ing the C. L. S. C. course, and being an invalid is unable Augustan period ?

to either read or write herself, but, having a good memory, A. Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. 78. Q. Which of the three is called Rome's greatest poet ?

by my assistance is making excellent progress." A. Virgil. 79. Q. What are the titles of the most important works'

One of the class of 1883 asks: “Do you know where enof Virgil? A. "The Eclogues," "The Georgics," and "The gravings, photographs, or prints of the paintings and sculpÆneid."

tures in the Capitol are to be had? It seems to me that if 80. Q. What is Horace called ? A. The great lyric poet they were even as good as the prints on advertisements that of Rome.

are thrown about, there are many of the C. L. S. C. that 81. Q. To what does Horace owe his renown? A. To his

would be pleased to have them, as probably it is the few who Odes."

may see them personally, while the many should be posted 82. Q. What are the names of three other poets of the

on the works of art in their own country." Can any one Augustan age? A. Varius, Tibullus, and Propertius.

in the wide C. L. S. C. family furnish the information de

sired? 83. Q. Who was the last literary ornament of the Augustan era ? A. The historian Livy.

84. Q. What is Livy's great work? A. “The Annals," a A lady member, whose letter is accompanied with exceedhistory of Rome.

ingly well-written and clear answers to “Questions for 85. Q. What is the period following the golden age of Further Study,” says: “This is my first effort at real Roman literature called? A. The silver age of Roman let study for some time, and I succeed slowly. I have no helps ters.

in the form of books, and there is no local circle within ten 86. Q. What three writers were most prominent during miles. I work all day, so I have only night time for study the reign of Tiberius, the successor of Augustus? A. Vel

and writing, hence the hurried appearance of the manuleius, the court historian; Celsus, the scientist; and script enclosed." Phædrus, the poet.

87. Q. Who were the three great literary ornaments of No further answers to “Questions for Further Study,' or Nero's reign? A. Persius, the satirist; Seneca, the philoso- | essays suggested in the programmes for local circles in the pher, and his nephew, Lucan.

October and November numbers of THE CHAUTAUQUAN, 88. Q. What is the only poem that we now possess of need be sent to the General Secretary. A large number of Lucan's? A. The epic, “Pharsalia,” its subject being the correct answers have been received, and as the answers civil war between Cæsar and Pompey.

either have or will be published in THE CHAUTAUQUAN, 89. Q. What eminent naturalist was an intimate friend members can compare the results of their investigations of the Emperor Vespasian? A. Pliny the Elder.

with those printed. We again state that the standing of

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